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  1. 1. The Research Problem and TheBasic Components
  2. 2. CONTENTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER• Chapter I. The Problem A. Introduction B. Statement of the Problem C. Hypothesis D. Definition of Terms E. Significance of the Study F. Scope and Limitation of the Study 06/09/12 Free template from
  3. 3. CONTENTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER• Chapter II. Review of Related Studies A. Related Literature and Studies B. Conceptual Framework• Chapter III. Research Methodology A. Research Design B. Research Locale C. Samples and Sampling Technique D. Research Instruments 06/09/12 Free template from
  4. 4. CONTENTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER• Chapter IV. Presentation and Interpretation of Data A. Results or Findings of the Study• Chapter V. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations A. Summary B. Conclusions and Recommendations06/09/12 Free template from
  6. 6. REASONS FOR CONDUCTING A RESEARCH STUDY1. If there are no answers to a particular problem3. If there is a gap in knowledge5. If there are answers to problems but the answers are not yet tested7. If a contradiction exist5. If there is an insufficient solution to a problem 06/09/12 Free template from
  8. 8. SOURCES OF RESEARCH TOPICS• Research Topics - refers to concepts or broad problem areas that contain numerous potential research problems.• Venzon stated that “Topics arise in various ways. Natural curiosity or burning interest in a particular area may lead to the formulation of a problem.” 06/09/12 Free template from
  9. 9. Sources of Research Topics • Personal Experiences • Existing Problems in the Workplace • Technological and Scientific Advancements • Offshoots of Other Researchers • Suggestions from Colleagues, Administrators, Teachers… etc • Professional Journals, Seminars, Symposia, Conferences06/09/12 Free template from
  10. 10. Sources of Research Topics• Other Sources of Topics • Field of specialization • Organizational structure and policies • Literature sources • Clinical specialization 06/09/12 Free template from
  11. 11. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF A RESEARCHABLE TOPIC1. Novelty2. Researcher’s Interest in the Problem3. Practical Value of the Problem4. Theoretical Value of the Problem6. Availability of Data7. Capability of the Researcher to Write 06/09/12 Free template from
  12. 12. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF A RESEARCHABLE TOPIC7. Special Equipment8. Sponsorship9. Administrative Support10. Cost of Research11. Time Frame12. Hazards 06/09/12 Free template from
  14. 14. WRITING THE TITLE OF THE STUDY• The title embodies substantive words or phrases that describe the research study. 06/09/12 Free template from
  15. 15. WRITING THE TITLE OF THE STUDY• Research title must be clearly stated, and specifically stated to serve some purposes 06/09/12 Free template from
  16. 16. WRITING THE TITLE OF THE STUDY• Purpose: • It summarizes the content of the entire study • It is a frame of reference for the whole study • It enables you to claim the study as your own • It helps other researchers to refer to your work as they survey some theories themselves 06/09/12 Free template from
  17. 17. WRITING THE TITLE OF THE STUDY• Examples of titles for investigation: • Job opportunities and Training Programs for Out-of-School Youths in Sta. Maria Community” • The Effects of Touch Therapy on Recovery among Premature Infants Confined in the Incubators of Selected Hospitals in Zamboanga City. 06/09/12 Free template from
  18. 18. Factors to Consider in the Writingof the Research Title
  19. 19. Factors to Consider in the Writing of the Research Title • It gives a bird’s eye view of the research • It serves as a framework of the research report • It should not be more than 13 words • Avoid using phrases like, “A Study of…”; An Investigation on…”; An Analysis of…; etc06/09/12 Free template from
  21. 21. RESEARCH QUESTION• is an explicit query about a problem or issue that can be challenged, examined and analyzed and will yield useful new information.• should provide answers that explain, describe, identify, substantiate, predict or qualify (Brink, 1994) 06/09/12 Free template from
  22. 22. Tips for Beginning Researchers• Start with a simple question (first rule of thumb)• Your first task is to try to write your question as simple as possible• The research question is ACTION-ORIENTED• Ask active question 06/09/12 Free template from
  23. 23. • Two Basic Components of a Question • The stem directs the research process • The topic is the actual focus of the study 06/09/12 Free template from
  24. 24. Steps in examining the components of a research question:• The topic can be simple, embodying a single concept or idea.• As the topic becomes more complex, they deal with two or more concepts in relationship to one another and they require a different stem.• The topic is even more complex when you ask a question beginning with a “WHY” stem.• A topic developed for a “why” stem becomes quite complex because it shows that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the two concepts. 06/09/12 Free template from
  25. 25. RESEARCH PROBLEM• A situation in need of a solution, improvement, or alternation or a discrepancy between what is and what is ought to be (Burns and Grove, 1997).• An Action or Change must be a representation of a research problem. 06/09/12 Free template from
  26. 26. RESEARCH PROBLEM• Paler-Calmorin and Calmorin point out that the investigator should know a problem is really researchable when: • There is a known solution to the problem. • The solution can be answered by using statistical methods and techniques. • There are probable solutions but they are not yet tested. • The occurrence of phenomena requires scientific investigation to arrive at a precise solution06/09/12 Free template from
  27. 27. What are the Characteristics of aGood Problem???
