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  2. 2. A sculptor is a person obsessedwith the form and shape ofthings, and it’s not just the shapeof one thing, but the shape ofanything and everything: thehard, tense strength, althoughdelicate form of a bone; thestrong, solid fleshiness of a beechtree trunk. –Henry Moore
  3. 3. Henry Moore [British, 1898–1986], Reclining Figure: Angles, 1979.
  4. 4. SculptureSculpture - The art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or forms Relief sculpture Bas-Relief or low relief High Relief Freestanding sculpture
  5. 5. Subtractive and Additive Types of SculptureSubtractive Process - Carving, unwanted materials are removed.Additive Process - Modeling, Casting, Construction
  6. 6. Mass: a solid, three-dimensional form that hasweight and takes up realspaceVoids: the empty spacesbetween the masses ofsculpture
  7. 7. CarvingCarving - removing portions of a block of materials to create a form.Can use stone, wood, ivory, chocolate…
  8. 8. MICHELANGELO. The Cross-Legged Captive (c. 1530–1534). Marble. H: 7’6 1⁄2”.
  9. 9. ModelingModeling - using a pliable materials such as clay or wax the artist shapes the material into a 3D form.Can be done by hand or tools.
  10. 10. CastingCasting - liquid metal material is poured into a mold to create a form.Mold - the form into which the material is poured and with imparts the shape. Any material that hardens can be used for casting. One of the oldest and most common is Bronze.
  11. 11. LOUISE BOURGEOIS. Portrait of Robert (1969). Cast bronze with white patina.
  12. 12. The Lost-Wax TechniqueLost-Wax Technique1. The artist creates a form and them from this form a mold is created by covering the shape usually in plaster or resin.2. The inside of the mold is is then filled or covered with wax.3. The wax is removed and covered in a sandy mixture of silica, clay and plaster to create a investiture. • Investiture - is a fire resistant mold into which the liquid metal will be poured.1. The wax is heated and pour out of the now sold investiture and replaced with the liquid metal.2. The finished metal sculpture is removed from the investiture, and burnished. • Burnished - treated chemically to take on a texture and color.
  13. 13. EDGARDEGAS. TheLittle Dancer,14 Years Old(1880–1881).Bronze.
  14. 14. SHERRIE LEVINE. Fountains after Duchamp (1991). Bronze. Installation view at Sherrie Levine Exhibition in the Zürich Kunsthalle (2.11.1991– 3.1.1992), Zürich, Switzerland.
  15. 15. Casting of Human Models
  16. 16. Robert Gober, American, born 1964 Untitled (Long Leg), 1990–93
  17. 17. Types of Materials Stone Wood Clay Metal
  18. 18. Stone Stone is extremely hard It is also very durable Appropriate for monuments and statues Stone tools include the chisel, mallet, and rasp. Artists also use contemporary power tools
  19. 19. LOUISE BOURGEOIS. Eyes (1982).
  20. 20. Wood Wood can be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished molded and bent. Different woods have a different hardnesses. Wood appeals to sculptures because of its grain, color, and workability. Wood is easier to carved than stone. Tensile strength - The inherent strength of a material.
  21. 21. Poro Secret Society mask (Kagle). Liberian,Dan people. Wood.
  22. 22. Clay Clay is more pliable than stone or wood  Clay is not very strong.  Nor is permanent. Armature - an inner skeleton normally made of metal used to help give clay additional strength.
  23. 23. Robert Arneson. Brick Bang. 1976.
  24. 24. Metal Metals can be cast, extruded, forged, stamped, drilled, filed, and burnished. Cast bronze sculptures Direct-metal sculptures - Assembling sculpture by welding, riveting, and soldering. Patinas - the colors created on bronze due to oxidation.
  25. 25. RICHARD SERRA. Installation view,Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain.
  26. 26. Modern and Contemporary Materials and MethodsThroughout history sculptures have searched for new forms expression.• Constructed sculpture• Assemblage• Readymades• Mixed media• Kinetic sculpture• Light sculpture• Land art
  27. 27. Constructed sculpturePABLO PICASSO. Mandolin and Clarinet (1913). Wood construction and paint.
  28. 28. Constructed sculpture The artist “builds” the sculpture Materials could include, sheet metal, cardboard, celluloid, or wire Some artworks are lighter than those from stone or wood Unorthodox materials can also be used
  29. 29. AssemblageA form of constructed sculpture Pre-existing or found objects take on a new form as artworks Novel combinations that take on a new life and meaning One of the best-known examples is Picasso’s Bull’s Head
  30. 30. PABLO PICASSO. Bull’s Head (1943). Bronze cast of parts of a bicycle.
  31. 31. Mixed MediaMixed Media - Use materials and ready-made or found objects that are not normally elements of a work of art. Artists, such as Rauschenberg (see Ch. 20), may attach other materials to their canvasses. What might be some the materials you could use in a Mixed Media sculpture?
  32. 32. Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram(1955-1959) Freestanding Combine
  33. 33. SIMON RODIA. Simon Rodia Towers in Watts (1921–1954)
  34. 34. Kinetic SculptureKinetic sculpture - Sculptures that move, art + action. Example: the mobile.Forms of movement might include: Wind Magnetic fields Jets of water Electric motors The intensity of light Human manipulations
  35. 35. GEORGE RICKEY. Cluster of Four Cubes (1992). Stainless steel.
  36. 36. Light Sculpture Light and its reflections have always been an important elements in sculpture (and art!) However, “light sculpture” is a 20th-century artform What are the physical psychological and physical effects of color and the creation of illusion?
  37. 37. Dan Flavin installation in Marfa, TX
  38. 38. Other MaterialsSculpture today uses not only traditional materials, but also materials that have never been used before.Example: beeswax and microcrystalline wax, chocolate, Styrofoam, etc…
  39. 39. Marc Quinn Self 1991 blood stainless steel perspex refrigeration
  40. 40. JANINE ANTONI. Chocolate Gnaw (1992). Chocolate (600 lb before biting), gnawed by the artist.
  41. 41. Chapman Brothers Tragic Anatomies
  42. 42. SYLVIE FLEURY. Dog Toy 3 (Crazy Bird) (2000). Styrofoam, paint.
  44. 44. THE END!