Surface Analysis

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Surface Analysis

  1. 1. LEDN-02 Analysis Techniques Sample Probe Response Modified Probe Probe : photo Response : photo electron electron ion ion phonon phonon
  2. 2. Analysis Techniques phonon photo photo XRF, TXRF, FTIR, Raman electron electron ion ion phonon SIMS, RBS , ISS, GDMS ESCA EDS PIXE, GDOS SEM, TEM, AES, EELS LAMMA LEDN-03 Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
  3. 3. LEDN-004 Analysis Techniques Elemental Molecular Surface ( <10 Å) Thin film ( <100 Å - 1  m) Bulk ( > 10  m) Types of information provided by chemical analysis
  4. 4. LEDN-005 Surface and Thin film Analysis Surface Thin Film Elemental Molecular TXRF EDS RBS AES ESCA SIMS
  5. 5. 100% 100 ppm 1% 1 ppm XRF ESCA AES RBS SIMS EDX 100Å 10 µm 0.1 µm 1 µm 1 µm 0.1 µm 10 µm 100 µm 1 mm VD D E SENSITIVITY SPATIAL RESOLUTION QUANTITATION DEPTH RESOLUTION LEDN-006 SIMS vs. Other Techniques
  6. 6. LEDN-07 Analysis Principle Excitation Photoelectron E b = h  -E k -  Relaxtation ESCA EDS, XRF AES Auger electron KL 1 L 2,3 K (1s) L 1 (2s) L 2,3 (2s) Atom Ion e- h  h 
  7. 7. LEDN-08 Analysis Principle X-ray fluorescence (surface) Incident X-rays TRXF Depth information determined either by excitation depth or by escape depth 10-100 Å electron escape depth 1  m Electron excitation depth Auger electrons (surface) X-ray fluorescence Primary Electrons 10-100 Å electron escape depth 100-1000  m X-ray excitation depth photoelectrons (surface) X-ray fluorescence Incident X-rays
  8. 8. LEDN-09 Absorbed molecules Sputtered atoms SIMS Principle Sputtering event + + + Primary ions (~10 keV) Sample atoms + + - + + Secondary ions Mixing range (~100 Å) Escape range (~10 Å) Desorbed molecular ions
  9. 9. LEDN-10 SIMS Technique Schema ION SOURCE Sample MASS SPECTROMETER DETECTOR MASS SPECTRUM  m DEPTH PROFILE X-Y IMAGE VACCUM m/q
  10. 10. Magnetic sector Quadrupole Time of Flight LEDN-11 SIMS Instrument Type r = k/B(m/q) 1/2 M-  M M M+  M Vo(t) = Vc+Vs cos  t t-  t ~ M-  M t ~ M t+  t ~ M+  M ion pulse Detection & Registration m/q ~ B m/q ~ V(f) m/q ~ t
  11. 11.  << A  = A Static SIMS Dynamic SIMS Primary ion dose <1E12 ions/cm2 >1E12 ions/cm2 Information Chemical Elemental Analysis Only surface Depth profile Instrument TOF & Quad Magnetic & Quad Ion damage section,  Desorption area, D Bombarded surface, A LEDN-12 Dynamic vs. Static SIMS primary ion ion: elementa l information ion: molecular information
  12. 12. LEDN-13 Comparison of SIMS Instruments Magnetic Sector Quadrupole Time of Flight Transmission High (~10 -1 ) Low (~10 -3 ) High (~10 -1 ) Mass range Low (< 500) Low (< 600) Unlimited Mass resolution High ~ 10000 Low ~ 500 High ~ 10000 Detection speed Low High Quasi-parallel Charge compensation Difficult Easy Easy Analysis modes Bulk analysis Depth profiling (100Å-100  m) Imaging Bulk analysis Depth profiling (0Å-10  m) Imaging Surface Analysis Depth profiling (0Å-1  m) Imaging
  13. 13. Analytical Condition LEDN-14 Oxygen bombardment & Positive ions Cs bombardment & Negative ions Cs bombardment & Oxygen bombardment
  14. 14. LEDN-15 Detection Limits (atoms/cm3) in InP, GaAs, GaN For electropositive elements SIMS Detection Limit
  15. 15. LEDN-16 Detection Limits (atoms/cm3) in GaAs,InP and GaN For electronegative elements SIMS Detection Limit
  16. 16. Depth (  m) 1E13 at/cm3 LEDN-17 High Mass Resolution Analysis for P in Si High Sensitivity Concentration(at/cm3) P implantation in Si (2E12 atoms/cm2, 300 keV)
  17. 17. LEDN-18 Depth profiling of Multi-Quantum wells InGaAsP/InGaAs SIMS Depth Resolution Lz = 110 Å Lz = 125 Å
  18. 18. SiC fiber in a Ti matrix (V-doped) LEDN-19 Ti C Si V 50  m Ga + primary ion (30 keV, 50 pA) Ti + : 10s; Si + : 200s; V + : 100s; C + : 200s SIMS Image Analysis
  19. 19. SIMS Analysis for GaN LEDs LEDN-20 <ul><li>Enhance production yield </li></ul>Wafer Control <ul><li>LED wafers </li></ul><ul><li>Test wafers </li></ul><ul><li>Purity control (C,H,O,metals) </li></ul><ul><li>Doping control (Si, Mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Layer thickness (Growth rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Interface quality </li></ul><ul><li>Film composition (AlGaN,InGaN) </li></ul>SIMS analysis Calibration & Optimization of Growth GaN Epitaxy Growth Failure analysis Reverse engineering LED dies <ul><li>Reduce R&D cycle time </li></ul>
  20. 20. SIMS for AlInGaP LED LEDN-21 Depth (micron) Concentration (atoms/cm 3 ) AlInGaP
  21. 21. LEDN-22 SIMS for GaN LED Depth (micron) Concentration (atoms/cm 3 ) InGaN
  22. 22. SIMS for AlInGaP LD LEDN-23 Depth (micron) Concentration (atoms/cm 3 ) AlInGaP
  23. 23. SIMS for AlGaAs VCSEL LEDN-24 Depth (micron) Concentration (atoms/cm 3 ) VCSEL
  24. 24. SIMS for LED dies LEDN-25 GaN LED die SIMS craters AlInGaP LED die SIMS craters <ul><li>Doping concentration and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Undesirable Impurities </li></ul><ul><li>Layer structure control </li></ul>Failure analysis <ul><li>Epi-layer structure </li></ul><ul><li>p- and n-type metal stacks </li></ul><ul><li>Passivation layers </li></ul>Reverse engineering
  25. 25. PL on the beveled surface SIMS profile Comparison between PL and SIMS LEDN-26 Composition Analysis by SIMS Al x Ga 1-x As composition by MCs + technique A B C D
  26. 26. Composition Analysis by Auger LEDN-27 Depth profiling of the top layers of GaN die

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