Lymphatic and Immune System terms


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Biology 120

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Lymphatic and Immune System terms

  2. 2. FUNCTION  Consists of a network of lymph vessels that pick up excess tissue fluid, cleanse it, and return it to the circulatory system.  It also picks up fats that have been absorbed by the digestive system.  Fights disease and infections.  To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, and distinguish them from the organisms own healthy tissue. Lymphatic System Immune System
  3. 3. ADENOIDITIS  Inflammation of the adenoids.  Adenoids are located higher up in the mouth , behind the nose and roof of the mouth.  Enlarged and inflamed adenoids can be painful and make breathing difficult.  Adenoids help filter out germ from your body, sometimes they can get overwhelmed by bacteria and become infected.  Most commonly seen in children, but sometimes affect adults.
  5. 5. ADENOIDITIS  Symptoms can vary depending on what is causing the infection but may include:  Sore throat  Stuffy nose  Swollen glands in the neck  Ear pain and other ear problems o Other symptoms related to nasal congestion include:  Breathing through the mouth  Snoring or sleep apnea Symptoms
  6. 6. ADENOIDITIS  Treated with antibiotics.  Surgery may be needed sometimes to remove the adenoids.  This procedure is called adenoidectomy.  Doctor may also recommend the tonsils be removed at the same time since adenoiditis and tonsillitis often go hand in hand. Treatment
  7. 7. HODGKIN'S DISEASE  Also called Hodgkin's lymphoma.  Is a cancer of the lymphatic system, which is part of your immune system.  Cells in the lymphatic system grow abnormally and may spread beyond the lymphatic system.  As Hodgkin's lymphoma progresses, it compromises body's ability to fight infection.  Various types of Hodgkin's lymphoma exist.  The type is based on the types of cells involved in disease and their behavior. Type determines treatment options.  Named after Thomas Hodgkin, a British physician, who first described it.
  8. 8. HODGKIN'S DISEASE  Is the more common type of this disease.  It can be broken down into subtypes.  Subtypes include:  Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma  Mixed cellularity Hodgkin’s lymphoma  Lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma  This much rarer type of Hodgkin's lymphoma involves large, abnormal cells that are sometimes called popcorn cells because of their appearance.  Treatment may be different from the classical type.  Better chance of cure when disease is diagnosed at an early stage. Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  9. 9. HODGKIN'S DISEASE  Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin.  Persistent fatigue  Fever and Chills  Coughing, trouble breathing or chest pain.  Itching  Loss of appetite Symptoms
  10. 10. HODGKIN'S DISEASE  Physical exam  Blood tests  Imagine tests  Surgery to remove a swollen lymph node  A procedure to collect bone marrow for testing.  Stage I. Cancer is limited to one lymph node region or single organ.  Stage II. Cancer is in two different lymph nodes or the cancer is in a portion of tissue or an organ and nearby lymph nodes. Still limited to a section of the body.  Stage III. Cancer moves to lymph nodes both above and below diaphragm.  Stage IV. The most advanced, cancer cells are in several portions of one or more organs and tissues. Affects other parts of your body, such as the liver, lungs or bones. Tests and Diagnosis Staging Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
  11. 11. HODGKIN'S DISEASE  Treatment depends on type and stage of disease, over all health and preferences.  The goal is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible and bring the disease into remission.  Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill lymphoma cells. Often combined with radiation therapy in people with early-stage classical type Hodgkin's lymphoma.  Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as x-rays, to kill cancer cells. Early- stage lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma typically undergo radiation therapy alone.  Stem cell transplant is a treatment to replace diseased bone marrow with healthy stem calls that help grow new bone marrow. A stem cell transplant may be an option if Hodgkin's lymphoma returns despite treatment. Treatment
  12. 12. SARCOIDOSIS  The growth of tiny collections of inflammatory cells I different parts of the body.  It forms fibrous lesions commonly appearing in the lymph nodes, liver, skin, lungs, spleen, eyes, and small bones of the hands and feet.  The cause of this disease is unknown. But researchers believe it is associated with abnormal immune system response.  Often goes away on its own.
  13. 13. SARCOIDOSIS  Signs and symptoms vary, depending on which organs are affected.  Sarcoidosis sometimes develops gradually and produces symptoms that last for years.  Other times symptoms appear suddenly and then disappear just as quickly.  Many people have no symptoms, so the disease may be discovered only by a chest X- ray for another reason.  Generalized Symptoms  Fatigue  Fever  Swollen lymph nodes  Weigh loss
  14. 14. SARCOIDOSIS  Skin Symptoms  Rash: A rash of red or reddish- purple bups, usually located on the shins or ankles.  Lesions: Disfiguring skin sores may occur on your nose, cheeks and ears.  Color Change: Areas of skin may get darker or lighter in color.  Nodule: Growths just under the skin may develop, particularly around scars.  Eye Symptoms  Sarcoidosis can affect the eyes without causing any symptoms. When eye symptoms do occur, they may include:  Blurred vision  Eye pain  Severe redness  Sensitivity to light  Lung Symptoms  Persistent dry cough  Shortness of breath  Wheezing  Chest Pain
  15. 15. SARCOIDOSIS  There is no cure for Sarcoidosis. You may not need treatment if you don’t have significant signs and symptoms of the condition.  Often goes away on its own.  If organ function is threatened, treatment will likely be with a medication:  Anti-rejection medications  Anti-malarial medications  Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors  Surgery: Organ transplant may be considered if sarcoidosis has severely damaged lungs or liver. Treatments and Drugs