UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL  “PEDRO RUIZ GALLO ”  FACULTAD DE ENFERMERIA Segunda Especialidad “ Enfermería en Cuidados Críticos y...
<ul><li>ACTIVIDAD  PARA  EVALUAR  SABERES  PREVIOS  </li></ul>
LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD SUN BASKET HOUSE GRAND MOTHER FOREST WOLF BED SHELF EYES EAR MOUTH HUNTER DOG
PRESENTATION <ul><li>SPEAKER  </li></ul><ul><li>Mg. LUPE RIVERA studied Infirmary in the National University Pedro Ruiz Ga...
<ul><li>The purpose of English's course is to teach the elements of the necessary English language to understand and to ex...
THE  COMPONENTS  OF  MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY <ul><li>CONTENS : </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Medical Words  </li></ul><ul><l...
COMPONENTS  OF MEDICAL WORDS <ul><li>Most medical  terms are  compound  words made  up of  root words  which are combined ...
To take another type of tumour : <ul><li>osteogenic sarcoma. </li></ul><ul><li>Osteo-means bone </li></ul><ul><li>Genic me...
ROOT  WORDS Malignant=growing,spreading Bad/harmful Malign- Hepatoblastoma = liver  cancer Liver Hepati- Histology= study ...
ROOTS WORDS EXAMPLE MEANING COMPONENT Neuroblast= an immature  nerve cell. Oncology= the study  of cancer. Osteosarcoma = ...
Necrosis = dying cells   Disease/condition   -OSIS Neuropathy=disease of the nervous system   Disease   -PATY Retinoblasto...
Endoscope= an instrument to look inside the body cavities or organs   inside   ENDO- Epidermis= the   outer layer of  skin...
subclavia Under / below   SUB- Post-surgery After   POST- Pre-operatory Before   PRE- Peri-abdominal Around   PERI- Para-s...
<ul><li>SYN-  Together with   Syndrome = group  of  symptoms occurring together .   </li></ul>
THE HUMAN  BODY <ul><li>To study the man like the whole alive organisms it is considered two aspects:  first their  form e...
<ul><li>Human anatomy : is the science that  studied the structure of the organs and systems that integrate the human orga...
THE PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY
PRACTICAMOS LO APRENDIDO !!
THE  HUMAN BODY SYSTEM
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Protections: - The skull protects the b...
 
 
PARTS  OF  BONES <ul><li>Diaphysis :  The long  shaft of the bone . </li></ul><ul><li>Ephifysis:  The knob  like  end  of ...
<ul><li>Foramina :   Tiny canals  in the bone throught  wich blood  and lymph  vessels  connect  to the  medullary . </li>...
TIPS OF  BONE  <ul><li>Compact Bone   : Compact  bone  is dense  and  hard , especially  the outer  layer  of  the  bone ....
Classification of bone  by shape  <ul><li>Long Bones  :  Slightly  curved  for STRENGHT  with  long  narrow  shafts  with ...
BONES AND  GROWTH <ul><li>Ossification :  is the gradual  CONVERSION OF CARTILAGE  OR OTHER TISSUE  INTO BONE . At birth  ...
ROOTS , SUFFIXES  AND  PREFIXES Osteoporosis:reduced bone  mass fracture prone disease OSIS- Thoracotomy:incision into che...
CANCER FOCUS <ul><li>Osteogenic sarcoma  </li></ul><ul><li>Ewing’s Sarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrosarcoma </li></ul><ul>...
The Muscular System   <ul><li>Functions of muscles  </li></ul><ul><li>The main function of muscles is for motion, for exam...
Muscular system
Characteristics of muscle tissue <ul><li>Irritability  (excitability) muscles receive and respond to stimulation.  </li></...
Types of muscles  <ul><li>Different types of muscle respond, contract, and relax at different rates.  </li></ul><ul><li>Sk...
Types of muscles <ul><li>Visceral muscles  are smooth and without banding. They have short fibres and single cell nuclei. ...
Examples of muscles <ul><li>The  diaphram  is the major muscle for breathing (respiration). The diaphragm is located in th...
Examples of muscles <ul><li>Biceps  and  triceps  are  antagonist  (have the opposite functions). Triceps (with three 'hea...
Muscle movements <ul><li>Most movements involve several skeletal muscles working together. Most skeletal muscles are arran...
Muscle movements <ul><li>Abductors  move a bone away from the midline  Adductors  move a bone toward the midline  </li></ul>
Muscle movements <ul><li>Levators  make an upward movement  Depressors  make a downward movement  </li></ul><ul><li>Supina...
