Vocabulary and grammar


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Vocabulary and grammar

  1. 1. ESCOLA SECUNDÁRIA DE CARVALHOS Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 1 My Tastes in Music and SportVocabularyMusicWrite down as many types /genres of music as you can remember.Jazz, country, blues, pop, rock, R&B, Reggae, samba Sports Which sports do the following icons represent? 1. Swimming 2. Diving 3. Synchronized swimming 4. Water polo 5. Archery 6. Athletics 7. Badminton 8. Baseball 9. Basketball 10. Boxing 11. Canoe/kayak flatwater 12. Canoe/kayak slalom 13. Cycling 14. Equestrian 15. Fencing 16. Football 17. Artistic gymnastics 18. Trampoline 19. Rhythmic gymnastics 20. Handball 21. Hockey 22. Judo 23. Morden pentathlon 24. Rowing 25. Sailing 26. Shooting 27. Softball 28. Table tennis 29. Karate 30. Tennis 31. Triathlon 32. Volleyball 33. Wrestling 34. Beach volleyball 35. weightliftingLanguage Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  2. 2. My Grammar PageGrammarEnglish is studied at schools all over the world. Yet many students still try to get more practice by enrolling in additionallanguage courses. Kati is studying English at a language school in London. In her portfolio she has created a section forgrammar where she will take note of and exercise the grammatical items she is doing in class.Here is a sample of her portfolio; it will help get you started! Complete the tasks that follow.Verb Tense: The Present  Which description (1-5) fits each sentence (a-j). [present simple and present continuous] 1. A routine or habit __A__ 2. Something happening now / temporary action __B__ 3. An official scheduled or timetabled event __I__ __F__ 4. A future personal arrangement __G__ __C__ __E__ __D__ __H__ __J__ 5. Something permanent and always true Note: -so 1,3,5 = present simple and 2, 4 = present continuous -the present simple (not the present continuous) is usually used with certain verbs: agree, believe, hate, know, like, love, prefer, understand … a) David goes for a run every day. b) I’m meeting George and Phil at the jazz concert. c) Look! The dog’s digging a hole in your garden again. d) She comes from Barcelona. e) She’s playing tennis with John later. f) The train leaves at 20.06. g) We’re going out at eight thirty tonight. h) If you put oil in water it floats. i) The film starts at seven exactly so don’t be late. j) Ice melts in hot weather.  Write the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the present simple or the present continuous. 1. Those Canadians ________Speak_________ (speak) English and French at home and school. 2. What language ___does____ she ______speak_______ (speak)? I can’t understand what she is saying. 3. We always _______Use_____________ (use) English when we travel abroad. 4. At present the children _____is watching________ (watch) TV. 5. At present, Manuela _______is studying___________ (study) English at the language school; she wants to go on a course in the USA next year. 6. They rarely _________Listen________ (listen) to French songs. 7. Classes _________finishes_________ (finish) at four so I’ll be home by half past. 8. What ____do________ you ________do______ (do) later? I ___________go________ (go) to the cinema. 9. ___Do_____ you _____believe________ (believe) in life after death? 10. Sue ______doesn’t like_________ (not like) chocolate, so she ______isn’t eating________ (not eat) a piece of the chocolate cake at this moment.Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  3. 3. Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 2Verb Tense: The Past  Write the number of the sentence under the correct column. Look at the underlined verb to indicate the situation and tense - past simple and past continuous. A B past actions which weren’t finished completed actions in the past or something happening at a particular time in the past [Past Simple] [Past Continuous] __1___ __4__ ___2___ __3____1. I crashed your car last night. I’m really sorry.2. They were having a picnic when it started to rain.3. The dogs were barking and the kids were laughing when I came into the room.4. Shakespeare wrote poems as well as plays.  Match the statements in the past simple(ps) and present perfect simple(pps) to an explanation of the situation. 1. Oh, no! I’ve just smashed a glass. (pps) a) Now I work somewhere else. 2. I’ve already written fifteen work emails.(pps) b) I’m not at the office. 3. Did you go to Teotihuacan while you were in c) I’m asking about your general experience of Mexico? (ps) travelling. 4. Î worked here last year. (ps) d) I’m asking about your holidays. 5. I read five reports at work today. (ps) e) Look. The glass is broken 6. I’ve worked here since 1999. (pps) f) I still work here. 7. I smashed a glass. I didn’t mean to. (ps) g) I’m still at the office. 