Rewind to fast forward: retrospectives as the essence of Agile


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My mini Italian Agile Day workshop on retrospectives: an in depth analysis of retrospectives and how to facilitate them effectively

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Rewind to fast forward: retrospectives as the essence of Agile

  1. 1. Rewind to fast forward Retrospectives as the essence of Agile Luigi Berrettini @luigiberrettini # m i n i i a d # a g i l e # r e t r o s p e c t i v e s@coderstug
  2. 2. Silent birthday
  3. 3. People map
  4. 4. Non musical chairs
  5. 5. Sanity check
  6. 6. Insanity Doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results
  7. 7. Advice Bob Newhart
  8. 8. No organization no party
  9. 9. Post-mortems / Lessons learned • Too late to change something • Useless for different projects or situations • No focus on team and team issues • No one cares if project ok • Witch hunt if project ko • Often sacrificed to save money Can you help him?
  10. 10. Are you serious?
  11. 11. Let’s inspect and adapt!
  12. 12. Agility
  13. 13. Continuous improvement
  14. 14. Scientific method
  15. 15. PDCA cycle Walter Shewhart Edward Deming PLAN Decide activities assuming that perfection could not be reached (experiment) DO Implement the plan to get information on how to do better CHECK Analyze: planned versus actual ACT Adapt the process
  16. 16. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly 12th principle of the Agile manifesto
  17. 17. Challenging the 12th principle – When? At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly
  18. 18. Challenging the 12th principle – Who? At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly
  19. 19. Challenging the 12th principle – What? At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly *SPECTIVES
  20. 20. Challenging the 12th principle – Why? At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly
  21. 21. Challenging the 12th principle – How? At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly
  22. 22. Everyone continuously reflects on how to become more effective to better team behavior accordingly The enhanced 12th principle
  23. 23. Reflection
  24. 24. The need for ritual Rituals bring people together, allowing them to focus on what is important and to acknowledge significant events or accomplishments They give rhythm and familiarity to an otherwise chaotic life A basic human instinct, as real, urgent and raw as our need for food, shelter and love
  25. 25. What is a retrospective? Meeting to inspect and adapt methods and teamwork after an increment of work Safe place for the team to communicate constructively sharing feedback Sense-making process to understand what happens in order to act for improvement Time for the team to reflect and learn: improvement doesn't happen by hoping Provides insights applicable now, to the current team and business problem
  26. 26. Introspection Raise the visibility of issues and discuss them before they build up to a crisis Identify, group and order the major items that went well and potential improvements Inspect how the team is doing: people, relationships, processes, practices and tools HANSEI
  27. 27. Improvement Build trust and participation creating a safe environment Learning from experience, building on what works, gaining perspective and deciding what to change KAIZEN Devise an actionable plan for improvements to be enacted before next retrospective
  28. 28. Kerth's retrospective prime directive Regardless of what we discover, we understand and truly believe that everyone did the best job they could, given what they knew at the time, their skills and abilities, the resources available, and the situation at hand
  29. 29. Mini retrospectives
  30. 30. Full-fledged retrospectives GATHER DATA (30 - 50%) Create a shared picture of what happened Focus on looking for both positive and negative events Expand everyone's perspective SET THE STAGE (5%) Get prepared to be more trusting and likely to participate GENERATE INSIGHTS (20 - 30%) Identify strengths and issues Look at causes and effects and think about them analytically Group and prioritize the generated data DECIDE WHAT TO DO (15 - 20%) Pick the top 2 or 3 items where improvement is desired Discuss the executable action items that address top issues The team makes a vote on their ability and desire to commit to execution of each action item CLOSE THE RETROSPECTIVE (10%) Reiterate actions and follow-ups, appreciate contributions and identify ways to make the next retrospective better
  31. 31. Activities quick reference matrix (I)
