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T1 w10 issue, hypothesis and varaibles

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Sec 2 Geog

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T1 w10 issue, hypothesis and varaibles

  1. 1. geographical investigation issues, hypothesis & variables
  2. 2. objective define
 - issue - hypothesis - variable identify 
 -hypothesis when given an issue - variables in a hypothesis
  3. 3. why investigate?
  4. 4. ??? Puzzled by something
  5. 5. ??? Puzzled by something decide on whatto investigate
  6. 6. ??? Puzzled by something Investigation decide on whatto investigate
  7. 7. data gathered ??? Puzzled by something Investigation decide on whatto investigate
  8. 8. Comes to a conclusion data gathered ??? Puzzled by something Investigation decide on whatto investigate
  9. 9. Comes to a conclusion data gathered ??? Puzzled by something Investigation decide on whatto investigate To answer
  10. 10. to investigate is to create our own knowledge
  11. 11. terms to know
  12. 12. issue = topic, often in the form of a question
  13. 13. why is it that some schools have air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students? eg1:
  14. 14. why are there lesser students in a 
 primary school class? eg2:
  15. 15. Why is it that some HDB estates have 
 shorter flats than other estates? eg3:
  16. 16. Why are there ethnic enclaves in some 
 cities? eg4:
  17. 17. Why are slums bigger in some
 cities as compared to others? eg5:
  18. 18. issue = topic, often in the form of a question hypothesis = temporary explanation to answer issue. To be tested in 
 investigation
  19. 19. issue = topic, often in the form of a question hypothesis = temporary explanation to answer issue. To be tested in 
 investigation answers
  20. 20. why is it that some schools have air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students?
  21. 21. why is it that some schools have air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students? perhaps schools with more funds from alumni are better able to afford air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students
  22. 22. why are there lesser students in a 
 primary school class?
  23. 23. why are there lesser students in a 
 primary school class? perhaps primary school students need 
 more attention from their teachers.
  24. 24. Why is it that some HDB estates have 
 shorter flats than other estates?
  25. 25. Why is it that some HDB estates have 
 shorter flats than other estates? perhaps the estates have height limits
 as they are in the path of aircrafts.
  26. 26. Why are there ethnic enclaves in some 
 cities?
  27. 27. Why are there ethnic enclaves in some 
 cities? perhaps they have ethnic enclaves 
 because the ethnic groups in these cities are not in harmony with each other.
  28. 28. Why are slums bigger in some
 cities as compared to others?
  29. 29. Why are slums bigger in some
 cities as compared to others? perhaps cities with bigger slums
 have greater housing shortage than 
 others.
  30. 30. issue = topic, often in the form of a question hypothesis = temporary explanation to answer issue. To be tested in 
 investigation variables = factors that can be
 changed. answers
  31. 31. issue = topic, often in the form of a question hypothesis = temporary explanation to answer issue. To be tested in 
 investigation variables = factors that can be
 changed. relationship between variables answers
  32. 32. why is it that some schools have air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students? perhaps schools with more funds from alumni are better able to afford air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students
  33. 33. why is it that some schools have air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students? perhaps schools with more funds from alumni are better able to afford air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students more funds from alumni vs less funds from alumni
  34. 34. why is it that some schools have air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students? perhaps schools with more funds from alumni are better able to afford air-
 conditioned classrooms for their students more funds from alumni vs less funds from alumni better able to afford air- conditioned classrooms vs less able to afford air conditioned classrooms
  35. 35. why are there lesser students in a 
 primary school class? perhaps primary school students need 
 more attention from their teachers.
  36. 36. why are there lesser students in a 
 primary school class? perhaps primary school students need 
 more attention from their teachers. primary school students vs secondary school students
  37. 37. why are there lesser students in a 
 primary school class? perhaps primary school students need 
 more attention from their teachers. primary school students vs secondary school students need more attention from their teachers vs need less attention from their teachers
  38. 38. Why is it that some HDB estates have 
 shorter flats than other estates? perhaps the estates have height limits
 as they are in the path of aircrafts.