8. Have you ever been to Teotihuacan? (pps) h) I smashed it yesterday.1 - __H__ 3 - __C_ 5 - __B__ 7 - __E__2 - __G__ 4 - __A_ 6 - __F__ 8 - __D__ Then match each of the above statements to a situation/tense. [past simple and present perfect simple] i) completed actions in the past – past simple 3 _4_ _5_ _7_ ii) when something happened is not important – present perfect _1_ iii) recent past events – present perfect _2_ iv) actions that began in the past and are still going on now – present perfect _6_ _8_  Choose the best option, between past perfect simple and past perfect continuous, for each sentence. 1. At last! I’ve solved / been solving the problem. 2. Jack has tried / been trying to get this book published for ages but so far no one has said ‘yes’. 3. So, what have you done / been doing recently? Anything interesting? 4. My friend has bought / been buying a new car. It looks great. 5. I’ve never believed / been believing in ghosts or witches or fairies. 6. Fantastic news! They’ve agreed / been agreeing to buy the house. 7. You look well. Have you taken / been taking more exercise recently? 8. The children are tired because they’ve played / been playing all day.Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  4. 4. 9. Have you swum / been swimming? Your hair looks wet. 10. Oh, there you are! I’ve looked / been looking for you everywhere!Decide the situation to which each sentence (from the previous exercise) relates.i) important activity still happening now - continuous _2_ _3_ _7_ _8_ _9_ 10_ii) the result of the completed activity is important - simple _1_ _9_iii) situation in which the verbs do not occur in the continuous form 5 _6_– agree, know, believe…Verb Tense: Present and Past  Place the following expressions (of time) in the correct column. Then add any extra ones if you like.ago/ now / yet / sometimes / since /at this moment / while / already / then / for / at present / never / last year /every day / yesterday / at that moment / just / when present Past present present past present perfect present simple past simple perfect continuous continuous continuous simple Yet AgoSometimes Now At that Since Last year SinceEvery day At this moment Already Yesterday ForNever moment While For Then At present when Never never just  Now complete the following radio news report. Put the verbs in the correct form.Hello. This is (be) Kitty Beamish. I 1._____I’m speaking___________ (speak) to you from Oxford, where thefinals of the World Quiz Championships will be held tomorrow. The favourite is Claude Jennings of Cornwell, theman who 2._______Knows_________ (know) everything. Twelve months ago no one had heard of ClaudeJennings, although he 3._____________takes _________________ (take) part in quiz competitions for years.Now suddenly he is a big star. So far this year he 4.____________’s answering________________ (answer) everysingle question correctly. And he is popular, too. When he 5. ______was arrived ___________________(arrive) here two days ago, hundreds of fans 6.__________have waited ______________ (wait) at thestation to welcome him. Since his arrival Claude 7. ______has already read _______ (already / read) theentire encyclopaedia in his hotel bedroom. He is clearly the man to watch. Good bye, and now back to the newsdesk.Notes:Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  5. 5. ESCOLA SECUNDÁRIA DE CARVALHOS Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 3 Englishes – Different Types of EnglishVocabularyEnglishes refers to the different varieties of the English language spoken around the world. English is spoken as a firstlanguage in countries on all the continents; it a global language. B. 1. Using the words below try to find the equivalents in both American English and British English. aerial bathrobe convoy cupboard cookie sofa receptionist detour faucet dustbin Gas station interval rentComplete the following activities. A. Using the words below try to find the equivalents in both American English and British English. arvo barbeque bowser rock bushed friend Baby kangaroo kiwi postie trains sheila sunbakeLanguage Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  6. 6. 2. Do you know the British English equivalents of these Australian English words? Write theDo you know thenumbers in the boxes next to the Australian Englishone is done for you. correct British English equivalents of these words. Number words? Write the correct numbers in theboxes next to the words. Number one is done for you 9 3 5 13 2 15 16 18 8 14 7 4 17 11 6 12 10Do you know theknow the of these Indianthese Indian words? Match with the right word. Numberword. done C. Do you meaning meanings of words? Match their meaning their meaning to the right one isfor you. Number one has already been done for you. caste ayah bollywood nahatma nirvana mahal roti guru maya karma yoga burkha mensahib henna monsoan chai richshaw D. Do you know words from any other variety of English? Indicate the word / expression and its meaning, as well as to country where it is used. (You can do some research on the Internet.)Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  7. 7. ESCOLA SECUNDÁRIA DE CARVALHOS Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 4 Friendly English GrammarGrammarEnglish is a global language and popular means of communication. Let’s see how friendly the grammar is!Complete the activities.Prepositional Verbs  Read the information below and then do the exercises that follow.1. Many verbs that are used without an object are normally followed by a prepositional phrase. Some verbs take aparticular preposition:belong to, consist of, happen to, hint at, hope for, insist on, lead to, listen to, pay for, qualify for, refer to, relate to,sympathize with.2. With other verbs that are used without an object, the choice of a different preposition may alter the meaning of theclause:agree on/with, apologize for/to, appeal to/for, care about/of, complain to somebody about/of, conform to/with, remindabout/of, result from/in, suffer from/with, think about/of.3. With verbs that are used without an object, different prepositions are used to introduce different types of information:a. ‘about’ indicates the subject matter: care, complain, do, dream, explain, hear, know, speak, talk, think, writeb. ‘at’ indicates direction: glance, glare, grin, laugh, look, point, shoot, shout, smile, starec. ‘for’ indicates purpose or reason: apologize, apply, ask, leave, look, search, waitd. ‘into’ indicates the object involved in a collision: bump, crash, drive, rune. ‘of’ indicates facts of information: hear, know, speak, talk, thinkf. ‘on’ indicates confidence or certainty: congratulate, count, depend, plan, relyg. ‘to’ indicates the listener or reader: complain, explain, listen, say, speak, talk, writeh. ‘with’ indicates someone whose opinion is the same or different: agree, argue, disagree, side4. Some verbs have an object, but are also followed by a preposition. http://eng.1september.ru/2003/41/1.htmEXERCISES: - Put in the correct prepositions: to, about, at, from, for, in, into, of, on, with.1. I want to talk with the group about their exams. 25. If you want to travel, that would be a good job to apply2. All last winter he suffered of coughs and colds. for.3. When will you write to Bill about your plans? 26. The land belongs to a rich man.4. If you don’t understand any of these words, you could 27. She then referred for the Minister’s report.refer in a dictionary. 28. I congratulated her for her success in the exams.5. The accident sadly resulted in the death of a man. 29. The boss disagreed with me.6. The police are appealing for witnesses to come forward. 30. The match resulted into a draw.7. It wasn’t his car, in fact I don’t know who it belongs to. 31. His failure resulted into lack of attention to details.8. Nurses are very badly paid, I think they should insist on 32. Tonight I’m going to talk about engines.higher rates of pay. 33. You can count with me.9. The poor driver – I really sympathize with him, it wasn’t 34. You can rely with him to be polite.his fault. 35. They complained to me about the noise.10. The buses are often late, so you can’t depend on them. 36. Mary turned her head to speak about him.11. Do you qualify at a state pension when you are 55? 37. The daughters sided _____ their mothers.12. Keep enough money to pay for your ticket. 38. Can I speak with Jane, please?13. Have you heard about what had happened to him? Oh, I 39. Can you explain this word to me?don’t care about him. 40. Can you explain to me what you mean?14. I said to you I was thinking about going to America. I 41. He told me his name but I can’t think about it now.actually dreamt about it. 42. This house reminds me to the one I lived in when I was a15. She listened to me and then told me about her problems. child.16. The bus ran to the wall of a house. 43. We called the doctor because Nick was complaining17. People started to shout for the driver. about a pain in his stomach.18. Who was the boy you were all laughing to? 44. That’s a good idea. Why didn’t I think about that?19. I saw somebody staring to me from the other side of the 45. Look at this photograph of Ann. Who does she remindroad. you for?20. He was always arguing about his brother. 46. She left Boston _____ Paris when she was 19.Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  8. 8. 21. I bumped for an old friend the other day. 47. If something is wrong, why don’t you do something for22. I agree with you that we should wait a bit longer for her. it?23. She never apologizes for arriving late. 48. Peter likes his job but he doesn’t talk about it much.24. I thought we should look to someone else to do the job. 49. I like to listen to the radio while I’m having breakfast. 