Basics ofcultanthroslegalanthrodefined


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Basics ofcultanthroslegalanthrodefined

  1. 2. <ul><li>The comparative study of human cultural diversity among all peoples, in all places, and throughout all historical eras. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural anthropology is holistic. </li></ul><ul><li>This necessitates historical overviews for comprehensive understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>More emphasis is placed on case studies for comparative research than on broad generalizations. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>A group of people who share the same social institutions: government, economy, military, education, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals of a social group interact according to sets of social expectations and relationships, such roles, statuses, norms and mores. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>A complete way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems of meanings embedded in symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture articulates meaning in the lives of the individuals who make up a society. </li></ul>
  4. 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE <ul><li>Learned </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Shared </li></ul><ul><li>Taken for granted </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary </li></ul><ul><li>Always changing </li></ul><ul><li>Always debated </li></ul><ul><li>Always involves relations of power </li></ul>
  5. 6. INCOMMENSURABILITY <ul><li>The difficulty for individuals or members of a culture to comprehend, communicate with, understand, and/or accept a different culture. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Seeing the world only from the perspective of one’s own cultural orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Judging other cultures from the perception that one’s own culture is a more correct, advanced, or superior way of life. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>There are no universal standards that all cultures throughout the globe and history should be evaluated by. </li></ul><ul><li>Different cultures must be understood within the context of their own social and cultural traits, material environments, and histories. </li></ul>CULTURAL RELATIVISM
  8. 9. CONSTRUCTIONISM AND ESSENTIALISM <ul><li>CONSTRUCTIONISM: </li></ul><ul><li>Human behaviors emerge, are shaped, persist, and change in the context of different social, cultural, material, political economic, environmental, and historical settings. </li></ul><ul><li>ESSENTIALISM: </li></ul><ul><li>Human behaviors are unchangeable, and rest on bedrocks, origins, or independent forces that result in individuals or groups of people being different from others. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>The important contribution that anthropology has made to the social sciences and other disciplines is participant observation methodology. This was developed in the early 20 th century by Bronislaw Malinowski during his work with the Trobriand Islanders, and to a degree by Franz Boas during his work with North American Native peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>The anthropologist lives among the culture they are studying for an extended length of time, and learns their language, social hierarchies, legal codes, religion, gender relations, political economy, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>While conducting participant observation the anthropologist will interview people, and develop relationships with key informants, individuals who know much about their culture and are willing to share their knowledge with the anthropologist. </li></ul><ul><li>George Marcus developed the contemporary practice of conducting multi-sited ethnographic research. </li></ul><ul><li>The ethnography is the result of anthropological research, a textual, video, or filmic representation of a specific culture. </li></ul>METHODOLOGIES AND THE ETHNOGRAPHY
  10. 11. THE EMIC AND ETIC APPROACHES TO ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH <ul><li>With the emic approach the anthropologist conducts research on a culture focusing solely on its members’ perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>With the etic approach the anthropologist analyzes a culture through the application of theories that some or a majority of its members might not relate to. </li></ul><ul><li>The emic and etic approaches are not separate and dichotomous as, in actuality, anthropologists integrate them during their field work and in their ethnographies. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>A subdiscipline of cultural anthropology. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal anthropology illuminates the ordering of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past century anthropologists have increasingly recognized that law is an important element of a society’s culture that warrants study within its own subdiscipline. </li></ul><ul><li>There are self-defined “legal anthropologists” and anthropologists who do not formally consider their selves to be legal anthropologists who include the study of law in their research. Some of these have made important contributions to legal anthropology. </li></ul><ul><li>Applied legal anthropologists work directly with legal systems over policy and change. For example, they become involved with indigenous peoples’ struggles over land rights and environmental issues. </li></ul>