Cell theory and organelles r1

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Cell theory and organelles r1

  1. 1. Cells and SystemsCell Structures and Functions<br />
  2. 2. BrainstormTake a crack at the guiding questions.<br />What is a cell? Finish this sentence.<br />A cell is . . . <br />the basic unit of life<br />very small<br />like a little factory<br />amazing<br />alive<br />
  3. 3. The Cell Theory – 3 statements<br />1. All living things are made up of cells<br />Unicellular organisms are comprised of a single cell. Most bacteria and protists are unicellular<br />
  4. 4. The Cell Theory – 3 statements<br />1. All living things are made up of cells<br />Multicellular organisms are comprised of many cells. <br />In simple multicellular organisms<br />like algae, these cells are all similar.<br />In more complex multicellular organisms, there can be many different types of cells.<br />
  5. 5. The Cell Theory – 3 statements<br />2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.<br />In unicellular organisms, each individual cell must perform all of the functions required for life. <br />
  6. 6. The Cell Theory – 3 statements<br />2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.<br />In multicellular organisms, different types of cells work <br />together so overall, the organism can perform the <br />functions required for life.<br />
  7. 7. The Cell Theory – 3 statements<br />3. All cells arise from existing cells.<br />Cells grow, develop and divide into more new cells. <br />
  8. 8. What is inside a cell? <br />Cells are often classified based on their structure and the organelles found inside. For example <br />Cells can be classed as either animal or plant cells<br />Cells can be classed as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic<br />To understand these classifications, we must first know what structures can be found inside cells and what the purpose of these structures are.<br />
  9. 9. Structure of Eukaryotic Cells<br />all eukaryotic cells have the features shown <br />here using an animal cell as an example<br />Section 7-2<br />Cytoplasm<br />Nucleolus<br />Nucleus<br />Cell Membrane<br />Go to Section:<br />
  10. 10. Cell Membrane<br />The outer covering of the cell<br />Function: transportation of nutrients and waste materials into and out of the cell<br />the membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell<br />Cytoplasm<br /><ul><li>The substance that fills the cell
  11. 11. Function: holds all the cell structures (called organelles) except nucleus
  12. 12. most cellular processes occur in the cytoplasm</li></li></ul><li>Nucleus<br />Nickname: “The Control Center”<br />Function: holds the DNA<br />Parts:<br />Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes<br />
  13. 13. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Section 7-2<br />Cytoplasm<br />Nucleolus<br />Ribosomes<br />Nucleus<br />Cell Membrane<br />Go to Section:<br />
  14. 14. Ribosomes<br />Function: makes proteins<br />Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic<br />
  15. 15. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Section 7-2<br />Cytoplasm<br />Nucleolus<br />Ribosomes<br />Nucleus<br />Cell Membrane<br />Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Go to Section:<br />
  16. 16. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)<br />Nickname: “Roads”<br />Function: The internal delivery system of the cell <br /><ul><li>2 Types:</li></ul>Rough ER: <br /><ul><li>Rough appearance because it has ribosomes
  17. 17. Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes</li></ul>Smooth ER:<br /><ul><li>NO ribosomes
  18. 18. Function: makes fats called lipids used in cell membrane</li></li></ul><li>Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Section 7-2<br />Cytoplasm<br />Ribosomes<br />Nucleolus<br />Nucleus<br />Cell Membrane<br />Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Golgi Complex<br />Go to Section:<br />
  19. 19. Golgi Complex<br />Nickname: The “shippers”<br />Function: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cell<br />Appearance: stack of pancakes<br />
  20. 20. Lysosomes: circular, but bigger than ribosomes) – not shown<br />Nickname: “Clean-up Crews”<br />Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells<br />
  21. 21. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Section 7-2<br />Cytoplasm<br />Nucleolus<br />Ribosomes<br />Nucleus<br />Cell Membrane<br />Mitochondria<br />Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Golgi Bodies<br />
  22. 22. Mitochondria<br />Nickname: “The Powerhouse”<br />Function: Energy formation – the site of cellular respiration<br />Breaks down food to make ATP<br />ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy<br />
  23. 23. Cytoplasm<br />Nucleolus<br />Ribosomes<br />Nucleus<br />Cell Membrane<br />Mitochondria<br />Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Golgi Bodies<br />
  24. 24. Now let’s talk about structures only found in PLANT Cells!!<br />
  25. 25. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Plant Cell<br />Section 7-2<br />Vacuole<br />Cell Membrane<br />Go to Section:<br />
  26. 26. Vacuoles<br />Function: stores water, supports cell structure<br />This is what makes lettuce crisp<br />When there is no water, the plant wilts<br />
  27. 27. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Plant Cell<br />Section 7-2<br />Vacuole<br />Chloroplasts<br />Cell Membrane<br />Go to Section:<br />
  28. 28. Chloroplasts<br />Function: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cell through photosynthesis<br />Green in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigment<br />
  29. 29. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Plant Cell<br />Section 7-2<br />Vacuole<br />Chloroplasts<br />Cell Membrane<br />Cell Wall<br />Go to Section:<br />
  30. 30. Cell Wall<br />Function: provides support and protection to the cell membrane<br />Found outside the cell membrane in plant cells<br />
  31. 31. Plant Cell<br />Cytoplasm<br />Smooth ER<br />Vacuole<br />Ribosomes<br />Chloroplasts<br />Cell Membrane<br />Cell Wall<br />Nucleolus<br />Golgi Bodies<br />Nucleus<br />Mitochondria<br />Rough ER<br />
  32. 32. Comparing Plant and Animal Cells<br />Plant<br />Animal<br />
  33. 33. Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes<br />All living organisms can be classified as either eukaryotes or prokaryotes depending on the structure of their cells<br />protists<br />fungi<br />plants <br />animals<br />bacteria<br />
  34. 34. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes<br />protists<br />fungi<br />plants <br />animals<br />
  35. 35. ProkaryotesEukaryotes<br />membrane bound nucleus<br />has membrane bound organelles<br />genetic material is DNA<br />DNA is organized in chromosomes<br />can be unicellular or multicellular<br />have ribosomes<br />only plant cells have cell walls<br />cytoskeleton<br />large<br />no nucleus<br />no membrane bound organelles<br />genetic material is DNA<br />DNA is a single loop<br />most are unicellular, some multicellular<br />have ribosomes<br />have a cell wall<br />no cytoskeleton<br />small<br />
  36. 36. Prokaryotes<br />Eukaryotes<br />

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