Trent

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Trent

  1. 1. The Rolls-Royce Trent Engine 5 October 2000 Michael Cervenka Technical Assistant to Director - Engineering & Technology
  2. 2. Rolls-Royce Today <ul><li>World No 2 in aero-engines </li></ul><ul><li>World leader in marine propulsion systems </li></ul><ul><li>Developing energy business </li></ul><ul><li>Annual sales of over £4.5 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Orders of over £13 billion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Newton’s 3rd Law Thrust = Mass x Velocity (MV) MV Equilibrium Reaction Action
  4. 4. Propeller versus Jet Propulsion Propeller - moves LARGE MASS of air at low velocity Jet - moves small mass of gas at HIGH VELOCITY Mv aircraft mV jet Thrust = M(v aircraft - v jet ) mV aircraft Thrust = m(V aircraft - V jet ) Mv jet
  5. 5. Jet Engine Layout Compressor Combustion Chamber Turbine Shaft Exhaust Nozzle mV aircraft mV jet
  6. 6. Different Jet Engine Types Civil turbofan - Trent Military turbofan - EJ200
  7. 7. Different Jet Engine Types - Mechanical drive Turboprop - AE 2100 Turboshaft - RTM322 Marine Trent Industrial Trent
  8. 8. Piston Engine versus Turboprop Piston engine Jet engine driven propeller (Turboprop) Air intake Air intake Compression Combustion Exhaust Exhaust Intermittent Continuous
  9. 9. Pressure and Temperature Pressure (atmospheres) 0 40 Temperature (degrees C) 0 1500
  10. 10. Axial Compressor and Turbine Operation
  11. 11. Axial Compressor and Turbine Operation Stationary Nozzle Row Turbine Stages Gas flow Compressor Stages Stationary Vane Row Rotating Rotor Row Rotating Rotor Row Stationary Vane Row Airflow Rotating Rotor Row Rotating Rotor Row Stationary Nozzle Row
  12. 12. Multiple Shafts - Trent 95,000 lbs Thrust HP System 6 Compressor stages 1 Turbine stage >10,000 rpm IP System 8 Compressor stages 1 Turbine stage >7,500 rpm LP System 1 Fan stage 5 Turbine stages >3,000 rpm
  13. 13. Combustor Operation
  14. 14. Combustor Operation Primary zone Intermediate zone Dilution zone Fuel spray nozzle
  15. 15. Reverse Thrust 85% thrust 15% thrust Net 25% to 30% thrust
  16. 16. New Product Introduction Process Stage 1: Preliminary Concept Definition Stage 2: Full Concept Definition Stage 3: Product Realisation Stage 4: Production Stage 5: Customer Support Capability Acquisition Product definition stages Preliminary concept defined for planning purposes Full concept defined, product launched Product developed, verified and approved Product produced and delivered to customer Product used by customer
  17. 17. New Project Planning Process BUSINESS MODEL Units sold Unit Cost Selling Price Concessions Sales Costs Development Costs Guarantee Payments Spares Turn Spares Price ENGINEERING MODEL Safety Unit Cost Weight Noise Emissions Geometry Reliability Operability Performance MARKETING MODEL Market Size Selling Price Concessions Operating Costs Payload Range Maintenance Costs Fuel Burn Commonality
  18. 18. 102 Million Hours of Service RB211 & Trent operating hours August 2000 -22B 26.7 million hours -524 48.5 million hours -535 25.4 million hours Trent 2.2 million hours 4260 engines ordered 3592 engines delivered 103 customers currently flying with RB211 or Trent engines Million hours 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Entry into service -22 0 -524 -524D -535C -535E4 -524G -524H Trent 700 Trent 800 2000
  19. 19. Why 3 Shafts? Short / Medium-Haul (8,000 - 40,000lbs thrust): Long / Medium-Haul (40,000-100,000lbs thrust): Acquisition Cost Maintenance <ul><li>Simpler engine, hence moderate: </li></ul><ul><li>- Overall pressure ratio </li></ul><ul><li>- Turbine entry temperature </li></ul><ul><li>- Bypass ratio </li></ul>Two-Shaft Configuration Three-Shaft Configuration <ul><li>Requires high: </li></ul><ul><li>- Overall pressure ratio </li></ul><ul><li>- Turbine entry temperature </li></ul><ul><li>- Bypass ratio </li></ul>Range Fuel consumption
