Zre loss prevention at the sea 2010


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Zre loss prevention at the sea 2010

  1. 1. ZRE MARINE LATAM Loss Prevention at the sea, spotlight on: CONTAINER SECURE HATCH COVER CAUTIONS Risk Engineering Marine LATAM [email_address] Phone 55 11 5504-5694 Mobile 55 11 9945-2376
  2. 2. <ul><li>Before writing a new coverage please follow this best practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze cargo needs and description </li></ul><ul><li>Select surveyor needs (prices, terms, conditions, scope) </li></ul><ul><li>Vessel selections (year, description, conditions, flags, detention) </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo Loading and Unloading </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Documents and INCOTERMS </li></ul><ul><li>Loss History and claims assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Here you find some best practices for that a surveyor could check (*): </li></ul><ul><li>Container Secure on Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Hatch Cover cautions </li></ul><ul><li>(*) Source http://www.standard-club.com/ </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Standard Club - Setting the standard for service and security, is a mutual insurance association, owned by its shipowner members and controlled by a board of directors drawn from the membership. </li></ul><ul><li>The club insures shipowners, operators and charterers for their liabilities to third parties arising out of ship operations. </li></ul><ul><li>The club prides itself on the quality of its service to its members, and sets great store on responsiveness and support at all times, especially in times of crisis. Just as important is the emphasis on financial strength and stability through the club's strong balance sheet and financial resilience. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a member of the International Group of P&I clubs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The managers are Charles Taylor & Co (Bermuda), who delegate day-to-day administration to Charles Taylor & Co Ltd in London and other companies within the Charles Taylor Consulting group. The principal management offices outside Bermuda are in London, Singapore, Tokyo, Piraeus and New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Main elements of P&I cover are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of life and injury to crew, stevedores, passengers and other third parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical damage caused to docks, fixed or floating objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collision damage caused to other ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cargo loss or damage </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Check stacks weights before stowage, not exceeding allowable stack weights otherwise failure of the corner posts of the containers stowed at the bottom of the stack is possible. If the stow is too heavy, the lashings may have insufficient strength to hold the containers in place if bad weather is encountered. </li></ul><ul><li>Never deviate from the approved lashing plan except to add additional lashings. Calculate forces using the approved loading computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult the lashing manual before applying lashings. </li></ul><ul><li>If stack weights are high and bad weather is expected then fit additional lashings. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to avoid isolated stacks of containers when stowed on deck, especially if at the ship’s side. Where possible, load containers so they are evenly distributed. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid loading heavy containers above light containers and at the top of a stack. </li></ul>CONTAINER SECURE – BEST PRACTICE (1/4)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Keep your system of lashing simple using the highest rated components. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine containers for physical defects – check the corner posts carefully. The corner posts have to resist high compression forces as a result of static weights from containers stowed on top and from dynamic forces that occur when the ship rolls, heaves and pitches. Containers with damaged corner posts placed in the bottom of a stow are likely to collapse. Reject damaged containers. </li></ul><ul><li>Check that all cell guides are clear of obstacles, are straight and not buckled. </li></ul><ul><li>Check that turnbuckles are fully tightened. Loose lashings will be ineffective. </li></ul>CONTAINER SECURE – BEST PRACTICE (2/4)
  7. 7. <ul><li>Check lashing equipment for defects and discard worn or damaged equipment. Avoid using left-hand and right-hand twist locks on the same ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly examine lashing components, including ship fittings, for wear. Replace any worn or damaged fitting, repair any worn or damaged ship fitting. Check all equipment not just equipment in regular use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to know when lashing components should be replaced. Few organizations are confident to issue ‘criteria for replacement’ which means that the company or individual master will need to exercise judgment. If in doubt, replace the equipment. Give special attention to dovetail or sliding socket foundations. </li></ul>CONTAINER SECURE – BEST PRACTICE (3/4)
  8. 8. <ul><li>To assist the shore lashing gang, give them precise instructions as to how containers should be secured. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that during ship rolling, forces on container corner posts can be up to three times greater than the upright compression force. </li></ul><ul><li>Weather route in an attempt to avoid the worst of the meteorological systems or areas where high seas in winter are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to avoid loading ‘high cube’ containers on deck in the first or second tier. Lashing rods are more difficult to fit and special rods with extension pieces are often needed. Identify where ‘high cube’ containers are to be stowed before loading. It may be necessary to reposition them. </li></ul>CONTAINER SECURE – BEST PRACTICE (4/4)
