Friction Stir Welding of Stainless
  Steel and Nickel Base Alloys
      R.J. Steel, T.W. Nelson, C.D.
    Sorensen, Y.S. S...
Acknowledgements
Material provided by:
– Haynes International
– Ulbrich
– Sandvik
Outline
•   Friction Stir Welding
•   Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN)
•   Experimental Approach
•   Results
   ...
Friction Stir Welding
• Solid state process
• Important tool features
   – Shoulder and Pin




                          ...
Tool Layout

• Locking collar to
  support PCBN

• Thermal barrier to slow
  heat transfer to shank
Tool Holder and
  Telemetry
Polycrystalline Cubic Boron
               Nitride (PCBN)
• PCBN is a Synthetic Super Abrasive Material
  – Created in HT-...
Experimental Approach

• Basic parameter study
   – Parameters found which produced fully consolidated welds

   – Paramet...
Materials
                Alloy                   Thickness
304 Stainless                     0.250 in.
2507 Super Duplex ...
304 Stainless Steel




                                              1 in.




Welding Parameters:      •Excellent weld a...
304 Stainless Steel

   Adv.                              Ret.




                                               Adv.
   ...
304 Stainless Steel




                                                 500x




•Sigma phase observed in bands
   •Also ...
304 Stainless Steel

                                     304 FSW
                          Transverse Tensile Properties
...
304 Stainless Steel




• Reduction in area required for tensile specimens
2507 Super Duplex
                           Stainless Steel




                                                   1 in.
...
2507 Super Duplex
               Stainless Steel

    Ret.
                                            Adv.




          ...
2507 Super Duplex
                                  Stainless Steel
Ferrite : Red
Austenite : Green
                      ...
2507 Super Duplex
                           Stainless Steel
                                    2507 FSW
                ...
Alloy 201




                        0.6 in.




Welding Parameters:
Rotation: 1000 rpm
                                 ...
Alloy 201

 Adv.
                                                           Ret.




Base material (500x)          TMAZ (5...
Alloy 201
                                 Ni 201 FSW
                      Transverse Tensile Properties
   Sample       ...
Alloy 600



                                  Before




Welding Parameters:
Rotation: 450 rpm
Travel:   2.25 IPM
       ...
Alloy 600

Ret.                                                                     Adv.




       Base material (100x)  ...
Alloy 600
                                     Alloy 600 FSW
                               Transverse Tensile Properties
...
Alloy 718



                                                        0.6 in.




 Welding Parameters:
 Rotation: 500 rpm
 ...
Alloy 718

Adv.
                                                                         Ret.




       Base material (50...
Alloy 718
                                 Alloy 718 FSW
                           Transverse Tensile Properties

    Sam...
Review
• FSW exhibited feasibility in various different
  stainless steel and nickel base alloys

• Excellent mechanical p...
Tool Life

• Tool Life is always the big question
  – Life test under taken on 304 stainless steel and
    1018 mild steel...
Tool Life
                 100 feet of weld produced in 304 Stainless Steel
                          • 30 tool plunges


...
Tool Life
             260 feet in 1018 mild steel
                   •Solved design issue in driving PCBN
               ...
Tool Life
• PCBN grade development ongoing
  – Current grade being used is commercial machining
    grade

  – Ongoing pro...
Summary
• PCBN proved to be viable FSW tool material
  for higher temperature materials
• Stainless steel and nickel base ...
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FSW of Stainless Steel And Nickel Alloys

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FSW of Stainless Steel And Nickel Alloys