  39. 39. Why is it that some HDB estates have 
 shorter flats than other estates? perhaps the estates have height limits
 as they are in the path of aircrafts. have height limits vs no height limits
  40. 40. Why is it that some HDB estates have 
 shorter flats than other estates? perhaps the estates have height limits
 as they are in the path of aircrafts. have height limits vs no height limits in the path of aircrafts vs not in the path of aircrafts
  41. 41. Why are there ethnic enclaves in some 
 cities? perhaps they have ethnic enclaves 
 because the ethnic groups in these cities are not in harmony with each other.
  42. 42. Why are there ethnic enclaves in some 
 cities? perhaps they have ethnic enclaves 
 because the ethnic groups in these cities are not in harmony with each other. have ethnic enclaves vs no ethnic enclaves
  43. 43. Why are there ethnic enclaves in some 
 cities? perhaps they have ethnic enclaves 
 because the ethnic groups in these cities are not in harmony with each other. have ethnic enclaves vs no ethnic enclaves not in harmony vs in harmony
  44. 44. Why are slums bigger in some
 cities as compared to others? perhaps cities with bigger slums
 have greater housing shortage than 
 others.
  45. 45. Why are slums bigger in some
 cities as compared to others? perhaps cities with bigger slums
 have greater housing shortage than 
 others. with bigger slums vs with smaller or no slums
  46. 46. Why are slums bigger in some
 cities as compared to others? perhaps cities with bigger slums
 have greater housing shortage than 
 others. with bigger slums vs with smaller or no slums greater housing shortage vs lesser/no housing shortage
  47. 47. let’s try the handout
  48. 48. 1) Identify the issue, hypothesis and variables for each scenario
 2) Go through the answers in the subsequent slides. Try all 3 scenarios first before checking. NO CHEATING!!
  49. 49. Terry wants to find out why the flats in his housing estate cost more than the housing estate in other estates. He suspects that this is because his housing estate has more facilities than other estates. #1
  50. 50. issue Terry wants to find out why the flats in his housing estate cost more than the housing estate in other estates. He suspects that this is because his housing estate has more facilities than other estates. #1
  51. 51. issue hypothesis flats in an estate cost more because the estate has more facilities Terry wants to find out why the flats in his housing estate cost more than the housing estate in other estates. He suspects that this is because his housing estate has more facilities than other estates. #1
  52. 52. issue hypothesis flats in an estate cost more because the estate has more facilities Terry wants to find out why the flats in his housing estate cost more than the housing estate in other estates. He suspects that this is because his housing estate has more facilities than other estates. #1 variables
  53. 53. issue cost of flat (cost more vs cost less) hypothesis flats in an estate cost more because the estate has more facilities Terry wants to find out why the flats in his housing estate cost more than the housing estate in other estates. He suspects that this is because his housing estate has more facilities than other estates. #1 variables
  54. 54. issue cost of flat (cost more vs cost less) hypothesis flats in an estate cost more because the estate has more facilities amount of facilities in estate (more or less) Terry wants to find out why the flats in his housing estate cost more than the housing estate in other estates. He suspects that this is because his housing estate has more facilities than other estates. #1 variables
  55. 55. #2 Tasha wants to find out why different residents in her housing estate have different sense of belonging to the housing estate. She thinks that the more years a resident lives in the estate, the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate.
  56. 56. issue #2 Tasha wants to find out why different residents in her housing estate have different sense of belonging to the housing estate. She thinks that the more years a resident lives in the estate, the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate.
  57. 57. issue hypothesis the more years a resident lives in the estate, 
 the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate #2 Tasha wants to find out why different residents in her housing estate have different sense of belonging to the housing estate. She thinks that the more years a resident lives in the estate, the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate.
  58. 58. issue hypothesis the more years a resident lives in the estate, 
 the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate #2 variables Tasha wants to find out why different residents in her housing estate have different sense of belonging to the housing estate. She thinks that the more years a resident lives in the estate, the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate.