  9. 9. <ul><li>Reject a container found overweight and likely to give rise to the permissible stack weight being exceeded; </li></ul><ul><li>Reject a buckled, twisted or damaged container; </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange stowage so that containers do not need to be unloaded at a port other than the designated discharge port; </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly check lashing components for condition and discard components that appear worn or are damaged; </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect D rings, ring bolts, cell guides and sliding socket foundations for wear or damage before containers are loaded, and arrange for the necessary repairs; </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly check lashings during the voyage; </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect and tighten lashings before the onset of bad weather; </li></ul>CONTAINER SECURE – ALWAYS (1/2)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Take care when handling container fittings because they are heavy. Avoid dropping them; </li></ul><ul><li>Stow loose lashing components, twistlocks and lashing rods safely in designated baskets or racks; </li></ul><ul><li>Buy components that are supported by a test certificate. The strength of equipment without a test certificate may be unpredictable; </li></ul><ul><li>Have more securing equipment than necessary; </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid extreme values of GM, whether high or low; </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid geographical areas where conditions for parametric rolling exist; </li></ul><ul><li>Look for indications of water leakage into the container. </li></ul>CONTAINER SECURE – ALWAYS (2/2)
  11. 11. <ul><li>Mix left-hand and right-hand twistlocks; </li></ul><ul><li>Apply fully automatic twistlocks without first checking the manufacturer’s instructions for Use; </li></ul><ul><li>Use corroded or buckled lashing rods; </li></ul><ul><li>Use twistlocks that are not certified; </li></ul><ul><li>Use improvised equipment to secure containers; </li></ul><ul><li>Load containers of a non-standard length except when the ship is designed and equipped for the carriage of non-standard length containers; </li></ul><ul><li>Use twistlocks for lifting containers except where the twistlocks are specifically approved for this purpose; </li></ul>CONTAINER SECURE – NEVER (1/2)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Open containers after they have been loaded; </li></ul><ul><li>Connect reefer containers to damaged or broken electrical sockets; </li></ul><ul><li>Load containers in a con-bulker that requires fitting a buttress, unless the buttress is already fitted; </li></ul><ul><li>Drop or throw fittings, especially twistlocks, from a great height onto a steel deck or other hard surface; </li></ul><ul><li>Lash to the top of a container; always lash to the bottom of the next tier above wherever possible; </li></ul><ul><li>Work dangerously with containers. Never stand or climb onto them, or under or between them. </li></ul>CONTAINER SECURE – NEVER (2/2)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Carry out regular examination of the hatch covers, hatch beams and coamings to identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General levels of corrosion (check with your classification society for corrosion allowances); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Localized corrosion at welded connections (grooving); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cracks in joints and weld metal; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent distortion of plating and stiffeners; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Call a Class Surveyor and carry out repairs a.s.a.p. when there are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indications of excessive corrosion e.g. holes or local buckling of the top plate; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cracks in main structural joints; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of significant indentation, other than localized mechanical damage; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be particularly vigilant after heavy weather; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectify any steel-to-steel fault before renewal of rubber packing. Renewal will not be effective if Steel-to-steel contact points are defective, and expensive rubber packing will be ruined after only a few months of use; </li></ul></ul>HATCH COVER – ALWAYS (1/3)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Replace missing or damaged hatch gaskets (rubber packing) immediately. The minimum length of replaced gasket should be one meter; </li></ul><ul><li>Keep hatch coaming tops clean and the double drainage channels free of obstructions. (Open Hatch covers to clean coaming tops and the double drainage channels after loading bulk cargo through grain or cement ports); </li></ul><ul><li>Keep cleats and wedges in serviceable condition and correctly adjusted; </li></ul><ul><li>Keep hauling wires and chains adjusted correctly; </li></ul><ul><li>Attach locking pins and chains to open doors and hatches; </li></ul><ul><li>Keep wheels, cleats, hinge pins, haul wires, and chain tension equipment well greased; </li></ul>HATCH COVER – ALWAYS (2/3)
  15. 15. <ul><li>Keep wheels, cleats, hinge pins, haul wires, and chain tension equipment well greased; </li></ul><ul><li>Test hydraulic oil regularly for contamination and deterioration; </li></ul><ul><li>Keep hydraulic systems oil tight; </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the oil tank of the hydraulic system is kept filled to the operating level and with the correct oil; clean up oil spills. If the leak cannot be stopped immediately, construct a save-all to contain the oil and empty it regularly; </li></ul><ul><li>Engage tween deck hatch cover cleats when the panels are closed; </li></ul><ul><li>Give notice that maintenance is being performed so that no one tries to open/close the hatch; </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that continuing and regular maintenance of hatches is more effective and less </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive than sporadic inspection and major repair. </li></ul>HATCH COVER – ALWAYS (3/3)
  16. 16. <ul><li>Treat temporary repairs as if these were permanent. The strength of the cover and ultimately the ship will depend on the quality of repairs carried out; </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore serious corrosion, cracking or distortion in the covers and supports. These are signs of weakness and are potentially hazardous; </li></ul><ul><li>Allow grooves to form in the coaming top, especially where the hatch side or end panel rests when the hatch is closed; </li></ul><ul><li>Apply petroleum-based grease or paint to rubber packing; </li></ul>HATCH COVER – NEVER (1/2)
  17. 17. <ul><li>Remove the rubber ball from a non-return drain valve; </li></ul><ul><li>Use anything other than the recommended hydraulic oil; </li></ul><ul><li>Leave cleats unfastened when proceeding to sea; </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to open or close any hatch that has a load or cargo on it; </li></ul><ul><li>Open hatch covers at sea unless absolutely essential; </li></ul><ul><li>Leave open covers unattended when at sea; </li></ul><ul><li>Tighten down the cleats so that the hatch cover is unable to move on the coaming top. </li></ul>HATCH COVER – NEVER (2/2)