StandardsUnit 6: Genetic Variation & Evolution 7b Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in the gene pool.- People who have/had brain tumor(s), can pass on genetics of them either from their relatives from generation to generation & when they have children(s), then could be a possibility they can have brain tumor(s).Unit 3: Mutations & Biotechnology 4c Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene, or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.- .
What is a A tumor is an abnormal growth of body tissue.tumor ? And also a tumor can be either not serious or harmful or cancerous or deadly. • Either type may require therapy to remove it or reduce its size.
• Brain tumor is anWhat is a brain tumor abnormal growth? tissue in the brain. • The tumor can either originate in the brain itself (primary brain tumor), or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain (metastatic or secondary tumor).
First, primary brainHow Does It tumor are those that start in the brain, orHappen ? near to the brain. These can happen in the skull, in the cranial nerves, as well as in the brain membrane, pituitary gland and pineal gland. In primary brain tumors, there is no other source of cancer or tumors within the rest of the body.
Different Types Of Tumors There are many types of brain tumors. The first way to divide brain tumors is based on whether they are primary or secondary : Primary brain tumors are tumors that begin in the brain.• Primary brain tumors can be divided based on what type of cell the tumor began. Some primary brain tumor types are meningioma, ependymoma, pineal tumors, germ cell tumors, etc. The name of a tumor depends in part on what kind of cell it comes from. They can also be named for the tumor location within the brain. Secondary brain tumors are tumors that started our elsewhere in the body and spread, or metastasized, to the brain.• For example, secondary brain tumors could have begun as breast or lung cancer.
MeningiomaWhat isMeningioma?• Meningioma are the second most common primary neoplasm (brain tumor) of the central nervous system.
EpendymomaWhat is ependymoma?• Ependymoma is a tumor that arises from the ependyma, a tissue of the central nervous system.The Causes• There are no known environmental causes for ependymomas, but there have been a number of mutations in the genes in the patients that are diagnosed with the disease.
PinealomaWhat isPinealoma?• Pinealoma is a tumor of the pineal gland.Symptoms• Other symptoms may include hydrocephalus, gait disturbances, and precocious puberty.
What are the risks forhaving brain tumors?The risks for having brain tumors are:• Your age: Your risk of a brain tumor increases as you age• Chemical exposure on the job: People working in certain industries may HAVE an increased risk of brain tumors, possibly because of the chemicals theyre exposed to on the job.• Family history: A small portion of brain tumors occur in people with a family history of brain tumors or a family history of genetic syndromes.
Symptoms The symptomsThe Symptoms of a of brainbrain tumor are: tumors• Headaches depend• Nausea or vomiting• Problems balancing on tumor or walking size, type,• Problems with and memory location.
References• Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD &Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, Chief Medical Editor (…2011) “Brain Cancer causes” http://www.emedicinehealth.com/brain_cancer/page2_em.htm• James Black (2005-2011) “What are brain tumors” http://www.siweds.com/Basics/whatIs- tumor.html• Souhami, et al. Oxford Textbook of Oncology. 2nd edition. 2002. Oxford University Press, Raghavan, et al. The Textbook of Uncommon Cancers. 3rd edition. 2006. Wiley, Levin. Cancer in the Nervous System. 2nd edition. 2002. Oxford University Press, Tonn, et al. Neuro- oncology of CNS tumours. 2006. Springer, De Vita, et al. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 8th edition. 2008. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Improving Outcomes for People with Brain and Other CNS Tumours - The Manual. 2006.National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Unknown Author (Nov. 1, 2011) “Ependyoma” http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Cancertypes/Brain/Typesofbraintumours/Epen dymoma.aspx• Unknown Author (1997-2011) “Brain Cancer” http://www.providence.org/losangeles/services/cancer/treatment/brain.htm• Unknown Author (…2011) “Brain Tumor Symptoms”http://www.brain-tumor-symptoms.org/ Unknown Author (1996-2011) “Brain Tumor (cont.)” http://www.medicinenet.com/brain_tumor/page5.htm Unknown Author (…2011) “Brain Tumor FAQ” http://www.braintumor.org/patients-family- friends/about-brain-tumors/brain-tumor-faq.html