 
Roots, suffixes, and prefixes triceps = muscles with three  heads  three TRI- biceps = muscles with two heads two BI- Myoc...
CANCER FOCUS <ul><li>Rhabdomyosarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Other types  of  soft tissue sarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Potential S...
WE PRACTICE NOW!!!!
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I Unidad The Body Human

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I Unidad The Body Human

  1. 1. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “PEDRO RUIZ GALLO ” FACULTAD DE ENFERMERIA Segunda Especialidad “ Enfermería en Cuidados Críticos y Emergencia” CURSO : INGLES TECNICO I UNIDAD : THE HUMAN BODY Docente : Magister Lupe Rivera Gonzales
  2. 2. <ul><li>ACTIVIDAD PARA EVALUAR SABERES PREVIOS </li></ul>
  3. 3. LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD SUN BASKET HOUSE GRAND MOTHER FOREST WOLF BED SHELF EYES EAR MOUTH HUNTER DOG
  4. 4. PRESENTATION <ul><li>SPEAKER </li></ul><ul><li>Mg. LUPE RIVERA studied Infirmary in the National University Pedro Ruiz Gallo and Second Specialty in the Social Historical Faculty of Sciences and Education. After receiving their title of specialist she worked in the Section of Post Degree UNPRG Faculty of Infirmary </li></ul><ul><li>She has many years of experience like nurse and also in the teaching of foreign languages as teacher of French, Quechua and English in the levels of primary and university student. </li></ul><ul><li>Presently time she has developed Courses in Trujillo,Cajamarca, Jaén,Tumbes, Piura and Lambayeque in English's area applied to the Sciences of the Health. </li></ul>Mss .L.Rivera
  5. 5. <ul><li>The purpose of English's course is to teach the elements of the necessary English language to understand and to express the different classes of functions that they are usually exercised in the diverse situations or activities of the human life. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain to the students of second specialty to communicate in an efficient and effective way and considering the English language as an interaction instrument. It is very important than the nursing personnel knows the right of the persons to be respected or to respect the persons' dignity, mainly in the daily attention of the patient. This paper is aimed at reflecting on and analyzing the concepts of person and dignity and relating them to the ethics of care and to the nursing models to emphasize the interrelation existing among them. lurig6r@hotmail.com </li></ul>ABSTRACT
  6. 6. THE COMPONENTS OF MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY <ul><li>CONTENS : </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Medical Words </li></ul><ul><li>Root Words </li></ul><ul><li>Suffixes </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes </li></ul>
  7. 7. COMPONENTS OF MEDICAL WORDS <ul><li>Most medical terms are compound words made up of root words which are combined with prefixes (at the start of a word ) and suffixes ( at the end of a word ) .This medical terms that may at first seem very complex can be broken down into their component parts to give you a basic idea of their meaning . For example the word neuroblastoma . </li></ul><ul><li>Neuro-means nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Blast-relates to immature cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Oma-means tumour. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore by breaking down a complex word we can see that neuroblastoma literally means a tumour made up immature nerve cells. </li></ul>
  8. 8. To take another type of tumour : <ul><li>osteogenic sarcoma. </li></ul><ul><li>Osteo-means bone </li></ul><ul><li>Genic means creating / causing. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus we can see that this is a bone forming tumour. </li></ul><ul><li>All medical terms have a root word .They may also have a prefix ,a suffix , or both a prefix and suffix. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ROOT WORDS Malignant=growing,spreading Bad/harmful Malign- Hepatoblastoma = liver cancer Liver Hepati- Histology= study of tissue Tissue Histio- Dermatitis= inflammation of the skin. Skin Derma- Cytotoxicy= toxic to the cell Cell Cyto- Cardiotoxicity=toxicity to heart Heart Cardio- Carcinogenic=cancer causing Cancer Carcin- Blastoma= a cancer made of immature cells Germ inmature cells Blast- EXAMPLE MEANING COMPONENT
  10. 10. ROOTS WORDS EXAMPLE MEANING COMPONENT Neuroblast= an immature nerve cell. Oncology= the study of cancer. Osteosarcoma = bone cancer. Paediatric oncology=study of childhood cancer Sarcoma = tumour of bone , muscle,or connective tissue . Toxicology= study of poisons Nerves Mass/tumour Bone/bony tissue Child Tissue poison NEURO- ONCO- OSTEO- PAED- SARCO- TOXO- Nephrotoxic=harmful to the kidneys Kidney NEPHRO-
  11. 11. Necrosis = dying cells Disease/condition -OSIS Neuropathy=disease of the nervous system Disease -PATY Retinoblastoma:tumour of eyes Tumour -OMA Cytology=the study of cells Study/science of -OLOGY Hepatitis=inflammation of the liver Inflammation -IT IS Nephrectomy=excision of a kidney Excision/removal -ECTOMY Leukaemia=cancer of blood cell Condition of blood -AEMIA Example Meaning Component SUFFIXES
