Significant Historic Preservation DatesAntiquities Act 1906Colonial Williamsburg 1926Charleston, “Old Historic District” 1931New Orleans Vieux Carre 1936Old Georgetown Act 1950Berman vs. Parker 1954National Register of Historic Places 1966Penn Central vs. NYC 1978
Antiquities Act of 1906• First major historic preservation legislation.• Stemmed from concern over the destruction of pre-historic remains in the southwest. Specifically, the Mesa Verde site in Colorado.• Allowed areas in the public domain that contained historic structures/objects to be designated national monuments.• Federal crime to collect or destroy any historic or prehistoric object or building on federally owned land.
Colonial Williamsburg, 1926• 18th Century Capital of colonial Virginia.• Private efforts (led by the Rev. Dr. W.A.R Goodwin and John D. Rockefeller) resulted in the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg as a museum village.
Charleston, SC 1931• First historic preservation district in the United States.• Approximately 3 square miles.• Prohibited specific uses on Broad St., which contained the heaviest concentration of historic buildings.
New Orleans, 1936 • Second Historic District in United States. • Established a historic preservation ordinance in 1936 to protect the Old French Quarter (Vieux Carre).
Old Georgetown Act, 1950 • First federal law for historic preservation. • Properties fall under the authority of the Historic Preservation Review Board and the Commission of Fine Arts.
Berman v. Parker, 1954• Supreme Court established the concept that aesthetics alone sufficiently justified government regulation.• Gave Washington D.C the right to “tear down old blighted buildings to improve a neighborhood.”• Predecessor to Kelo v. City of New London.• However, provided preservationists with a legal precedence to justify protective historic ordinances.
National Historic Preservation Act, 1966• Created the Department of the Interior National Register of Historic Places.• The report recommending the passage of the NHPA was called With Heritage So Rich.• It has been amended 22 times since approval.
Penn Central v. NYC, 1978• First Supreme Court decision dealing directly with historic preservation.• Rights of owners to develop property vs. rights of cities to review and regulate the development of a historic property.• Owner applied to construct a 55 story addition over Grand Central station, a historic landmark structure.• Owner claimed the city’s denial of their request was a “taking” but court disagreed.• The landmark decision upheld the legitimacy of historic ordinances, and formed the legal basis for the right to establish controls to which the owners of historic properties would be subject.
National – Historic Preservation• National Register of Historic Places • National Park Service, U.S. Dept of the Interior • State Historic Preservation Officer • Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
Tax Incentives for PreservationTax Reform Act of 1976 - Allowed tax breaks forhistoric buildings listed on either a local register orthe National Register.Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 - Gave a 25%tax credit for rehab costs of historic buildings.
National Register Criteria• Types: • Significance: • Districts • American History • Sites • Architecture • Buildings • Archeology • Structures • Engineering • Objects • Culture
What is a Historic District?• Geographical area that has a significant architectural enclave of historic buildings.Why Establish a Historic District?• Protect historic properties• Control new development• Serve as development incentive• Maintain property values• Public relations/promotion• Economic Development
Historic Resources/ Landmarks• A structure that is 50 years old or older and possesses: • Aesthetic • Architectural, or • Historic Value
Preservation Ordinance Requirements• Should achieve a public purpose• Should leave some or all value to the property• Should meet legal test• Should be tailored to the specific area or for a specific purpose• May include specific architectural requirements to ensure that property renovations blend with the rest of the district• May include measures to protect historic structures
Certificate of Appropriateness• Must be obtained to modify the outside appearance of a structure that has been designated a historic resource/landmark Current Preservation Numbers• There are over 80,000 listings on the National Register
Spatial Economic Theories• Von Thunen• Central Place• Economic Base• Cluster• Creative Class• Mega Region
Von Thunen Model• The use of a piece of land is put to is a function of the cost of transport to market and the land rent a farmer can afford to pay.• Von Thunen Concentric Circles.
Central Place Theory• Developed by Walter Christaller.• Laws determine the number, size and distribution of towns.• People would travel farther to get high order services.• It is becoming less useful for studying metropolitan areas.• Predecessor of the World Systems Theory.
Economic Base Theory• Divides regional industries into Basic (export sectors) and Non Basic (local sectors).• Assumes that export industries drive regional economic growth.• Basic industries have a multiplier effect on the regional economy.Base Multiplier = Total Employment Year i Basic Employment Year i
Economic Clusters• Develop by Michael Porter.• A cluster is a geographic concentration of competitive firms in related industries that do business with each other.• Cluster includes companies selling primarily outside the region, as well as support firms supplying raw materials.• Clusters provide synergy, and that leads to competitive advantage and economic specialization.
Creative Class Theory• Developed by Richard Florida.• Recognized shift from manufacturing economy to an economy based on knowledge.• Successful regions have the three T’s: talent, tolerance, and technology.• Place making is an important part of economic development because it helps to attract talent and industry.
