B3 present eco-2-building - estratto

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B3 present eco-2-building - estratto

  1. 1. Modular     Transportable     Timber-­‐Frame     Self-­‐Builted       ECO-­‐2   BUILDING       Yes, but … Why not !
  2. 2. Whole Systems Thinking: Household scale Unsustainable Open-Linear Sustainable Closed-Cyclical
  3. 3. Modular  Transportable  Timber-­‐Frame  Self-­‐Built  Eco-­‐2-­‐Housing    
  4. 4. Not  too  thecnologic,  complex,  cool,  expensive  …  
  5. 5. Not  too  natural,  alternaBve,  unreplicable    …  
  6. 6. But,  something  in  the  middle,  simple,  natural,  efficient,  nice  …  
  7. 7. Self-­‐Building   Factory-­‐Schools  
  8. 8. Self-­‐Building  Costs    
  9. 9. Fine  Design  Eco-­‐Houses  
  10. 10. Fine  Design  Eco-­‐Houses  
  11. 11. SensiBve  site  design   Influence of sun, wind, rain, microclimate Site hydrology, topography, geology Site flora and fauna Criiters
  12. 12. Wood  +  Bricks  
  13. 13. Hea1ng   Biomass  -­‐  Pellets   Hot  Water   Thermo  Solar   Hot  air   Heat  Pump   Steam   ComposBng   HeaBng   Passive  House  
  14. 14. Electric  Power   Wind     Mill   Hot  air   Turbine   Human     power   Steam     Turbine   Idro-­‐   electric  
  15. 15. Ventilation – keeping air fresh and staying cool enough – the Passivhaus approach in Canolfan Hyddgen Passivhaus buildings have very high and specific standards for airtightness and high levels of insulation. A significant amount of the heat energy needed will come from people in the building and the lights and equipment, so the architects need to know exactly how the building will be used. If the temperature changes the automatic controls will decrease or increase heating, increase ventilation etc.
  16. 16. In use – understanding and managing the buildings St Lukes has displays in every room describing how the systems in the school work and the pupils will be able to access real time monitoring data of energy and water use on the School’s computers St Lukes also has a cut-away display in the lobby showing the warmcell insulation The manager at Canolfan Hyddgen makes sure that users know how the system works and how to manage it WISE – the staff at CAT are very aware of energy management issues. St Lukes Display
  17. 17. Daylighting - light from the sun without glare – Y Senedd The  public  open  area  has  very  large   areas  of  window  giving  views  over   the  Bay  and  reinforcing  the  idea  of   an  open  democracy   The  lantern  allows  natural  daylight  into  the   Siambr  (Chamber  where  the  Assembly  members   sit).      A  conical  mirror  within  the  lantern  reflects   addiBonal  daylight  into  the  Siambr  and  this  can  be   lowered  to  control  daylight  levels  
  18. 18. Ventilation – keeping air fresh and staying cool enough - Y Senedd . The roof cowl is designed to rotate with changes in wind direction.  This produces a negative pressure on the leeward side of the cowl that allows warm air to be drawn out of the Siambr    
  19. 19. WISE - Making the best use of a site Large solar system – heating water for the bedrooms below Daylighting from rooflights Passive solar space heating of bedrooms bedrooms workshops Passive solar space heating courtyard foyer Section of the WISE building lecture theatre South
  20. 20. Solar gain – Walls that stop heat from escaping and walls that store heat Solar energy coming through the south facing windows of Canolfan Hyddgen provides 1/3 of the heating. The solar energy falls on the solid floor and internal walls and their thermal mass stores the heat overnight Canolfan Hyddgen Triple glazed windows Warmcel insulation - made from recycled newspapers solid internal walls and floor = thermal mass highly insulated external walls using Warmcel
  21. 21. Solar gain - and then storing the sun’s energy as heat - WISE Double glazed low E windows Rammed earth wall On the south side of WISE a glazed area encloses the wall of the lecture theatre. The solar energy falls on the solid, dense earth wall which stores the heat overnight because of its thermal mass. The external walls in WISE are a 50cm thick mix of hemp and lime insulation. Other internal walls on the ground floor in WISE are also dense - made of unfired earth blocks
  22. 22. Ventilation – keeping air fresh and staying cool enough Thermal mass can take some heat out of the air but sometimes you need to do more. Many modern buildings use air conditioning but that uses a lot of energy. In St Lukes the classrooms are cross ventilated by natural wind flow from low level windows or vents that can be opened to the high clerestory windows that are opened automatically. Vents The vents are designed with wooden slats on the outside and a grill so that they can even be left open at night in the summer to cool the building down.
  23. 23. Ventilation – keeping air fresh and staying cool enough - WISE Thermal mass can take some heat out of the air but frequently you need to do more. Many modern buildings use air conditioning but that uses a lot of energy. In the lecture theatre there is a heirarchy of cooling/ventilation systems. First a thermostat turns the underfloor heating off. Fresh air can flow from the lobby and up out through vents in the lantern (stack ventilation). Then a CO2 sensor can trigger air to be drawn with a fan out through vents half way up the wall and through a system that either recovers heat or draws in cool air, depending on the weather.
  24. 24. Renewable technologies – generating electricity Canolfan Hyddgen has 7kW   of  PV  cells.  These  will   generate  about  ¼  of   the  building’s  electricity   use       CAT put in an extra 7kW of Photovoltaic cells attached to WISE (added to an existing set of 13kW). The 7kW should produce 5300kWh a year.     PV cells are a very expensive way to generate electricity in the British climate. The efficiency of the building itself is much more important.   The WAG building in Aberystwyth has a small wind turbine but WAG policy is also to buy green electricity which will come from much more efficient large scale windfarms  
  25. 25. Renewable technologies – producing heat St Lukes, WISE and the Senedd have boilers that burn wood chip or wood pellets.     As WISE has ensuite study bedrooms for people on courses, it uses far more hot water than the other buildings so it has a 70m2 solar water heating system.   CAT is experimenting with a large wood chip combined-heat-andpower plant to provide heat and electricity for WISE
  26. 26. Managing energy – electricity use Electrical devices use energy but they also give off heat which can make a big difference in a very well insulated building All these buildings use low energy lighting – LEDs and efficient fluorescent tubes. They also use sensors to turn them off when they are not needed LED lighting in WISE Low energy computers were specified in Canolfan Hyddgen because such a precise system could overheat but it’s difficult to make sure that users continue to use low energy appliances. Low energy fridge in staff room at St Lukes

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