50. Please don’t shout to me!Articles: definite, indefinite, zero  Look for activities in a grammar book or on the internet in order to practice the use of articles in English.Here are some suggestions of internet sites: http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-articles.php http://www.learn4good.com/languages/evrd_grammar/articles.htmThen write down some example sentences.I am going to visit  Mexico and the USA. (articles with names of countries) …I bought a pair of shoes. I saw a movie last night.They are staying at a hotel.I think The man over there is very unfriendly.I do not like X basketball.That is the problem I told you about.The night is quiet. Lets take a walk!The price of gas keeps rising.John traveled to X Mexico.Juan is X Spanish.I read an amazing story yesterday.My brother does not eat X chicken.X love is such a beautiful thing.I live in an apartment. The apartment is new.I would like a piece of cake.I was in a Japanese restaurant. The restaurant served good food.Sara can play the guitar.Should or Have to  Complete the following sentences with should or have to.(affirmative or negative))1. I have to be home by ten. (My parents told me so; it’s an obligation.)2. I have to get up early, because I start work at 8. (It is a rule.)3. I should get up early. (Now I stay in bed until lunchtime; it’s advisable.)4. You shouldnt smoke. (It is bad for your health.)5. You should go with me. (You can go with me if you want to – it’s not obligatory.)6. I should do the homework if I were you. (This is a good idea.)7. You shouldn’t be so rude, your parents are watching. (I think this is good advice.)  Look for more activities in a grammar book or on the internet in order to practice the use of articles in English.Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  9. 9. Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 5Conditional Sentences  Look at the following information on conditional sentences.Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in themain clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types ofConditional Sentences.Conditional Sentence Type 1 → It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled. Form: if + Simple Present, will-FutureExample: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation. or I’ll send her an invitation if I find her address.Conditional Sentence Type 2 → It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled. Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation. or I would send her an invitation if I found heraddress.Conditional Sentence Type 3 → It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past. Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle) Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation. or I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address. http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences  Complete the conditional sentences (type I, II and II) The Cat and the Mouse 1. Once upon a time the cat bit the mouses tail off. “Give me back my tail,” said the mouse. And the cat said, “Well, I Would Give(give) you back your tail if you fetched me some milk. But thats impossible to do for a little mouse like you. ” 2. The mouse, however, went to the cow. “The cat Will Only Give(give / only) me back my tail if I fetch her some milk.” 3. And the cow said, “Well, I would give you milk if you Got (get) me some hay. But thats impossible to do for a little mouse like you.” 4. The mouse, however, went to the farmer. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow Gives (give) me some milk. And the cow Will Only Give (only / give) me milk if I get her some hay.” 5. And the farmer said, “Well, I would give you hay if you Brought (bring) me some meat. But thats impossible to do for a little mouse like you.” 6. The mouse, however, went to the butcher. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow Gives (give) me milk. And the cow will only give me milk if she Gets (get) some hay. And the farmer Will Only Give (only / give) me hay if I get him some meat.” 7. And the butcher said, “Well, I would give you meat if you Made (make) the baker bake me a bread. But thats impossible to do for a little mouse like you. ”Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  10. 10. 8. The mouse, however, went to the baker. “The cat Will Only Give (give / only) me back my tail if I fetch her some milk.And the cow Will Not Give (give / not) me milk if I dont get her hay. And the farmer will only give me hay if the butcherHas (have)some meat for him. And the butcher will not give me meat if you Do Not Brake (bake / not) him a bread.”9. And the baker said, “Well, I Will Give (give) you bread if you promise never to steal my corn or meal. ”10. The mouse promised not to steal, and so the baker gave the mouse bread, the mouse gave the butcher bread. The butchergave the mouse meat, the mouse gave the farmer meat. The farmer gave the mouse hay, the mouse gave the cow hay. Thecow gave the mouse milk, the mouse gave the cat milk. And the cat gave the mouse her tail back.11. But imagine what would have happened otherwise:12. If the mouse Had Not Promised (promised / not) never to steal corn or meal, the baker Would not have given(not/give) the mouse bread. 