Mega-Regions/Megapolitan Areas• Areas of the world that generate a disproportionate share of global economic activity including trade, transport, innovation and scientific discovery.• They often stretch across multiple jurisdictions and even national borders.• Examples of national mega regions include the following corridors: Boston-Washington D.C., Chicago-Pittsburgh, and Charlotte-Atlanta.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)• Industry classification system• Twenty industrial sectors• Several digit levels of complexityNAICS 11 AgricultureNAICS 112 Animal ProductionNAICS 1121 Cattle Ranching
Location Quotient• Ratio between the local economy and reference economy.• It measures economic specialization of a region. Local Employment i Total Local Employment LQ i National Employment i Total National Employment
Location QuotientLQ = 1 Regional employment proportion in industry i is same as national proportion.LQ < 1 Regional employment proportion in industry i is less than national proportion. Regional employment proportion inLQ > 1 industry i is greater than national proportion.
Location QuotientNAICS 7131 Amusements, Parks and Arcades 47,281 612, 434 LQ 7131 154,677 112,718, 858 LQ 7131 56.26
High Location Quotients Orange Industry Florida CountyNAICS 5615 Travel arrangement & reservation 2.17 7.71NAICS 4855 Charter bus industry 0.96 5.9NAICS 3333 Commercial & serv. industry mach. 1.21 5.54NAICS 7211 Traveler accommodation 1.4 4.2NAICS 6115 Technical and trade schools 1.34 3.33NAICS 5321 Automotive equipment rental 1.43 2.93NAICS 1114 Greenhouse and nursery prod. 2.3 2.89NAICS 2372 Land subdivision 3.31 2.09NAICS 4859 Other ground passenger transp. 1.04 1.9
Shift Share Analysis• Technique to analyze sources of change in a regional economy.• Total Employment Change = National Growth Share + Industrial Mix share + Regional Shift – National Growth Share: growth attributed to national changes in the economy – Industrial Mix Share: employment on particular industries – Regional Shift: examines unique local factors that affect regional competitiveness
Input/output Analysis• Input/output Models use multipliers to Purchasing estimate the Industry Ag. Transp. Mfg. economic impact of Selling Industry specific sectors.• Determine linkages Agriculture .65 0.22 0.13 between industries Transportati on 0.19 .62 0.16 in the local Manufacturi economy. ng 0.16 0.16 .71• Calculate direct, indirect and induced Total Output 1.00 1.00 1.00 effects.
Practice Sources• LOCATION QUOTIENT:http://data.bls.gov/LOCATION_QUOTIENT/servl et/lqc.ControllerServlet• SHIFT SHARE:http://www.georgiastats.uga.edu/sshare1.html
Land Market Monitoring• Focus on monitoring the availability of buildable land available and the rate it is being consumed for urban development.• Looks at the supply of land zoned for residential, commercial, and industrial uses.• Uses a variety of tools including GIS and land/employment multipliers.
Econometric Models• Combines economic theories with statistics to analyze and test economic relationships.• Examples of models includes regression analysis.• Uses copious amount of data.
Community Revitalization Strategies• Create Special Districts/Programs• Write a Master/Strategic Plan• Provide Tax Incentives• Create/Increase Tax Base• Infrastructure and Beautification Improvements
Economic Revitalization Programs• Enterprise Zones/Empowerment Zones• Business Improvement District• Brownfield Programs• Community Development Block Grant Program• Main Street Program• Business Development Programs• Special Tax Districts
Enterprise Zone/Empowerment Zones• Participating block groups must have more than 20% poverty rate.• Both Federal and State Programs.• Offer a variety of incentives to attract new businesses to the area including: • Job Tax Credit • Property Tax Credits • Sales Tax Refunds
Business Improvement District• Public-Private partnership that contributes to the maintenance, development and marketing of the commercial district.• Overseen by a board of directors.• Funded through special assessments (TIF) collected from the property owners in the defined boundaries of the district.• Similar to Community Redevelopment Areas (CRA).
Brownfield Programs • Site whose redevelopment or reuse may be complicated by the potential or real presence hazardous pollutants. • Managed by Environmental Protection Agency • Provides direct funding for brownfields assessment, cleanup, revolving loans, and environmental job training.
Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG)• Federal Block Grant Program that helps to improve the living conditions of low and moderate income residents.• Entitlement communities must have at least 50,000 residents.• These funds are used for a variety of programs including housing rehabilitation and infrastructure improvement.
Main Street Program • Sponsored by National Trust for Historic Preservation. • Public-Private partnership allowing merchants to be involved and responsible in revitalization efforts. • Combines historic preservation with economic development. • Used to revitalize old commercial corridors and downtown areas.
Business Development• This is also known as “economic gardening”.• Incubation Programs that provide management training, counseling, consulting, marketing, and research.• Programs targeting of specific industries to locate in the community.• Business retention programs to keep and grow existing businesses.• Workforce Education and Training Programs tailored to firm’s needs.
Special Tax Districts• Property owners within these districts pay a special assessment to cover specific services or infrastructure improvements.• These districts are being established all over Florida.• Some examples of these are Community Development Districts (CDDs) and Municipal Services Taxing Units (MSTU).