  20. 20. Evolution of Trent Family Fan diameter - in. 110 97.5 86.3 Trent 800 Trent 8104 Trent 900 Trent 700 Trent 500 Trent 600 RB211-524G/H-T 60,000lb 72,000lb 95,000lb 104,000lb 56,000lb 65,000lb 80,000lb Scaled core Scaled core Boeing 777 Airbus A3XX Airbus A330 Airbus A340 Boeing 767 Boeing 747
  21. 21. Trent 700 & 800 Trent 700 Trent 800 Area of significant commonality Area of main geometric change Fan diameter increased to 2.8m (110.3in.) Five-stage LP turbine Single crystal HPT Single Crystal Uncooled IP turbine blade Fan diameter 2.47m (97.4in.) Four-stage LP turbine Phase 5 low emissions combustor 8 Stage IPC 3 Variables
  22. 22. Trent 500 Trent 500 Trent 700 Scaled IP & HP compressor 3D Aerodynamics Scaled combustor with tiled cooling HP & IP turbines have increased blade speeds High lift LP turbine blading
  23. 23. Material Strength Specific Strength Nickel Alloy Steel Aluminium Alloy Titanium Alloy Temperature
  24. 24. Engine Materials Titanium Nickel Steel Aluminium Composites
  25. 25. Fan Blade Technology + 4% efficiency Clappered Wide-chord fan
  26. 26. Wide-chord Fan Technology Honeycomb construction 1st generation: 1984 2nd generation: 1995 DB/SPF construction
  27. 27. Fan Section
  28. 28. Swept Fans
  29. 29. Compressor Aerodynamics
  30. 30. Trent 500 Tiled Combustor <ul><li>Tiles reduce wall cooling air requirements making more air available for NOx reduction </li></ul><ul><li>A significant cost reduction relative to conventional machined combustors is also achieved </li></ul>Large airspray injectors for improved mixing and smoke control Large primary zone volume for altitude re-light Small total volume for NOx control Cold supporting wall Cast tile Thermal barrier coating
  31. 31. Improvements in Materials Equiaxed Crystal Structure Directionally Solidified Structure Single Crystal
  32. 32. Turbine Cooling Multi-pass Cooling air Thermal Barrier Coating Single pass
  33. 33. Performance Trends Straight jet Low bypass Medium bypass High bypass %sfc improvement (bare engine) 50 40 30 20 10 Datum Avon 1958 Conway 1960 Spey 1963 -22B 1973 -524B4/D4 1981 -535E4 1983 -524G/H 1988 700 1994 800 1995 500 2000 Propulsive efficiency Component efficiency Cycle efficiency Thermal efficiency RB211 Trent
  34. 34. Electric Engine Concepts Air for pressurisation/cabin conditioning supplied by dedicated system All engine accessories electrically driven Generator on fan shaft provides power to airframe under both normal and emergency conditions Internal active magnetic bearings and motor/generators replace conventional bearings, oil system and gearboxes (typical all shafts) Pylon/aircraft mounted engine systems controller connected to engine via digital highway New Engine Architecture with reduced parts count, weight, advanced cooling, aerodynamics and lifing
  35. 35. Compressor Weight Reduction Conventional disk & blades Blisk - up to 30% weight saving Bling - Ti MMC - up to 70% weight saving
  36. 36. Metal Matrix Composites Titanium Metal Matrix Composite Titanium Alloy Nickel Superalloy Specific Strength Temperature (degrees C)
  37. 37. Future Emissions Improvements Pre-mixed double-annular combustor Double-annular combustor Pilot Main Pilot Main
  38. 38. Future Aircraft Configurations Blended wing aircraft may offer up to 30% reduction in fuel consumption - 40% if combined with electric engine concepts Flying wing Large diameter duct Gas generator Contra-rotating turbine Contra-rotating fan
  39. 39. Conclusion <ul><li>The three-shaft concept is now recognised as a world leader </li></ul><ul><li>Customer-focused competitive technology is critical to its success </li></ul><ul><li>Success is a tribute to many generations of people </li></ul><ul><li>The RB211 & Trent family has a long and secure future </li></ul>
  40. 40. Rolls-Royce

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