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  1. 1. Nanotechnology
  2. 2. History and background on nanotechnology Importance of nano-sized devices Applications Relation to ME 325 Case study Future expectations
  3. 3. Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale (Usually between 1nm – 100nm) Comparison: A human hair is about 100,000nm in diameter Not new products, a new way of production
  4. 4. Topic introduced first by Richard Feynman at Caltech in 1959. Gordon Moore observed that silicon transistors were undergoing a continual process of scaling downward 1965 Nanotechnology was first defined by Tokyo Science University in a paper in 1974. Process of atomic layer deposition for depositing uniform thin films one at a time was developed by Dr. Tuomo Suntola and Co-workers in 1974. Nanotechnology was conceptually explored in depth by Dr. K. Eric Drexler in 1980s Cluster science was born in the 1980s and the scanning tunneling microscope was invented. Fullerenes was discovered in 1985 Nano-tube based nanotechnology was developed further in 90s. Present practices in nanotechnology are both stochastic and deterministic
  5. 5. Saving of resources ◦ Products can be made with much less raw material ◦ Cost reduction through batch production ◦ Reduced energy to produce and operate products Size reduction ◦ Saves space ◦ Tighter tolerances ◦ Negligible weight of product Development of life quality ◦ Higher strength Improvement of existing technologies
  6. 6. Exponential Proliferation: manufacturing systems which will make more manufacturing systems Vastly accelerated product improvement Applicable to all industries and economic sectors Inexpensive raw materials, potentially negligible capital costs Portable, desktop size factories Global transformation
  7. 7. Applied physics Materials science Electrical engineering Interface and colloid science Device physics Supra molecular chemistry Chemical engineering Mechanical engineering
  8. 8. Medical applications: ◦ Wound dressings employing antimicrobial properties of nanocrystalline silver ◦ Potential for use as vehicles for gene and drug delivery Military applications: ◦ Nanopolymers developed to spray on soldier and act as fabric to break down chemical and biological warfare agents. Biosensors to monitor a soldiers health. ◦ Nano sized silicon carbide particles for physical protection. Environmental Applications: ◦ Nanoparticles used as filters to attract contaminants which can be removed magnetically at a later time. Cosmetics: ◦ Nano-titanium dioxide and zinc oxide used in sunscreens to absorb and reflect UV light. Applications in solar power Fine powders used to create stronger materials. ◦ Used to make drill bits as hard as diamiond.
  9. 9. Can be metallic or semiconducting Promising potential to create nanoelectronic devices, computers, and circuits Thermal and electrical conducting Impressive mechanical properties: Young’s Modulus over 1 Tera Pascal – stiff as diamond Estimated tensile strength of 200GPa – ideal for reinforced composites and nanoelectromechanical systems
  10. 10. When CNT conduct electricity they can create binary code. Think 1s and 0s at a nano level which allow for faster smaller processors
  11. 11. Nano- Sensors have many applications Nano-sensors for security and military applications ◦ monitor heart rate Nano-wire sensors that detect chemicals and biologics Nano-sensors placed in blood cells to detect early radiation damage in astronauts Nano-shells that detect and destroy tumors Laser Nano sensors for measuring surface roughness, thickness of materials Motorola working with Arizona State towards integrating nano-sensors in cell phones
  12. 12. Different forces are important on the nano-scale ◦ Electrical forces are a priority Negligible weight Size reduction affects volume to surface area ratio ◦ Friction becomes more important ◦ Density and volume are negligible Different analysis and importance of forces must be performed
  13. 13. Crack propagation ◦ Cracks function differently on nanoscale ◦ Study of nucleation of atoms becomes important Nanotechnology and lubricants ◦ Reduce friction between parts ◦ Increase life Materials with improved properties ◦ When a material is made at a nano scale it has much better properties, because there are fewer impurities and defects
  14. 14. Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) •The future of television •As electricity passes over the thin nonopolymer film layer it produces color and light. •More dots of lights means a better picture.
  15. 15. These nanopolymer films require less power and in the future will be much cheaper to make The screens are have much more detail on a fraction of the size These screens are 2 mm thick and 2.5 inches wide. Its so flexible someday it might be woven into clothes for invisibility.
  16. 16. Virtually endless possibilities What is likely: ◦ Smaller sizes and tolerances in design ◦ Smaller, faster computer chips ◦ Water treatment ◦ Medicinal purposes ◦ Increased bandwith through more efficient optical spectrum Other possibilities: ◦ Nano-sized weaponry ◦ Agricultural applications
  17. 17. Cost and material reduction ◦ Changing the way we manufacture Methods of applying ◦ CNT ◦ MEMS ◦ Sensors Demand increasing Future potential ◦ Funding for research ◦ Multiple fields utilizing nanotechnology
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  19. 19. Questions?