  1. 1. Friction Stir Welding of Stainless Steel and Nickel Base Alloys R.J. Steel, T.W. Nelson, C.D. Sorensen, Y.S. Sato, C.J. Sterling, and S.M. Packer
  2. 2. Acknowledgements Material provided by: – Haynes International – Ulbrich – Sandvik
  3. 3. Outline • Friction Stir Welding • Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) • Experimental Approach • Results – Stainless Steel – Super Duplex Stainless Steel – Nickel Base • Tool Life • Summary
  4. 4. Friction Stir Welding • Solid state process • Important tool features – Shoulder and Pin Retreating Advancing
  5. 5. Tool Layout • Locking collar to support PCBN • Thermal barrier to slow heat transfer to shank
  6. 6. Tool Holder and Telemetry
  7. 7. Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) • PCBN is a Synthetic Super Abrasive Material – Created in HT-UHP presses (1450 C, 870 KSI)
  8. 8. Experimental Approach • Basic parameter study – Parameters found which produced fully consolidated welds – Parameters are not optimized • Post weld analysis – Tensile testing in accordance with ASTM E8 – Transverse metallographic samples removed from each weld – 2507 Super DuplexTM microstructure examined using Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM)
  9. 9. Materials Alloy Thickness 304 Stainless 0.250 in. 2507 Super Duplex 0.150 in. Alloy 201 0.125 in. Alloy 600 0.187 in. Alloy 718 0.089 in. • 40 CFH of Argon used in all welds 1 in. 0.6 in.
  10. 10. 304 Stainless Steel 1 in. Welding Parameters: •Excellent weld appearance Rotation: 400 rpm Travel: 3 IPM Load control: 9000 lbf
  11. 11. 304 Stainless Steel Adv. Ret. Adv. Ret. Base material Base material (500x) Center of DXZ (500x)
  12. 12. 304 Stainless Steel 500x •Sigma phase observed in bands •Also observed at grain boundaries between bands 1000x
  13. 13. 304 Stainless Steel 304 FSW Transverse Tensile Properties Sample Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Elongation % 0.2 % offset KSI Strength KSI (MPa) (MPa) 400 RPM, 3 IPM 51 (352) 95 (655) 54 Base Metal 55 (379) 98 (675) 56 •Tensile failures occurred in HAZ
  14. 14. 304 Stainless Steel • Reduction in area required for tensile specimens
  15. 15. 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel 1 in. Welding Parameters: •Excellent weld appearance Rotation: 450 rpm Travel: 3.5 IPM Load control: 7400 lbf
  16. 16. 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Ret. Adv. Center of DXZ (200x) Base material (200x) FSW produces fine microstructure in the stir zone.
  17. 17. 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Ferrite : Red Austenite : Green Up1.5 Up1.5 R3 0 A3 R1.5 A1.5 R3 R1.5 0 A1.5 A3 •Austenite phase exhibits smaller grain size than ferrite phase •No evidence of sigma phase
  18. 18. 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel 2507 FSW Transverse Tensile Properties Sample Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Elongation % 0.2 % offset KSI Strength KSI (MPa) (MPa) 450 RPM, 3.5 IPM 110 (762) 123 (845) 19 Base Metal 102 (705) 128 (886) 30 •Tensile failures occurred in DXZ
  19. 19. Alloy 201 0.6 in. Welding Parameters: Rotation: 1000 rpm After 12 in. of weld Travel: 4 IPM •Tool previously used in alloy 718
  20. 20. Alloy 201 Adv. Ret. Base material (500x) TMAZ (50x) Center of DXZ (500x) Fine microstructure exhibited in DXZ
  21. 21. Alloy 201 Ni 201 FSW Transverse Tensile Properties Sample Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Elongation % 0.2 % offset KSI Strength KSI (MPa) (MPa) 1000 RPM, 4 IPM 28 (193) 65 (448) 34 Base Metal* 15 (103) 59 (406) 50 * Nominal properties reported in literature •Tensile failures occurred in DXZ
  22. 22. Alloy 600 Before Welding Parameters: Rotation: 450 rpm Travel: 2.25 IPM After 6 feet of weld
  23. 23. Alloy 600 Ret. Adv. Base material (100x) Center of Stir zone (100x) Grain refinement exhibited in weld region
  24. 24. Alloy 600 Alloy 600 FSW Transverse Tensile Properties Sample Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Elongation % 0.2 % offset KSI Strength KSI (MPa) (MPa) 450RPM 2 ¼ IPM 54 (374) 104 (719) 27 Base Metal 38 (263) 92 (631) 50 (annealed condition) •Tensile failures occurred in the DXZ
  25. 25. Alloy 718 0.6 in. Welding Parameters: Rotation: 500 rpm Travel: 2 IPM New Tool After 4 feet of weld •Excellent weld appearance
  26. 26. Alloy 718 Adv. Ret. Base material (500x) Center of DXZ (500x) Grain refinement exhibited in weld region
  27. 27. Alloy 718 Alloy 718 FSW Transverse Tensile Properties Sample Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Elongation % 0.2 % offset KSI Strength KSI (MPa) (MPa) 500RPM , 2 IPM 97 (668) 143 (986) 16 Base Metal * 67 (462) 130 (896) 41 (Annealed) Base Metal * 170 (1172) 202 (1392) 22 (precipitation hardened) •Tensile failure in DXZ * Nominal properties reported in literature
  28. 28. Review • FSW exhibited feasibility in various different stainless steel and nickel base alloys • Excellent mechanical properties • Grain refinement exhibited in DXZ – Wrought microstructure
  29. 29. Tool Life • Tool Life is always the big question – Life test under taken on 304 stainless steel and 1018 mild steel – 0.600 in. diameter shoulder with 0.085 in. length on pin – FSW machine capable of 40 in. of travel
  30. 30. Tool Life 100 feet of weld produced in 304 Stainless Steel • 30 tool plunges Before After 100 feet 15 mm Bead on plate performed for life study
  31. 31. Tool Life 260 feet in 1018 mild steel •Solved design issue in driving PCBN •78 tool plunges • No visible wear Before • Pin fractured at 262 feet After 200 feet 15 mm Bead on plate performed for life study
  32. 32. Tool Life • PCBN grade development ongoing – Current grade being used is commercial machining grade – Ongoing program to develop FSW grades – Potential to tailor grades for different alloys
  33. 33. Summary • PCBN proved to be viable FSW tool material for higher temperature materials • Stainless steel and nickel base alloys can be successfully friction stir welded – Excellent weld quality and mechanical properties – Fine grain size in weld • Tool life constantly improving

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