13. If the baker Had not Given (not / give) the mouse bread, the butcher Would have refused (refuse) to give her meat for the farmer. 14. If the butcher Had refused (refuse) her any meat, the farmer Would not have been (not / be) willing to give the mouse hay. 15. If the farmer Had Not Been (not / be) willing to give the mouse hay, the mouse would not have received (not / receive) milk from the cow. 16. If the mouse Had Not Received (not / receive) milk from the cow, she Would not have got (not / get) back her tail. http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/cat-and-mousePurpose Clauses  Look at the following information.You use a purpose clause when you want to state the purpose of the action in the independent clause.Sarah went to the computer lab. She wanted to print out her report. - Sarah went to the computer lab to print out her report. - Sarah went to the computer lab in order to print out her report. - Sarah went to the computer lab so as to print out her report. - Sarah went to the computer lab so that she could print out her report.  Now build more similar sentences. (You may go to a grammar book or the internet.) Luís is Studying Sciences and technology. He wants to be doctor.Luís is studying sciences and technology in order to be doctor.Luís is studying sciences and technology to be doctor.Luís is studying sciences and technology so as to be doctor.Luís is studying sciences and technology so that he could be doctor.Notes:Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  11. 11. ESCOLA SECUNDÁRIA DE CARVALHOS Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 6 Mass Communication in the MediaVocabulary“Today we are beginning to notice that the new media are not just mechanical gimmicks for creating worlds of illusion, butnew languages with new and unique powers of expression.”(Marshall McLuhan quotes - Canadian communications theorist Educator, Writer and Social Reformer, 1911-1980 – inhttp://thinkexist.com/quotations/media/)Complete the following activities. A. When we speak of media we think of the press, broadcasting channels and modern technological means. Put the words in the box below into the most adequate category. reader channel hacker service plan anchorman paper circulation hardware SIM card browser cyberspace satellite TV service provider surfer listener website digital TV smart phone news agency / press agency tabloid netter reception programme monitor / screen journalist / reporter editor wireless cable TV viewer disc jockey high definition caller station newsstand cybernaut publisher quality broadsheet ratings software broadcast cameraman programmer presenter / announcer Reader, paper circulation, news agency/press agency, Newspapers and journalist/reporter, editor, newsstand, tabloid, publisher, Magazines quality broadsheet. Channel, satellite TV, listener, digital TV, programme, cable Radio and TV, viewer, disc jockey, high definition, station, ratings, Television cameraman, presenter/announcer, broadcast, reception, anchorman. Mobile Phones SIM card, smart phone, caller, service plan, service provider. (Cell Phones) Hacker, hardware, browser, cyberspace, surfer, website, Internet monitor/screen, wireless, cybernaut, software, programmer, netter, programme B. What do you do with the media? Match the following verbs to a communication medium. to publish to advertise to crash to search print media to chat to turn down to turn on to zap to link to print to tune in broadcast media to break into to surf to turn off to turn up to switch over to download to attach interactive media to broadcast to dub to switch over to browseLanguage Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  12. 