UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO PROGRAMA DE SEGUNDA ESPECIALIDAD -ENFERMERIA II  UNIDAD  INGLES TECNICO  THE INTEGUM...
THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM (SKIN) <ul><li>Contents : </li></ul><ul><li>Functions  of  the intergumentary System  </li></ul><...
FUNCTIONS  OF  THE INTERGUMENTARY  SYSTEM <ul><li>This  is the skin, and  skin  derivatives  ;  </li></ul><ul><li>( hair ,...
The intergumentary system  has many  functions: <ul><li>Protects  the body’s  internal  living  tissues  and organs . </li...
 
The skin has two main layers, the  epidermis  and the  dermis :  <ul><li>The Epidermis  (thin outer layer of skin) </li></...
<ul><li>The protein  keratin  stiffens epidermal tissue to form finger nails. Nails grow from a thin area called the  'NAI...
The epidermis.contains different types of cells, the most common   are : <ul><li>sqamous cells  which are flat, scaly cell...
The Dermis (thick inner layer of skin) <ul><li>The dermis consists of blood vessels, connective tissue, nerves, lymph vess...
<ul><li>The dermis contains several important glands. The  sebaceous glands  located near the hair follicles secrete oil t...
HAIR <ul><li>There is hair on every part of body (except palms and soles), this helps maintain body temperature. Eye lashe...
Connective tissue and Membranes <ul><li>These are not necessarily part of the Integumentary System, and are general to man...
Membranes <ul><li>Mucous membranes line a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior, preventing the cavity from dryi...
Roots  suffixes and  Prefixes Onychectomy= excision of a nail nail ONYCH- Melanin= the black pigmen in the skin Black MELA...
Roots  suffixes and  Prefixes Dermatophytosis=a fungal infection of the skin Condition / disease -OSIS Melanoma =Black col...
Cancer Focus <ul><li>Overview of Skin Cancer  </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma </li></ul><ul><li>Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) </li...
SENSE AND CONTROL <ul><li>Your  body  is controlled  by the central  nervous  system  ( the brain  and spinal cord ) .This...
Signals send to  the  central nervous  system come  from sensor  cells The table  below  shows  some  of the things these ...
The Sensory Systems  <ul><li>A receptor or sense organ picks up stimulus and converts it into a nerve impulse. This impuls...
<ul><li>Gustatory sensations  (taste) there are about 2000 taste buds, mostly on the tongue and a few in the throat. Taste...
The Brain   The brain is highly complex, it contains about 1000 billion neurons , and weighs about 3 lbs in adults.
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM <ul><li>Contents: </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the Cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Blo...
Blood circulates through a network of vessels throughout the body to provide individual cells with oxygen and nutrients an...
Functions of blood and circulation:  <ul><li>Circulates OXYGEN and removes Carbon Dioxide.  </li></ul><ul><li>Provides cel...
Blood  <ul><li>General types of blood cells: (each has many different sub-types)  </li></ul><ul><li>ERYTHROCYTES  (red cel...
LEUKOCYTES <ul><li>(white cells) help the body fight bacteria and infection. When a tissue is damaged or has an infection ...
THROMBOCYTES <ul><li>THROMBOCYTES  (platelets) aid the formation of blood CLOTS by releasing various protein substances. W...
Blood vessels <ul><li>ARTERIES  carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. They are thick hollow tubes which are highly E...
<ul><li>CAPILLARIES  distribute the nutrients and oxygen to the body's tissues and remove deoxygenated blood and waste. Th...
<ul><li>VENULES  (very small veins) merge into  VEINS  which carry blood back to the heart. The vein walls are similar to ...
THE PARTS OF THE HEART 1.-THE AORTA 2.-LUNG ARTERY 3.- TRUNCATE LUNG 4.-VEIN DIGS SUPERIOR 5.-LUNG VEINS 6.-VALVE TRICUSPI...
The heart  <ul><li>The heart is a hollow muscular organ which beats over 100,000 times a day to pump blood around the body...
<ul><li>The heart has FOUR CHAMBERS, in the lower heart the right and left Ventricles, and in the upper heart the right an...
The spleen  <ul><li>This is a large flat oval organ located below the diaphragm, it's main function is to STORE BLOOD. The...
<ul><li>Pernicious anaemia  is a Vitamin B12 deficiency resulting in a reduction in number of erythrocytes.  </li></ul><ul...