  32. 32. Activities quick reference matrix (II)
  33. 33. Facilitation
  34. 34. Differences Mediators propose solutions (knowledge of the domain) Facilitators help people find a solution (group management skills)
  35. 35. Attitude Not-judging Process focused Multi-directed partiality Not-knowing Solution focused
  36. 36. Choose the right one to... Keep a confidence Take sandwich orders
  37. 37. Choices Fundamental facts in all human relations Jacob Levy Moreno
  38. 38. Choices MUTUAL two people choose each other CHAIN A chooses B who chooses C and so on GAP disjoint clusters of people STAR most chosen person for a criterion
  39. 39. Sociometry Measures the degree of relatedness among people
  40. 40. Group dynamics ZURCHER Orientation, Catharsis, Focus, Action, Limbo, Testing, Purposive TUCKMAN Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning
  41. 41. Team development 1. uncertainty: getting one's feet wet 2. visible and hidden conflicts among team members 3. increased cohesion and collaboration 4. full development of group and individual potential 5. group has fulfilled its goals and objectives 1. create an environment that allows sharing (set the stage) 2. support and promote clarity and clarifications (relax the time box constraint if needed) 3. the team sets the rules of the game: do not force, but invite or propose 4. let them work and produce 5. recognize the group members for their accomplishments and celebrate the group's overall success
  42. 42. System dynamics structures of what is perceived as an attractor barriers i.e. who is included and who is not role/identity of a member i.e. that of the team group diversity: homogeneous groups are dumber physical environment and workplace culture A B I D E
  43. 43. Tips and tricks
  44. 44. Retrospectives on steroids • Retro box • No tables • Change facilitator • Vary the technique • Be organized but flexible • Build a safe environment • Open honest communication • Encourage diversity of views • Listen, ask, clarify, summarize • Be respectful • Appreciate successes • Manage group dynamics • Use root cause analysis • Double loop learning • Look at the big picture • Ideate and look at the future
  45. 45. Achieving effectiveness
  46. 46. Smells • Blamestorming • Wait for the retro • Back to the future • Offline retrospective • Retrospective in the team room • Only a few participants • Everybody is happy • Reporting to management • Elephant in the room • Facilitator doesn't facilitate • Looking for silver bullets • Too short retro
  47. 47. Hands-on practice
  48. 48. Gloger's ball point game • Team members must touch each ball at least once • Balls must have air-time • No balls to direct neighbors (left or right) • Start point is also end point • 3 iterations: - 1 min preparation time - 2 min play
  49. 49. Debriefing • Rhythm • Inspecting and adapting is better than planning • Collaboration and communication increase productivity • Systems velocity can be improved only changing the process • Theory of constraints: - stretch goals increase performance - impossible goals decrease it • Flow if: - doable challenge - meaningful work - no disturbance during iterations
  50. 50. References
  51. 51. Books
  52. 52. Links The Scrum primer The Scrum Guide Beyond post-mortems Patterns for iteration retrospectives Silent birthday People map Non musical chairs IAD 2013 - Retrospettive creative Multi-directed partiality Sociometry Stages of group development ABIDE model Retro box Creative retrospectives Effective retrospectives Scrum through the ball point game Tasty cupcakes
  53. 53. Agile in practice: retrospectives after iterations Agile retrospectives: Making good teams great! 60 second Scrum better retrospectives How to improve your Scrum sprint retrospective? Ball Point Game Videos
  54. 54. Images Ready set go Clock close up Mini IAD logo The ice breaker Silence People map Circle of chairs The shining Einstein Bob Newhart Stop Disorganization Morgue Delorean Moonwalk I define Agile Upward bow Exercise Scientific method PDCA Pergamena Pinned post-it note Spectives Wing mirror Tribe dance Retrospective Blackboard Hansei Kaizen USS Enterprise Mini retrospective Lego retrospective Office swimmers Office jugglers Facilitation Facilitator Attitude Pat on shoulder Choice Friends Business people Hands in sand Hand hold circle Dave Snowden Magician Bicep Post-its Success baby Bad smell Hands-on The ball point game Ball point game moments Magnifying glass Agile Retrospectives Bookshelf Fun retrospectives Getting Value out of Retros Project Retrospectives The Retrospective Handbook Web Colors Drive-in
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