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Farmers access to genebanks

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Presented at Committee on Food Security 41 side event organized by International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food & Agriculture “Food security and Nutrition through the Sustainable Use and Innovation of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as Key Elements for Implementing Farmers’ Rights”, 14 October 2014
http://www.planttreaty.org/sites/default/files/CFS_ITPGRFA-event-Farmers-Rights_en.pdf
https://www.flickr.com/photos/faonews/sets/72157648758770702/

Published in: Science

Farmers access to genebanks

  1. 1. Crop Diversity • The basis for productivity and resilience of farming systems • The raw material for crop improvement • Conserved by farmers for millennia • Endangered in many places • Safeguarded in a global system of genebanks, like...
  2. 2. International Crop Diversity Collections
  3. 3. International collections: conservation – Barley: ICARDA 27,000 – Beans: CIAT 36,000 – Chickpea: ICARDA + ICRISAT 34,000 – Forages: CIAT + ICARDA + ILRI 66,000 – Maize: CIMMYT +IITA 28,000 – Potato: CIP 7,000 – Rice: AfricaRice + IRRI 129,000 – Wheat: CIMMYT + ICARDA 167,000 TOTAL for all crops ≈750,000 9
  4. 4. International collections: use 10 • Distributed 672,296 samples to 187 countries 2004-2013 • Vital to public sector crop improvement programmes in developing countries • Significant distribution to farmers, farmer organizations & NGOs: 3,520 samples (2013)
  5. 5. International collections: How farmers benefit 11 • Back-up for on-farm conservation • Direct use – Restoration: eg Seeds of Hope (CIAT) – Targeted evaluation: eg Seeds for Needs (Bioversity) • Crop improvement – Hundreds of improved varieties released by NARES
  6. 6. Global Crop Diversity Trust • International organization – Secretariat in Bonn, Germany from January 2013 • Policy guidance of ITPGRFA – Essential element of funding strategy of Treaty • Governed by Executive Board – Treaty, Donors Council, FAO, CGIAR • Endowment: long-term funding for genebanks – Projects: to overcome key constraints
  7. 7. History of the Crop Trust Oct. 2003, FAO CGRFA endorsed the establishment of the Crop Trust: “…. on the joint efforts of FAO and the CGIAR to establish a Global Conservation Trust, to provide, in perpetuity, a flow of funds for ex situ conservation by national and international institutions … The Trust would operate in the framework of the International Treaty, and be an essential element of its Funding Strategy. The overall policy guidance to the Trust would come from the Governing Body of the Treaty. This initiative was universally appreciated and supported, and appeals were made to donors to assist in the establishment of the Trust…” 13
  8. 8. International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources • Calls for a global system for conservation of crop diversity • CGIAR genebank collections covered under Article 15, replacing earlier agreements with FAO • Recognized as key component of global system 14
  9. 9. Project activities Collecting Conservation Regeneration Information systems Duplication Permanent backup 15
  10. 10. Supporting National Genebanks REGENERATION • 79,725 regenerated • 86 institutes in 77 countries SAFETY DUPLICATION • 43,676 accessions • 56 countries 16
  11. 11. Saving Crop Wild Relatives • Conserving diversity that was left behind during domestication • Making it available to farmers through pre-breeding 17
  12. 12. Svalbard Global Seed Vault 18
  13. 13. 19
  14. 14. Svalbard Global Seed Vault 21
  15. 15. Phillippine National Genebank Typhoon Xangsane, 2006 22
  16. 16. 23 More than 820,000 varieties stored in the Vault Seeds from nearly every country in the world deposited by 58 institutes
  17. 17. 24
  18. 18. 25
  19. 19. Genebanks around the world • rescue and safeguard crop diversity • make it available to users such as breeders and farmers • study it and make information about available for research and crop improvement • need reliable funding ensure the long-term availability of diversity & data 26 Summary
  20. 20. Thank you www.croptrust.org 27

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