  59. 59. issue number of years living in the estate (more or less) hypothesis the more years a resident lives in the estate, 
 the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate #2 variables Tasha wants to find out why different residents in her housing estate have different sense of belonging to the housing estate. She thinks that the more years a resident lives in the estate, the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate.
  60. 60. more they feel they belong to the housing estate (more or less) issue number of years living in the estate (more or less) hypothesis the more years a resident lives in the estate, 
 the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate #2 variables Tasha wants to find out why different residents in her housing estate have different sense of belonging to the housing estate. She thinks that the more years a resident lives in the estate, the more they feel that they belong to the housing estate.
  61. 61. #3 Taufiq wonders why the residents of his estate clean up their own corridor. He wonders if it is because their residents are close to each other.
  62. 62. issue #3 Taufiq wonders why the residents of his estate clean up their own corridor. He wonders if it is because their residents are close to each other.
  63. 63. issue #3 hypothesis the closer the residents are to each other, the more likely they will clean up their own corridor. Taufiq wonders why the residents of his estate clean up their own corridor. He wonders if it is because their residents are close to each other.
  64. 64. issue #3 variables hypothesis the closer the residents are to each other, the more likely they will clean up their own corridor. Taufiq wonders why the residents of his estate clean up their own corridor. He wonders if it is because their residents are close to each other.
  65. 65. issue closeness of residents (more or less) #3 variables hypothesis the closer the residents are to each other, the more likely they will clean up their own corridor. Taufiq wonders why the residents of his estate clean up their own corridor. He wonders if it is because their residents are close to each other.
  66. 66. likelihood of cleaning up their own corridor (more or less) issue closeness of residents (more or less) #3 variables hypothesis the closer the residents are to each other, the more likely they will clean up their own corridor. Taufiq wonders why the residents of his estate clean up their own corridor. He wonders if it is because their residents are close to each other.
  67. 67. are you able to… define (give meaning of)
 - issue - hypothesis - variable identify 
 -hypothesis when given an issue - variables in a hypothesis
  68. 68. Now let’s go on to sampling
  69. 69. 1) Visit the link shown on the screen. You will arrive at a google folder page like this below
  70. 70. 2) Choose the file with your laptop no. Eg: I’m using Laptop 12, so I should be opening this file
  71. 71. 2) Choose the file with your laptop no. Eg: I’m using Laptop 1, so I should be opening this file
  72. 72. 3) A preview panel will load up. Click on this icon to open the file in a new tab.
  73. 73. 4) You can edit the file now. There are 3 scenarios to correspond with your hand out.
  74. 74. 4) You can edit the file now. There are 3 scenarios to correspond with your hand out.
  75. 75. 4) You can edit the file now. There are 3 scenarios to correspond with your hand out.
  76. 76. 5) For each scenario, experiment what is the best way to sample to get a representative sample.
  77. 77. 6) eg: I decide to try systematic sampling. I sample every 10th box. Key in “X” in the box you want to sample
  78. 78. 6) eg: I decide to try systematic sampling. I sample every 10th box. Key in “X” in the box you want to sample
  79. 79. 7) The spread sheet will count for me how many of each group I’ve sampled.
  80. 80. 7) It will also calculate the proportion to see if it is the same as the population.
  81. 81. 7) It will also show me how many I’ve sampled so far to see if I’ve met the required sample size mentioned.
  82. 82. 8) Experiment with different sampling methods until you have achieved a representative sample.
  83. 83. 9) Transfer your successful sampling into the respective diagram of your handout using a pencil.
  84. 84. 10) Attempt to explain why your chosen method is the best by cancelling out the irrelevant underlined words
  85. 85. 11) Once you’re done with Scenario 1, move on to Scenario 2 and Scenario 3.
  86. 86. If you’re done early, move on to the practice questions behind. Use the helping words in your notes and pg 1 of your practice to help phrase your explanations.

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