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Building a Global System for Conserving Crop Diversity

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Presented at a seminar organized by graduate students at the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, June 2018.

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Building a Global System for Conserving Crop Diversity

  1. 1. Building a Global System for Conserving Crop Diversity Luigi Guarino Global Crop Diversity Trust luigi.guarino@croptrust.org Blog https://agro.biodiver.se Twitter @AgroBioDiverse
  2. 2. • Science • History • Politics • Economics • Beyoncé Contents
  3. 3. The Sustainable Development Goals
  4. 4. The Sustainable Development Goals
  5. 5. Target 2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed Zero hunger Indicator 2.5.1 Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium or long-term conservation facilities
  6. 6. Rt = i r σA / y
  7. 7. “We propose a metric of “nutritional yield,” the number of adults who would be able to obtain 100% of their recommended DRI of different nutrients for 1 year from a food item produced annually on one hectare…” http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6245/238.summary
  8. 8. v = Ki – p / 10 KE – CWlog10m – CHt – CQt2
  9. 9. http://data.kew.org/sid/viability/
  10. 10. Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (1887-1943) “…in Arizona ca. 1930, probably Papago Indian Reservation examining Devil’s claw (Proboscidea). Photo by H.C. Shanty.”
  11. 11. Erna Bennett (1925-2012) “I met Erna in Athens in 1998 at a world meeting of communist and workers’ parties (she represented the CPA). She told me about flying unarmed bombers from the U.S. to Britain, how her facility with languages led to her recruitment to the intelligence services, how she was parachuted into Greece, about her capture and liberation from Gestapo custody, how the British took Greece over after the war (the bullet holes are still visible) and about her career in the FAO.” -- Darrell Rankin https://agro.biodiver.se/2012/01/erna-bennett-more-on-this-unique-
  12. 12. • 7.4 million accessions 1.4 million > than 10 years ago 1.9-2.2 million unique • 1,750 genebanks 130 with >10,000 11 international collections (CGIAR) Where are we now? • State of the World’s PGRFA • Global Plan of Action • International Treaty • Global Information System
  13. 13. CGIAR collections
  14. 14. http://www.fao.org/plant-treaty/en/
  15. 15. Where are we now? https://elearning.informea.org/course/view.php?id=13
  16. 16. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/foodfeatures/green-revolution/
  17. 17. • Do we really know the total number of accessions worldwide? • …and the number of unique accessions? • Are all available under similar conditions? • Is data easily available for all of these? • Is everything unique backed up in a couple of places? • Are the collections “complete”? • Do we know how much it all costs? • Can we pay for it? • And how much is it all worth? But is it a system?
  18. 18. • Money is short • Shit continues to happen • We’re increasingly interdependent Well, does it have to be a system?
  19. 19. Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) edited by R. von Bothmer, T. van Hintum, H. Knüpffer, K. Sato (2003)
  20. 20. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gravensteiner_Europom_Luxemburg_330.jpg
  21. 21. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2011/07/food-ark/
  22. 22. Shattering Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity by Cary Fowler and Pat Mooney https://agro.biodiver.se/2008/06/sorghum-endures/
  23. 23. • Money is short • Shit continues to happen • We’re increasingly interdependent Well, does it have to be a system?
  24. 24. Food supplies calories
  25. 25. Food supplies calories
  26. 26. Production quantity Global average: 71.0% ± 1.8 of production quantity 64.0% ± 2.2 of harvested area 72.9% ± 1.9 of production value
  27. 27. Production systemsFood supplies
  28. 28. The Changing Global Diet http://ciat.cgiar.org/the-changing-global-diet/ Where Our Food Crops Come From http://blog.ciat.cgiar.org/origin-of-crops/