  12. 12. Endoscope= an instrument to look inside the body cavities or organs inside ENDO- Epidermis= the outer layer of skin Upon EPY- Ectopic pregnancy = outside the uterine cavity Outside ECTO- Dysfunction=not working properly Difficult / painful DIS- Bilateral Wilm’s_tumour in both kidneys Two /both BI- Adrenal gland=gland near to the kidney Near / toward AD- Abnormal=away from the normal Away from AB- Anaemia= lack of red blood cells Without /lack of AN-,A- Example Meaning Component PREFIXES
  13. 13. subclavia Under / below SUB- Post-surgery After POST- Pre-operatory Before PRE- Peri-abdominal Around PERI- Para-sympatic Beside,about, near PARA- intravenous Within / Inside INTRA- intercostal Between INTER- hypotension Beneath / below HYPO- hyperkalemia Excessive / above HYPER- PREFIXES
  14. 14. <ul><li>SYN- Together with Syndrome = group of symptoms occurring together . </li></ul>
  15. 15. THE HUMAN BODY <ul><li>To study the man like the whole alive organisms it is considered two aspects: first their form external and internal form their Morphology and second like work the different tissues organs and systems that form the man denominated to this aspect the Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>We rememberd the following concepts : </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Human anatomy : is the science that studied the structure of the organs and systems that integrate the human organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology: called Macroscopic Anatomy, studied to the body dividing it in regions, sections or parts . </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology : studied the functions that carry out the cells, organs and systems. </li></ul>
  17. 17. THE PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY
  18. 18. PRACTICAMOS LO APRENDIDO !!
  19. 19. THE HUMAN BODY SYSTEM
  20. 20. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Protections: - The skull protects the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The ribs form a cage which protects the heart and lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The vertebral column (backbone) protects the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul>
  21. 23. PARTS OF BONES <ul><li>Diaphysis : The long shaft of the bone . </li></ul><ul><li>Ephifysis: The knob like end of the bone , often contains red marrow (blood cells ) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysis : region where the diaphysis joins the ephifysis , important in bone growth </li></ul><ul><li>Medullary : Marrow cavity inside the bone . Contains yellow marrow (fat cells ) </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Foramina : Tiny canals in the bone throught wich blood and lymph vessels connect to the medullary . </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage : tough connective tissue covering the ends of the bone . The cartilage reduce friction and acts as a shock absorber . </li></ul><ul><li>Ligament : fibrous tissue that connects bones or cartilage to strengthen and support joints . </li></ul><ul><li>The end of the bone are often refered to by the proximal end ( towards the main body) or the distal end (away from the main body ), e.g. The proximal femur is the top end of the thigh bone . </li></ul>PARTS OF BONES
  23. 25. TIPS OF BONE <ul><li>Compact Bone : Compact bone is dense and hard , especially the outer layer of the bone . </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy bone : made up of a latticework (enrrejado) of bone , with interstices filled with embryonic connective tissue or bone marrow </li></ul>
  24. 26. Classification of bone by shape <ul><li>Long Bones : Slightly curved for STRENGHT with long narrow shafts with knobbly ends (especially found in arms and legs e.g. femur ) </li></ul><ul><li>Short bones : tend to be spongy e.g. wrists, fingers, toes and ankles. </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Bones : Plate like and highly PROTECTIVE e.g. bones of skull protect the brain . </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular bones ; e.g. vertebrae (spine) </li></ul>
  25. 27. BONES AND GROWTH <ul><li>Ossification : is the gradual CONVERSION OF CARTILAGE OR OTHER TISSUE INTO BONE . At birth ossification is not complete , there are still may membrane filled spaces in the skull , these are called fontanels or “soft spots “ . Most bone growths occurs durings childhood , and ossification of most bones is usually complete by age 25 . The 5 bones of the sacrum fuse together from ages 18 to 25 . When all bone growth is complete the body is said to be skeletally mature . </li></ul>
  26. 28. ROOTS , SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES Osteoporosis:reduced bone mass fracture prone disease OSIS- Thoracotomy:incision into chest/thorax Incision into TOMY- Osteomielytis:inflammation of the bone desintegration LYTIS- Scoliosis:curvature of spine Curved/crooked SCOLIO- Osteosarcoma:a type of bone tumour bone OSTE- Costalgia:pain in the ribs rib COST- Chondrocyte: a cartilage cell cartilage CHONDR- Arthritis inflammation of the bone joint ARTHR- EXAMPLE MEANING COMPONENT