GRACIAS POR SU ATENCION
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Ii Unidad The Intergumentary And Cardiovascular System

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Ii Unidad The Intergumentary And Cardiovascular System

  1. 1. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO PROGRAMA DE SEGUNDA ESPECIALIDAD -ENFERMERIA II UNIDAD INGLES TECNICO THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Docente : Mg. Lupe Rivera de Fang
  2. 2. THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM (SKIN) <ul><li>Contents : </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the intergumentary System </li></ul><ul><li>The Epidermis (outer layer of skin ) </li></ul><ul><li>The dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue and Membranes . </li></ul><ul><li>Roots , prefixes and suffixes . </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer focus . </li></ul>
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS OF THE INTERGUMENTARY SYSTEM <ul><li>This is the skin, and skin derivatives ; </li></ul><ul><li>( hair , nails , glands and and </li></ul><ul><li>receptors ). The intergumentary system has many functions .: </li></ul><ul><li>This is the skin , and skin derivatives ; </li></ul><ul><li>( hair , nails , glands and receptors </li></ul>
  4. 4. The intergumentary system has many functions: <ul><li>Protects the body’s internal living tissues and organs . </li></ul><ul><li>Protects against invasion by infectious organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Protects the body from deshydration . </li></ul><ul><li>Protects the body against abrupt changes in temperature . </li></ul><ul><li>Helps dispose of waste materials . </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a receptor for touch , pressure , pain ,heat an cold . </li></ul><ul><li>Stores water, fat and vitamin D. </li></ul>
  5. 6. The skin has two main layers, the epidermis and the dermis : <ul><li>The Epidermis (thin outer layer of skin) </li></ul><ul><li>The Epidermis itself is made up of many layers. The basale stratum is the only layer capable of cell division 'pushing up' cells to replenish the outer layer which is constantly shedding dead cells. The Epidermis does not contain blood vessels (non-vascular). It contains the pigment melanin which gives skin colour and allows the skin to tan, uneven distribution of melanin causes 'freckles'. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>The protein keratin stiffens epidermal tissue to form finger nails. Nails grow from a thin area called the 'NAIL MATRIX' , growth of nails is about 1 mm per week on average. The lUNULA is the crescent shaped area at the base of the nail, this is a lighter colour as it mixes with the matrix cells. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The epidermis.contains different types of cells, the most common are : <ul><li>sqamous cells which are flat, scaly cells on the surface of the skin, basal cells which are round cells, and melanocytes which give the skin its colour. The epidermis also contains Langerhan's cells , these are formed in the bone marrow and then migrate to the epidermis. They work in conjunction with other cells to fight foreign bodies as part of the body's immune defence system. Granstein cells play a similar role. </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Dermis (thick inner layer of skin) <ul><li>The dermis consists of blood vessels, connective tissue, nerves, lymph vessels, glands, receptors, hair shafts. The dermis has two layers, the upper papillary and lower reticular layers. The Papillary is the upper layer of the dermis, it has ridges and valleys causing finger prints. It contains receptors which communicate with the Central Nervous System, these include touch, pressure, hot, cold and pain receptors. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>The dermis contains several important glands. The sebaceous glands located near the hair follicles secrete oil to keep skin and hair soft and moist. The sudorferous glands secrete sweat to regulate temperature and are located under the dermis with ducts to the surface. The ceruminous glands secrete wax to stop dust entering the ear. </li></ul>
  10. 11. HAIR <ul><li>There is hair on every part of body (except palms and soles), this helps maintain body temperature. Eye lashes filter out harmful particles. Hair grows from follicles that contain the lower shaft and root of the hair. The hair shaft projects through the dermis and epidermis and is kept soft by the sebaceous glands. Hair colour is determined by the concentration of melanin. There are tiny muscles attached to the follicles (arrector pili), when cold or frightened these tighten forming 'goose pimples'. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Connective tissue and Membranes <ul><li>These are not necessarily part of the Integumentary System, and are general to many of the other systems of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissues support and protect the body's organs, and bind organs together. They usually are highly vascular (rich blood supply) and contain fibres. There are many types of connective tissue, for example loose connective tissue occurs around organs and attaches the skin to the underlying tissues. Dense connective tissues are tougher, for example tendons attach muscles to bones. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Membranes <ul><li>Mucous membranes line a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior, preventing the cavity from drying out e.g. in the mouth. Serous membranes line a body cavity that does not directly open to the outside, and provide lubrication so that organs can move more easily e.g. the pleura is a membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and protects the lungs. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Roots suffixes and Prefixes Onychectomy= excision of a nail nail ONYCH- Melanin= the black pigmen in the skin Black MELAN- Lipoatrophy=atrophy of fat below the skin Fat LIPO- Epidermis=layer above the dermis Upon EPI- Dermatology=study of the skin and its diseases Skin DERMA- Subcutaneous layer=layer below the skin Skin CUT- Example Meaning Component
  14. 15. Roots suffixes and Prefixes Dermatophytosis=a fungal infection of the skin Condition / disease -OSIS Melanoma =Black coloured skin tumour Tumour -OMA Dermatitis = inflammation of the skin Inflammation -ITIS Sudorific= an agent that promotes sweat Sweat SUDOR- Scleroderma=chroni chardening of the skin Hand/ tough SCLERO- Pachyderma= abnormal thickening of skin Thick PACHY- Example Meaning Component
  15. 16. Cancer Focus <ul><li>Overview of Skin Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma </li></ul><ul><li>Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Merkell cell Cancer </li></ul>
  16. 17. SENSE AND CONTROL <ul><li>Your body is controlled by the central nervous system ( the brain and spinal cord ) .This is linked to all parts of the body by nerves . Signals </li></ul><ul><li>Called nerve impulses travel along these nerves. The central nervous system use them to sense what is happening inside and outside the body and to control the actions of muscles and organs . For example, if you see a wasp(avispa) on your hand, your eyes send signals to your brain. This sends signals to muscles, making them contracts so that your hand moves. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Signals send to the central nervous system come from sensor cells The table below shows some of the things these cells respond to : <ul><li>SENSOR </li></ul><ul><li>CELLS IN : Respond to : </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes Light </li></ul><ul><li>Ears Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Nose Chemicals in air </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue Chemicals in food </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Touch, pressure </li></ul><ul><li>heat, pain </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Sensory Systems <ul><li>A receptor or sense organ picks up stimulus and converts it into a nerve impulse. This impulse is then conducted along a neural pathway to the brain, where the signal is converted into a sensation. There are various receptors: </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaneous (skin) senses. The skin contains specialist receptors for touch, pressure, vibration, hot, cold, and pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive (muscle) sensations inform us of the activities and current posture of the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative sensations are not well defined but include memory, sleep, emotions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory sensations (smell). Olfactory neurons have dendrites that are connected to fine hairs in the nose that react to odours. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Gustatory sensations (taste) there are about 2000 taste buds, mostly on the tongue and a few in the throat. Taste buds contain gustatory cells which contain sensitive hair like processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalmic sensations (sight). The retina of the eye converts light into nerve impulses which are transmitted to the optic nerve. Retinoblastoma is a rare tumour in the cells of the retina. </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory senses (hearing). Sound waves cause fine hairs in the inner ear to vibrate generating nerve impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium (sense of balance) the ear also contains receptors that give a sense of static equilibrium (position of the head) and dynamic equilibrium (sudden movements). </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Brain The brain is highly complex, it contains about 1000 billion neurons , and weighs about 3 lbs in adults.
  21. 22. THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM <ul><li>Contents: </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the Cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>The heart </li></ul><ul><li>The spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Roots,suffixes,and prefixes </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer focus </li></ul>
  22. 23. Blood circulates through a network of vessels throughout the body to provide individual cells with oxygen and nutrients and helps dispose of metabolic wastes. The heart pumps the blood around the blood vessels. Blood is made up of about 45% solids (cells) and 55% fluids (plasma). The plasma is largely water, containing proteins, nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and dissolved waste products.