12. “Cinema, radio, television, magazines are a school of inattention: people look without seeing, listen in without hearing.” (Robert Bresson quotes in http://thinkexist.com/quotations/media/ ) C. Read the following definitions and write down a word – solve the puzzle. Newspapers and Magazines 1. a newspaper the is published every day – daily_ newspaper 2. a piece of writing about news items – report 3. a piece of writing about an important subject – article 4. writing /articles giving an opinion on new films, books ... – reviews 5. an important article that expresses the editor’s opinion; leading article – editorial 6. title in large letters above a report / article – headlines 7. words printed under a picture – caption Radio and TV 8. the time when the greatest number of people are watching television or listening to the radio – prime time 9. a device used to control an apparatus from a distance – remote control 10. advertisements between programmes – commercials 11. words on the bottom of the screen that translate what is said in a film into different languages – subtitles Mobile Phones / Cell Phones 12. the area where your mobile phone can be used – coverage 13. mobile phone hardware – handset 14. money to make calls on a pre-paid phone service – credit 15. contract users sign to use a service plan – monthly contract Internet 16. a secret word or expression used by an authorised person to access information – password 17. information – data 18. software problem – virus 19. a piece of data downloaded to a computer by a website, containing details of the preferences of that computer user, which identifies the user when revisiting that site – cookie 20. unauthorised use or appropriation of patented or copyrighted material, ideas ... – piracy 21. software enabling a user to find and read hypertext files, especially on the www – browserNotes: (use this space to take note of something you want to remember or to translate a term)Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  13. 13. Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 7 D. What types of texts people find in the media? Use words / expressions in the box below to complete the columns of the table. mobile internet front page soap opera local news online newspapers, radio and TV feature article series voice call home news text message (SMS) email sitcoms back page music charts quiz shows / game shows documentary foreign news gossip weather forecast chat show / talk show reviews current events homepage listings wildlife programme cartoons video call reality show commercial Newspapers and Radio and TV – Magazines – Mobile Phones Internet Contents List /Index Programming Mobile internet, Soap opera, Voice call, Front page, Local news, Series, Text message (SMS), Online newspapers, Home news, Quiz shows/game Video call. radio, and TV; Sitcoms, shows, Email, Back page, Documentary, Homepage. Foreign news, Weather forecast, Reviews, Wild programme, Cartoons, Reality shows, Commercial. E. Write down some media related words (already present previously or new ones) and a translation into Portuguese or a definition in English.Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  14. 14. ESCOLA SECUNDÁRIA DE CARVALHOS Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 8 Communicating Media and Media CommunicationGrammarIf we communicate, the news is told by us. Or does the news tell us?Complete the activities.Phrasal Verbs / Multi-Part Verbs  Read the information below and then do the exercises that follow.To TurnTURN AROUND = change (reverse) directionTURN DOWN = A. refuse an offer or application B. reduce volumeTURN IN = A. submit B. go to bedTURN INTO = change from one form to another, transformTURN OFF = A. deliberately stop working (a stove, TV, etc.) B. something non pleasing or off putting sexuallyTURN ON = A. expected attack B. start to use TV, radio, car, etc. C. cause sexual excitementTURN OUT = A. produce B. switch off a light C. attend as audience D. end up being (finally discovering)TURN OVER = give to authorities or rightful ownersTURN UP = A. increase volume or capacity of a device B. find unexpectedly http://www.advanced-english-grammar.com/phrasal-verb-turn.htmlTo BreakBREAK DOWN = A. end negotiations B. begin to cry C. stop working D. have physiological problemsBREAK IN = A. wear or use sth new B. interrupt C. enter unlawfullyBREAK IN ON = interruptBREAK INTO = enter unlawfullyBREAK OFF = A. end relationship B. stop speaking about sthBREAK OUT = A. happen suddenly, violently B. get a rash C. use for celebratingBREAK OUT OF = escapeBREAK THROUGH = advance in science, medicine social issues etc.BREAK UP = A. break into pieces B. stop a fight C. end a relationship http://www.advanced-english-grammar.com/phrasal-verb-break.htmlEXERCISES: - Complete the sentences with the missing preposition. 1. He turned _________ the dessert as he had already eaten too much. 2. The truck broke ______ in the desert. 3. She broke __Off__ when he left her. 4. The plane turned __Of__ and went back the airport because of mechanical problems. 5. The mid-east peace talks broke __down__ after only two days. 6. I need to break __IN__ these new shoes... theyre killing my feet. 7. I broke __Up__ the puzzle into a thousand pieces. 8. Did you see the news last night? No, I turned __of__ early. 9. She had a break ______ after her husband died in a terrorist attack. 10. As a teacher, Ive had to break ___into__ a fight or two. 11. Over 1,000,000 people turned __around__ for the inauguration. 