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Busca Por Vida Fora Da Terra

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Apresentação sobre busca por vida fora da Terra.

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Busca Por Vida Fora Da Terra

  1. 1. Busca por vida fora da Terra Prof. Dr. Luís Brudna luisbrudna@gmail.com
  2. 2. Busca por vida inteligente e ´não-inteligente´. A busca por inteligência: SETI A busca por vida : exobiologia (astrobiologia)
  3. 3. Divisão entre os cientistas Singularistas: acham que a Terra é a única a abrigar vida inteligente em todo universo. Argumento: vida é difícil de manter Pluralistas: defendem a multiplicidade de mundos habitados por seres inteligentes. Argumento: existem 100bilhões de estrelas só na nossa galáxia
  4. 4. Exoplanetas Até o momento foram catalogados aproximadamente 230 planetas fora do sistema solar. Grande maioria é descoberta por métodos indiretos. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extrasolar_planet
  5. 5. Fomalhaut b
  6. 6. Número de exoplanetas descobertos por ano
  7. 7. Extremófilos Acidófilos – vivem em pH ácido (abaixo de 2) Acidobacterium
  8. 8. Alcalófilos – vivem em pH básico (acima de 9) Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus
  9. 9. Deinococcus radiodurans
  10. 10. Termófilos – altas temperaturas (80 oC)
  11. 11. Halófilos – altas concentrações de sais Halobacterium sp.
  12. 12. Moléculas orgânicas no espaço Astroquímica - Metanol, acetaldeído, formamida, ácido fórmico, benzeno, naftaleno, propenal... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_molecules_in_interstellar_space
  13. 13. A vida na Terra é resistente Terra tem aproximadamente 4,5 bilhões de anos Vida mais antiga é de 3,5 bilhões de anos.
  14. 14. Extinção da vida marinha
  15. 15. Camada K-T Grande quantidade de irídio
  16. 16. Irídio (proporção de isótopos) é comumente encontrado em asteróides
  17. 17. Candidatos no sistema solar Marte – seco Europa (lua de Júpiter)– frio
  18. 18. Titã (lua de Saturno) - frio Lago de metano
  19. 19. História da busca por vida inteligente 1686 – Bernard de Bovier de Fontenelle publicou o Diálogos sobre a pluralidade dos mundos. Voltaire, em seu livro O filósofo Ignorante, comenta sobre a possível pluralidade de mundos habitados.
  20. 20. A pluralidade também foi comentada por Kant, mas ironizada por David Hume. Em 1796, o astrônomo Pierre Simon de Laplace também considerou possível a existência de vida em outros planetas.
  21. 21. 1820 – O matemático Carl Friedrich Gauss propôs que fossem plantadas árvores em formas de quadrados que representassem um triângulo retângulo.
  22. 22. 1869 – O francês Charles Cris propôs o envio de sinais luminosos a Marte e Vênus. 20 anos depois, na França oferecem um prêmio de cem mil francos para quem (em 10 anos) conseguir meios de comunicar-se com um astro e receber resposta.
  23. 23. 1877 – Giovanni Schiaparelli (italiano) observou um sistema de canali na superfície do planeta Marte. A má interpretação desta informação gerou toda a história dos marcianos. O astrônomo americano Percival Lowell interpretou os ´canali´ como resultado de uma civilização marciana a beira da extinção.
  24. 24. Mapa de Marte feito por Giovanni Schiaparelli (1877)
  25. 25. Mapa de Marte feito por Giovanni Schiaparelli
  26. 26. Imagem recente de marte
  27. 27. 1959- Searching for Interstellar Communications Giuseppe Cocconi e Philip Morrison 19 September 1959 Vol 184 No 4690 pp835-918 Nature
  28. 28. 1960- Equipe de Frank Drake inicia o SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Inteligence) Inicialmente foi chamado de ´Projeto Ozma´ (referência ao Mágico de Oz) http://www.seti.org/
  29. 29. Frank Drake - Green Bank, West Virginia, 26 metros de diâmetro
  30. 30. A primeira estrela observada foi Tau Ceti Comparação Sol Tau Ceti 12 anos luz da Terra