  27. 29. CANCER FOCUS <ul><li>Osteogenic sarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Ewing’s Sarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrosarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Other Primary Bone Tumours </li></ul><ul><li>Bone Sarcomas associated with Paget’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Pathologic Fracture </li></ul>
  28. 30. The Muscular System <ul><li>Functions of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>The main function of muscles is for motion, for example in conjunction with bones for walking. Muscles may work alone e.g. the diaphragm for breathing, and the heart for circulating blood. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Muscular system
  30. 32. Characteristics of muscle tissue <ul><li>Irritability (excitability) muscles receive and respond to stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Contractability allows muscles to change shape to become shorter and thicker. </li></ul><ul><li>Extendibility living muscle cells can be stretched and extended; longer and thinner. </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity once the stretching force is removed a living muscle cell retains it's original shape. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Types of muscles <ul><li>Different types of muscle respond, contract, and relax at different rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles are striated (have distinct bands) made up of fibres (long cells). The cells are multinucleated (many cell nuclei) and contract and relax quickly. These are voluntary muscles attached to the skeleton that help to move the bones. There are nearly 700 skeletal muscles spread all over the body. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Types of muscles <ul><li>Visceral muscles are smooth and without banding. They have short fibres and single cell nuclei. These are involuntary muscles e.g. found in walls of blood vessels and viscera (organs in the abdominal cavity). </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscles are striated (but less distinct than skeletal muscles), and are involuntary . </li></ul>
  33. 35. Examples of muscles <ul><li>The diaphram is the major muscle for breathing (respiration). The diaphragm is located in the rib cage below the lungs. It is a dome shaped muscle that pulls / pushes air in and out of the lungs. 'Hiccups' are a spasm of the diaphragm. </li></ul><ul><li>Intercostals also aid respiration Inter- (between) Costals (ribs). Internal intercostals lift the ribs during respiration, whilst external intercostals draw the ribs together during expiration to lessen the volume of the rib cage and thoracic cavity to push air out of the lungs. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Examples of muscles <ul><li>Biceps and triceps are antagonist (have the opposite functions). Triceps (with three 'heads') extend the forearm so it can be held straight, while biceps (two 'heads') flex the forearm and draw it up. </li></ul><ul><li>Tendons connect muscles to the bone, these are formed from the connective tissue that cover the muscle. They are dense white cords of tissue which are strong and flexible, they serve to anchor muscles to the bone. Types of muscles and movement </li></ul>
  35. 37. Muscle movements <ul><li>Most movements involve several skeletal muscles working together. Most skeletal muscles are arranged in opposing pairs at joints, for example one muscle tightens up while the other extends. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexors tighten to decrease the angle of a joint Extensors relax to increase the angle of a joint . </li></ul>
  36. 38. Muscle movements <ul><li>Abductors move a bone away from the midline Adductors move a bone toward the midline </li></ul>
  37. 39. Muscle movements <ul><li>Levators make an upward movement Depressors make a downward movement </li></ul><ul><li>Supinators turn the palm upwards or inwards Pronators turn the palm downwards or outwards </li></ul><ul><li>Sphincters decrease the size of an opening </li></ul><ul><li>Tensors makes part of the body more rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Rotators moves a bone around </li></ul>
  38. 41. Roots, suffixes, and prefixes triceps = muscles with three heads three TRI- biceps = muscles with two heads two BI- Myocardium: heart muscle muscle MYO- intramuscular injection = injection into a muscle into INTRA- sarcoma = tumour of supportive tissues (muscle, bone etc tissue SARC- Examples Meaning Component
  39. 42. CANCER FOCUS <ul><li>Rhabdomyosarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Other types of soft tissue sarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Side effects of Radioterapy of muscles. </li></ul>
  40. 43. WE PRACTICE NOW!!!!

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