12. He broke ______ in mid sentence and then started speaking about something else. 13. John broke __IN___ on our private conversation... how rude! 14. Dont forget to turn _OFF_ the TV before you go to school. 15. You need to turn _OFF___ your homework every day. 16. Violent protests broke _INTO_ in Athens after the shooting of a student.Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  15. 15. 17. They broke __OFF_ after being together for 3 years. 18. While discussing the subject, John broke _______ with his take on the situation 19. My neighbor turned __AROUND__ to be a Nazi war criminal. 20. Are you still with Jill? No, we broke it _OFF___ in May. 21. Jackie Robinson broke ____IN____ the color barrier in professional baseball. 22. The violent patient broke ____INTO___ of the prison ward of the psychiatric hospital. 23. Turn _OFF_ the TV. Im trying to talk on the phone. 24. She broke _____ in red blotchy spots before the big exam. 25. Turn __UP__ the radio. I really like this new song. 26. The pit bull suddenly turned _ON__ the small child. 27. Turn __ON__ the light when you are through. 28. She kissed the frog, and it turned __INTO__ a handsome prince. 29. My wallet turned _____ outside the nightclub but it was empty. 30. The workers can turn _OUT__ 200 cars a day. 31. Break _IN_ the champagne! Im getting married! 32. Turn __ON__ the TV. Its time for the news. 33. They turned _DOWN__ the concert tickets to the kids who had lost them. 34. A burglar broke __INTO_ our house and took all of my moms jewels. 35. There was a break __OFF___ down the street last night be sure to lock up. Notes: (You may want to translate some of the above situations or add other information which might be useful)Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  16. 16. Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 9Conditional Sentences  Consult previous activities. Look for activities in a grammar book or on the internet in order to practice conditional sentences in English.Here are some suggestions of internet sites: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/if.htmThen write down some example sentences. 1) If we meet at 9:30, we will have plenty of time. 2) Lisa would find the milk if she looked in the fridge. 3) The zookeeper would have punished her with a fine if she had fed the animals. 4) If you spoke louder, your classmates would understand you. 5) Dan would arrive safe if he drove slowly. 6) You would have had no trouble at school if you had done your homework. 7) If you swim in this lake, youll shiver from cold. 8) The door will unlock if you press the green button. 9) If Mel had asked her teacher, hed have answered her questions. 10)I would call the office if I was/were you.Notes:Passive Voice  Look at the following information on the passive voice.UseWe only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused the action.Example: Appointments are required in such cases.We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence.Formto be + past participleHow to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:- object of the "active" sentence becomes subject in the "passive" sentence- subject of the "active" sentence becomes "object" in the "passive" sentence" (or is left out)Active: Peter builds a house.Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  17. 17. Passive: A house is built by Peter.The VerbsComplete the table.Active Peter builds a house. Simple PresentPassive: A house Was builted by Peter.Active Peter is building a house. Present ContinuousPassive: A house Has being builted by Peter.Active Peter builted a house. Simple PastPassive: A house Was builted by Peter.Active: Peter has built a house. Present PerfectPassive: A house Has been builted by Peter.Active: Peter will build a house. will-futurePassive: A house Will be builted by Peter.Active: Peter can build a house. ModalsPassive: A house Can be builted by Peter.Active sentences with two objects in passiveWhen there are two objects in an active sentence, there are two possible passive sentences.The professor explained the exercise to the students.There are two objects in each of the following sentences:object 1 = indirect object: the students (Idiomatic passive – most common form in English)object 2 = direct object: the exerciseAn indirect object is very often a person, a direct object a thing. When a direct object is followed by an indirectone, we put to in front of the indirect object. subject verb direct object indirect objectActive The professor explained the exercise to the students. subject verb object agentIdiomatic Passive: The students were explained the exercise by the professor.Passive: The exercise was explained to the students by the professor.  