Aikido Terms * Bold terms are most important to learn first. May 2010 v 2.1Participants Morotedori Grab one forearm of opponent with two handsNage Person executing a technique (“thrower”) Shomenuchi Hand blade strike to top of headUke Person receiving a technique (“receiver”) Yokomenuchi Hand blade strike to side of jaw or neck Tsuki Thrust, straight punchSolo Preparation Exercises Kubishime Neck chokeFune kogi undo Rowing the boat (kogi=row, fune=boat) Tori / Dori Grab (the term “mochi” is also used)Ikkyo undo Raising and lowering both hand blades Randori Freestyle together with a rowing motion. Taninjudori Multiple attackersZengo undo Ikkyo-undo turning both front and rearFuri-tama undo Hand shaking (furi=shake, tama=soul) TechniquesSayu Udefuri Undo Twisting body side to side 1. Ikkyo First control form (ude osae; arm bar)Shiho giri Four direction cutting/extension 2. Nikyo Second control (kote mawashi; wrist turn)Happo giri Eight direction cutting/extension 3. Sankyo Third control (kote hineri; arm twist)Kokyu undo Breathing exercises 4. Yonkyo Fourth control (tekubi osae; forearm pin)Tekubi furi undo Hand shaking to relax the body 5. Gokyo Fifth control form (ude nobashi; arm stretching)Tenkan undo Body turning (tenkan) exercise Shihonage Four directions throwZenpo kaiten undo Forward rolling exercise Iriminage Entering throwUshiro ukemi undo Backward rolling exercise Kotegaeshi Wrist turn out throwShikko Knee walking Kokyunage Throw using atemi, timing, movement, unbalancingUshiro shikko Backwards knee walking Koshinage Hip throw Shime ChokeBody Positions, Stances & Steps Katame waza Floor pinning techniqueKamae StanceSeiza Sitting on knees (lit: correct sitting) WeaponsTate hiza Sitting on one knee, other knee up Bokken Wooden sword (bo=wood, ken=sword)Hanmi Half-body stance (used in most aikido schools. Iaito Iaido practice sword (non-sharpened) Nishio ryu uses shizentai) Jo Wooden staffGyakuhanmi Stance opposite to opponent (opposite foot) Katana Samurai swordAihanmi Mutual stance to opponent (same foot) Shinken Real sword with live (sharp) bladeShizentai Natural (neutral) body stance Tanto KnifeIrimi Entering (penetrating the opponents defense)Tenkan Turning (a.k.a. tai no tenkan) Weapon ActionsShikkodachi Straddle stance (horse stance) Ken no tebiki Leading with the swordZenkutsudachi One foot forward stance Ken tai ken Sword vs. swordFurikaburi Raising the sword Jodori Disarming a staff (take away)Hanmi Handachi Uke standing, nage kneeling Jo no tebiki Leading with the staffSuwari Waza Uke and nage both kneeling Jo tai ken Sword vs. staffTai sabaki Body shifting Tachidori Sword disarming (take away) Tantodori Knife disarmingPosition & DirectionOmote Front (i.e. moving to attacker’s front side) Cuts & StrikesUra Back (moving to attacker’s back side) Dogiri Horizontal torso cutHidari Left Kiriage Rising (upward diagonal) cutMigi Right Kesagiri Downward diagonal cutZenpo Forward Kiriotoshi Straight downward cutUshiro Rear (i.e. an attack from the rear) Yokogiri Horizontal cutJodan Upper Tsuki ThrustChudan Middle Kirikaeshi Repeating cutsGedan LowerGyaku Opposite (e.g. Gyakuhanmi) Use of the Hands and BodyAi Same, mutual (e.g. Aihanmi) Taido Empty handed techniqueSoto Outside (e.g. Sotokaiten=turning outside ukes arm) Tegatana Hand blade, edge of hand (lit: “Hand sword”)Uchi Inside (e.g. Uchikaiten=turning under ukes arm) Kaiten Turning, rotating, returning (e.g. sotokaiten, uchikaiten; also kaeshi-, -gaeshi, kaesu)Attacks, Grabs Kirihanashi Severing, cutting off (breaking away from opponent)Katatedori Single wrist grab (from Gyakuhanmi or Aihanmi) Sotomakikomi Outside wrapRyotedori Grab both forearms of opponent Atemi Vital point strike. All aikido techniques include atemi.Katadori Shoulder grab (usually gyakuhanmi) Gedankuzushi Breaking ukes balance forward and downward.Ryokatadori Grabbing both shoulders Ki nagare Flowing movementUshiro Ryokatadori Grabbing both shoulders from behind Kuzushi Balance breakingSodedori Grabbing the sleeve (near the elbow) Nage Throwing (~60% of Aikido is throwing techniques)Katadori Menuchi Front strike w/ one hand, grab sleeve w/ other hand. Osae Controlling techniques (~40% is pinning) “Kata” means shoulder but we actually grab the sleeve on katadori menuchi.