  23. 24. Functions of blood and circulation: <ul><li>Circulates OXYGEN and removes Carbon Dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides cells with NUTRIENTS. </li></ul><ul><li>Removes the waste products of metabolism to the excretory organs for disposal. </li></ul><ul><li>Protects the body against disease and infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Clotting stops bleeding after injury . </li></ul><ul><li>Transports HORMONES to target cells and organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps regulate body temperature. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Blood <ul><li>General types of blood cells: (each has many different sub-types) </li></ul><ul><li>ERYTHROCYTES (red cells) are small red disk shaped cells. They contain HAEMOGLOBIN, which combines with oxygen in the lungs and is then transported to the body's cells. The hemoglobin then returns carbon dioxide waste to the lungs. Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow in the knobby ends of bones. </li></ul>
  25. 26. LEUKOCYTES <ul><li>(white cells) help the body fight bacteria and infection. When a tissue is damaged or has an infection the number of leukocytes increases. Leukocytes are formed in the small ends of bones. Leukocytes can be classed as granular or non granular. There are three types of granular leukocytes (eosinophils, neutrophils, and basophils), and three types of non-granular (monocytes, T-cell lymphocytes, and B-cell lymphocytes). See also the lymphatic system. </li></ul>
  26. 27. THROMBOCYTES <ul><li>THROMBOCYTES (platelets) aid the formation of blood CLOTS by releasing various protein substances. When the body is injured thrombocytes disintegrate and cause a chemical reaction with the proteins found in plasma, which eventually create a thread like substance called FIBRIN. The fibrin then &quot;catches&quot; other blood cells which form the clot, preventing further loss of blood and forms the basis of healing. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Blood vessels <ul><li>ARTERIES carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. They are thick hollow tubes which are highly ELASTIC which allows them to DILATE (widen) and constrict (narrow) as blood is forced down them by the heart. Arteries branch and re-branch, becoming smaller until they become small ARTERIOLES which are even more elastic. Arterioles feed oxygenated blood to the capillaries. The AORTA is the largest artery in the body, taking blood from the heart, branching into other arteries that send oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>CAPILLARIES distribute the nutrients and oxygen to the body's tissues and remove deoxygenated blood and waste. They are extremely thin, the walls are only one cell thick and connect the arterioles with the venules (very small veins). </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>VENULES (very small veins) merge into VEINS which carry blood back to the heart. The vein walls are similar to arteries but thinner and less elastic. Veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the lungs where oxygen is received via the pulmonary capillaries. The PULMONARY Veins then carries this oxygenated blood back to the heart. </li></ul>
  30. 31. THE PARTS OF THE HEART 1.-THE AORTA 2.-LUNG ARTERY 3.- TRUNCATE LUNG 4.-VEIN DIGS SUPERIOR 5.-LUNG VEINS 6.-VALVE TRICUSPIDEA 7.-LUNG VALVE 8.-AORTIC VALVE 9.- MITRAL VALVE OR BICUSPID 10.-INTERVENTRICULAR BLOCK 11.-ENDOCARDIUM 12.-MIOCARDIUM 13.-EPICARDIUM 14.-TRUNK ARTERY BRAQUIOCEFALICO 15.-ARTERY CAROTID PRIMITIVE LEFT 16.-ARTERY SUBCLAVIA LEFT 17.-VEIN DIGS INFERIOR
  31. 32. The heart <ul><li>The heart is a hollow muscular organ which beats over 100,000 times a day to pump blood around the body's 60,000 miles of blood vessels. The right side of the heart receives blood and sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it out to the tissues of the body. The Heart has three layers; the ENDOCARDIUM (inner layer), the EPICARDIUM (middle layer), and MYOCARDIUM (outer layer). The heart is protected by the PERICARDIUM which is the protective membrane surrounding it. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>The heart has FOUR CHAMBERS, in the lower heart the right and left Ventricles, and in the upper heart the right and left Atria. In a normal heart beat the atria contract while the ventricles relax, then the ventricles contract while the atria relax. There are VALVES through which blood passes between ventricle and atrium, these close in such a way that blood does not backwash during the pauses between ventricular contractions. The right and left ventricles are divided by a thick wall (the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM), babies born with &quot;hole in the heart&quot; have a small gap here, which is a problem since oxygenated and deoxygenated can blood mix. The walls of the left ventricle are thicker as it has to pump blood to all the tissues, compared to the right ventricle which only pumps blood as far as the lungs </li></ul>
  33. 34. The spleen <ul><li>This is a large flat oval organ located below the diaphragm, it's main function is to STORE BLOOD. The size of the spleen can vary, for example it may enlarge when the body is fighting infection also it's size tends to decrease with age. It is a non-vital organ and it is possible to survive after removal of the spleen. </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Pernicious anaemia is a Vitamin B12 deficiency resulting in a reduction in number of erythrocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Aplastic anemia is a failure of the bone marrow to produce the enough red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Septicaemia - bacterial toxins in blood. </li></ul>
  35. 36. GRACIAS POR SU ATENCION

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