Look for activities in a grammar book or on the internet in order to practice the use of the passive voice in English.Here are some suggestions of internet sites: http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htm http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive  Write down a few exercises.He opens the door. -The door is opened by him.We set the table. -The table is set by usHe doesnt open the book. -The book is not opened by him.Does your mum pick you up? -Are you picked up by your mum?Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  18. 18. ESCOLA SECUNDÁRIA DE CARVALHOS Language Portfolio My Dossier Vocabulary / Grammar - 10 Technological WorldGrammar“Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species ability to control and adapt to their naturalenvironments.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology) Communication makes technological innovation efficient. However it’simportant to remember that the correct application of grammar greatly contributes towards a more adequate communication.Complete the activities that follow.Adjectives 1. Word OrderPlace the following adjectives in the correct order.a) red / sleeping / small - sleeping, small, red bagb) young / silly / English – silly, young, English manc) grey / huge / metal / round – huge, round, grey, metal bowld) old / square / dirty / wooden – square, dirty, old, wooden tablee) square / French / nice / big / old / white – nice, big, square, old, white, French chinaNow think of some examples of your own.Beautiful, long, fair hair.Dirty, old, white, gym shoes.There are some interesting sites on the Internet where you can practice this grammar item –http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-42493.phphttp://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-42493.phphttp://www.grammar-quizzes.com/adj_order.html 2. Comparative and Superlative DegreeComplete the following sentences with the adjectives in the correct degree.a) A Rolls Royce costs a lot of money. A Twingo costs less money. A Rolls Royce is (expensive) more expensivethan a Twingo.b) This exercise is not difficult. Its (easy) easier than I expected.c) An ocean is (large) larger than a sea.d) The Alps are very high. They are (high) the highest mountains in Europe.e) The weather is not good today - its raining. I hope the weather will be (good) better next week.f) In the government of a country, the President is (important) the most important person.g) People are not friendly in big cities. They are usually (friendly) friendlier in small towns.h) This exercise is not difficult. Its (easy) easier than I expected.i) Johns results were bad. Freds results were very poor. Freds results were (bad) worse than Johns.There are some interesting sites on the Internet where you can practice this grammar item –http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/adjectives-adverbs/adjectives/exerciseshttp://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/adjectives_adverbs/adjectives_comparison_sentences.htmNoun - PluralsWrite the plural of the following nouns.a) tool - tools f) knife - knivesb) box - boxes g) boy - boysc) goose - geese h) truck - trucksLanguage Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar
  19. 19. d) dish - dishes i) quiz - quize) loaf - loafs j) woman - wemanYou can now write down some interesting information you want to remember.Moose-mice, Ox-oxen___________________________________________________________________Coordination and SubordinationRewrite the following; do not change the meaning.a) Although he is rich, he is not happy. In spite of being rich, he is not happy.b) They spend their free time surfing the Net and listening to music on their IPod. They spend their free time surfing the Net. Moreover, they spend their free time listening to music on theirIPod too.c) He enjoyed the concert very much but he didn’t stay there until the end. Although he enjoyed the concert, he didn’t stay there until the end.d) Although he is determined, he won’t succeed. In spite of his determination, he won’t succed.e) The work was hard and the wages low. Even so he decided to take the job. Although the work was hard and the wages los, he decided to take the job.f) Tom and Jane were watching a documentary about the invention of the telephone. I was reading ainteresting novel. While Tom and Jane were watching a documentary about the invention of the telephone, I was reading ainteresting novel.g) In spite of working hard, Helen doesn’t earn very much. Although Helen be a hard work person, she doesn’t earn very muchh) Although Trent won the competition, he didn’t become famous. Despite winning the competition, Trent didn’t become famous.There are some interesting sites on the Internet where you can practice this grammar item –http://palc.sd40.bc.ca/palc/feature/2007/sentencecombine.htmhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/index.php?category_id=3&sub_category_id=4&article_id=77Language Portfolio (year 10) – Vocabulary / Grammar