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Organizational change


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Organizational change

  1. 1. Organizational change Lecture 12
  2. 2. Organizational change <ul><li>Substantive modification in some part of the organization; </li></ul><ul><li>It may include any aspect in the organization: </li></ul><ul><li>Work schedules; </li></ul><ul><li>Bases for departmentalization; </li></ul><ul><li>Span of management; </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational design; </li></ul><ul><li>Staff. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Forces for change <ul><li>External forces; </li></ul><ul><li>Internal forces. Internal forces include strategy, structure, staff, goals,technical equipment. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of change <ul><li>There are two main types of a change: </li></ul><ul><li>Planned change . It is designed and implemented in an orderly and timely fashion in anticipation of future events; </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive change . It is a respond to circumstances as they develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological changes ; </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral changes ; </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Managing change process <ul><li>Managing change means forecasts the change, implementing it in the organization and involving people in it. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Kurt Lewin, there are three stages in change process: </li></ul><ul><li>Unfreezing; </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing; </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stages in change process <ul><li>Unfreezing means that people who will be affected by change should understand why change is necessary; </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation is next stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Refreezing involves reinforcing and supporting the change. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Steps in change process <ul><li>Recognition the need for change; </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of goals for change; </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of relevant variables; </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of appropriate change techniques; </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for implementation of the change; </li></ul><ul><li>Actual implementation; </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Managing resistance to change <ul><li>People resist to change for several reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>-uncertainty; </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened self-interests; </li></ul><ul><li>Different perceptions; </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of loss. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Techniques to overcome resistance <ul><li>Participation . Employees who participate in the planning and implementation of change better understand the reasons for change; </li></ul><ul><li>Education and communication ; </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation; </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations. This technique is suitable for groups having power in the oranizations ; </li></ul><ul><li>Support. It is connected with training of staff to acquire new skills ; </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation and involvement. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organization development <ul><li>It is an effort that is planned, organization wide, and managed from top, intended to increase organization’s effectiveness through planned actions. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Prerequisites for organization development <ul><li>Employees have desire to grow and develop; </li></ul><ul><li>They have strong need to be accepted by others; </li></ul><ul><li>The way OD is designed will influence the way individuals and group behave in the organization. </li></ul>
  12. 12. OD techniques <ul><li>Diagnostic activities . It includes analysis of current condition or welfare of the organization; </li></ul><ul><li>Team building ; they enhance the effectiveness and satisfaction of individuals; </li></ul><ul><li>Survey feedback . Each employee responds to a questionnaire intended to measure perceptions and attitudes. </li></ul>
  13. 13. OD techniques <ul><li>Education ; </li></ul><ul><li>Intergroup activities . They are designed to promote cooperation; </li></ul><ul><li>Third- party peace making . It is used in cases of substantial conflict in the organization; </li></ul><ul><li>Technostructural activities . They include the design of organization, the technology. </li></ul>
  14. 14. OD techniques <ul><li>Process consultation . In this case OD consultant is observing the groups to understand their communication pattern, decision making and leadership processes and gives feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Life and career planning . Employees formulate their personal goals and evaluate strategies for integrating goals with goals in the organization; </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and counseling ; it helps people to develop better sense of how others see them. </li></ul>