  31. 31. A segunda foi Epsilon Eridani. Um sinal! Captaram pulsos de rádio (8 por segundo) Será que a detecção de vida inteligente seria tão fácil? Análises posteriores mostraram que era somente uma aeronave militar em testes.
  32. 32. Ohio State University SETI program (~1963) Big Ear
  33. 33. Sinal WOW! Detectado por Jerry Ehman em agosto de 1977. No Big Ear. Teve duração de 72 segundos e não se repetiu.
  34. 34. NASA (1971) Project Cyclops – nunca foi concluído Planejavam construir uma rede de 1500 radiotelescópios. Custo de 10 bilhões de dólares. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Cyclops
  35. 35. Enviando uma mensagem (1974) Tentativa simbólica em 16 de novembro de 1974. Arecibo Porto Rico Diâmetro: 305m
  36. 36. - Números de 1 a 10 - Números atômicos do H, C, N, O e P (átomos do DNA) - Fórmula de estruturas do DNA - Representação gráfica do DNA, um humano, Sistema Solar e o radiotelescópio.
  37. 37. Aglomerado Messier 13 Distância de 25.000 anos-luz
  38. 38. SERENDIP (1979) Search for Extraterrestrial Radio Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations University of California, Berkeley
  39. 39. SETI@HOME (1999) http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/
  40. 40. World Community Grid 250 anos de processamento por dia Diversos projetos: - Medicamentos para dengue - Cura da AIDS - Luta contra o câncer (em crianças) - Enovelamento de proteínas - Arroz mais nutritivo - Energia limpa - Comparação de genomas (projeto Brasileiro concluído) http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/
  41. 41. Projeto MOP (1992) Os investimentos no Microwave Observing Program (MOP) chamaram a atenção do congresso americano, foi encerrado em 1993. Em 1995 o Seti Institute reativou com o nome de Projeto Phoenix.
  42. 42. Allen Telescope Array Outubro de 2007 (42 antenas) 13,5 milhões Paul Allen
  43. 43. Planos futuros para 350 antenas
  44. 44. Equação de Drake DVD (cap. 4 - 28 min)
  45. 45. Paradoxo de Fermi Alguns cálculos e considerações feitos por Enrico Fermi levou ele a concluir que poderia existir um grande número de civilizações tecnológicas no universo. Ficou a pergunta: “Onde eles estão?” Ele calculou também que poderia demorar quase 2000 anos até que um contato pudesse ser estabelecido.
  46. 46. Algumas hipóteses: 1) Não existem civilizações alienígenas 2) Civilizações alienígenas são primitivas e incapazes de radiocomunicação estelar 3) Hipótese do espelho: civilizações estão no mesmo patamar do nosso 4) Civilizações avançadas não conhecem a nossa existência 5) Civilizações avançadas se comunicariam conosco se pudesse nos chamar a atenção.
  47. 47. 6) Sabem que existimos, mas não tem interesse 7) Hipótese zoológico: civilizações estudam a Terra com discrição 8) Hipótese dos OVNIs: aparecem esporadicamente e interferem em alguns assuntos humanos 9) Hipótese do experimento: usam os humanos como cobaias
  48. 48. Mais mensagens enviadas 1972 Pioneer 10 e 1973 Pioneer 11
  49. 49. Voyager (1977) http://goldenrecord.org/ áudio
  50. 50. Faudes e enganos (Ufologia) O interesse pelos OVNIS (Objetos Voadores Não Identificados (UFOs – Unidentified Flying Object)) teve o início em 1947.
  51. 51. Piloto de aviação comercial Kenneth Arnold.
  52. 52. Alegações extraordinárias exigem provas extraordinárias.
  53. 53. Argumentos ruins - Relatos não são suficientes - A NASA já pesquisou... - Argumentação ad hoc - ...milhares de anos... - Inversão do ônus da prova -...milhares de pessoas... - Argumento de autoridade - Testes e causalidade mal investigadas
  54. 54. Influência de fatores culturais.
  55. 55. OVNI de Vórtice em Caratinga
  56. 56. Adamski - 1952
  57. 57. São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil (2003)
  58. 58. Tientsin, Hopeh, norte da China (1943)
  59. 59. Cidade do México, México (2003)
  60. 60. Nashville, Tenessee, EUA (1989)
  61. 61. Uruguaiana, Brasil (2002)
  62. 62. Humor http://www.humornaciencia.com.br
  63. 63. Bibliografia
  64. 64. FIM Obrigado pela atenção.

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