  29. 29. • Bringing data together • Identifying gaps • Duplicating for safety • Working together • Raising funds So what are we doing about it?
  30. 30. https://www.genesys-pgr.org/welcome
  31. 31. https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.3096 http://evolution.ibcas.ac.cn/research-3.htm http://maize.teacherfriendlyguide.org/index.php/what-is-maize/what-is-domestication
  32. 32. The ‘CWR Project’: Collecting, Protecting and Preparing Crop Wild Relatives 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Quality Trait Phenological Trait Morphological Trait Fertility Trait Biotic Stress Agronomic Trait Abiotic Stress
  33. 33. The ‘CWR Project’: Collecting, Protecting and Preparing Crop Wild Relatives • Supported by Norwegian Government from climate change adaptation funds • $50 million, 10 years • 29 crop genepools (ITPGRFA Annex 1) • Started in Jan. 2011 • Partnership with Millennium Seed Bank, Kew
  34. 34. The ‘CWR Project’: Collecting, Protecting and Preparing Crop Wild Relatives Global gap analysis: Priority setting for collecting Pre-breeding and evaluation partnerships for climate change adaptation Support national genebanks in collecting and conservation
  35. 35. Determine gaps in collections Model distributions Organize taxonomic data Collate occurrences Make collecting recommendations Geo-reference MaxEnt
  36. 36. The ‘CWR Project’: Collecting, Protecting and Preparing Crop Wild Relatives • 81 crop genepools globally important for food security • 1079 crop wild relative taxa (GP1 and GP2 + less closely related taxa with proven and potential uses in breeding) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320713002851 Organize taxonomic data
  37. 37. The ‘CWR Project’: Collecting, Protecting and Preparing Crop Wild Relatives Collating & curating occurrence data from 420 sources Collate occurrences Geo-reference
  38. 38. The ‘CWR Project’: Collecting, Protecting and Preparing Crop Wild Relatives Model distributions
  39. 39. Determine gaps in collections
  40. 40. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 High priority taxa for collection Mid priority taxa for collection Low priority taxa for collection No further collection is required CWRtaxa 71%
  41. 41. Broom millet Finger millet Quinoa Rice Maize Foxtail millet Oat Barley Foxtail millet Rye Wheat Finger millet Pearl millet Rice Sorghum Foxtail millet Pearl millet Rice Sorghum
  42. 42. https://www.cwrdiversity.org/resources/ Make collecting recommendations
  43. 43. Conservation
  44. 44. Determine gaps in collections Model distributions Organize taxonomic data Collate occurrences Make collecting recommendations Geo-reference MaxEnt https://github.com/CIAT-
  45. 45. Use
  46. 46. Eggplant pre-breeding project https://www.cwrdiversity.org/sweet-potato-square-one-2/ https://www.cwrdiversity.org/lentil-serendipity-and-hard-work/ Pre-breeding stories by Elsa Matthus
  47. 47. • Bringing data together • Identifying gaps • Duplicating for safety • Working together • Raising funds So what are we doing about it?
  48. 48. https://www.nordgen.org/sgsv/
  49. 49. https://tour.croptrust.org/
  50. 50. Working together: The Genebank Platform
  51. 51. 749,656 accessions  717,205 seed  23,529 tissue culture  27,763 whole plants  479,819 samples distributed (157 countries)  271,428 accessions regenerated  193,662 health tested  304,095 viability tested  2,568 collected  905 cryobanked 11 International Genebanks 2012-2015
  52. 52. • Bringing data together • Identifying gaps • Duplicating for safety • Working together • Raising funds What are we doing about it?
  53. 53. How much does it cost and who will pay?
  54. 54. The Crop Trust Endowment Fund
  55. 55. • Food Security Bond • Investment Sharing Facility • Concessional loans • Green Climate Fund • Rich people • Crowdfunding Government grants are not enough Photo: Michael Poliza
  56. 56. Industry needs to step up
  57. 57. Will it work? 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 $Millions Crop Trust Endowment Fund Portfolio book value vs cumulative contributions $25.3 million withdrawn & used to support genebank operations since 2005
  58. 58. Will it work? https://www.food4ever.org/
  59. 59. THANK YOU WWW.CROPTRUST.ORG

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