  28. 28. Characteristics of a Good Problem• It should be interesting to you.• It should have practical value to you, your work or your community.• It should not be over researched.• It should be within your experience/expertise.• It can be finished within the allotted time.• It should not carry legal or moral impediments 06/09/12 Free template from
  29. 29. How to write a researchableproblem or question.
  30. 30. How to write a researchable problem or question.• Problem stated in a question form. • Example: • Who are more proficient at the bedside, the graduates of a diploma program or those of the basic degree program? • Does smoking causes lung cancer among adults? 06/09/12 Free template from
  31. 31. How to write a researchable problem or question.• Problems stated in the form of a declarative sentence. • Example A: • To determine whether people who watch television read few books. • To identify common problems of Chief Nurses in some government emergency hospitals. 06/09/12 Free template from
  32. 32. How to write a researchable problem or question.• Example B: Series of declarative sentences • The study attempts to determine: • The general food patterns and food intake as well as food choices of families whose mothers had nutrition education background. • The food groups in which their meals were deficient. 06/09/12 Free template from
  33. 33. How to write a researchable problem or question.• A declarative sentence followed by a series of questions. • To determine the proper sequence of learning experience in operating room nursing geared to the needs of students and patients in surgery. • What were the needs of the students and patients in surgery? • What sequence of learning was provided to students in operating room in particular? 06/09/12 Free template from
  34. 34. Types of Research Questions
  35. 35. Types of Research Questions• 1. Factor Naming Questions - usually starts with “What” and deals with exploratory information.• usually starts with “What” and deals with exploratory information.• Examples: a. What is the general academic performance of working students? b. What are the characteristics of newly graduate nursing instructors? c. What are the parenting styles of single-parent mothers? 06/09/12 Free template from
  36. 36. Types of Research Questions2. Establishing Relationship Questions - used after isolating the variables and relating them with each other.• Examples: a. What is the relationship between the I.Q. and M.I. of the respondents? b. What is the relationship between the work performance evaluation and licensure exam rating of teachers? c. What is the relationship of parenting styles to the age of 06/09/12 parents at the time of marriage? Free template from
  37. 37. Types of Research Questions3. Situational and Relationship Questions - variables are manipulated to see what will happen.• Examples: a. What are the effects of virgin coconut oil to cancer patients? b. How will the students perform in the Distance Education System of schooling? 06/09/12 Free template from
  38. 38. Types of Research Questions4. Situation-Generating Questions - those that establish goals and require action plans, programs, and the like.• Examples: a. What possible program can be developed to improve the delivery of instruction in the underdeveloped institutions? b. What remediation can be done to address the needs of slow learners? c. What action plan can be formulated to lessen the number of students who fail in the Nursing Licensure Examinations?06/09/12 Free template from
  39. 39. Levels of Questions
  40. 40. Levels of Questions1. First Level • Questions that are exploratory in nature that usually begin with “what is” • Utilizes descriptive type of research • Statement of specific questions begins with the analysis of respondents’ profile like gender, socio- economic status, religious affiliations, etc 06/09/12 Free template from
  41. 41. Levels of Questions• Second Level • Dependent and independent variables are required in order to determine the extent of relationship between variables under study 06/09/12 Free template from
  42. 42. Levels of Questions3. Third Level • Questions that assume relationship or difference between variables and asks why such relationship or difference exists 06/09/12 Free template from
  43. 43. Example:• Main Problem: “Students exposed to Computer Aided Instruction in Nursing”• Questions According to Levels:• First Level: • What are the experiences of the students in computer literacy prior to the Computer Aided Instruction approach of teaching Nursing?• Second Level: • What is the relationship of the prior experiences of students in computer literacy to Computer Aided Instruction in Nursing?• Third Level: • Is there a significant difference between the prior experiences of student in computer literacy and the general performance in Nursing with the use of Computer Aided Instruction?06/09/12 Free template from
  45. 45. • Research Topic: • The Effects of Touch Therapy on Recovery among Premature Infants Confined in the Incubators of Selected Hospital in Metro Manila 06/09/12 Free template from
  46. 46. The Effects of Touch Therapy on Recovery among Premature Infants Confined in the Incubators of Selected Hospital in Metro Manila• Statement of the Problem: • This study will look into the effects of touch therapy of premature infants to promote early weaning from confinement in the incubator and enhanced recovery. 06/09/12 Free template from
  47. 47. The Effects of Touch Therapy on Recovery among Premature Infants Confined in the Incubators of Selected Hospital in Metro ManilaSpecifically, this study attempts to answer the following questions:2. How do premature infants respond to gentle touch and gentle stroking for several seconds or a few minutes of therapy?4. To what extent is touch therapy on a premature infant observable/perceptible with regard to the following variables: 2.1 activities 2.2 reducing stress 2.3 promotion of well being?6. Is there a significant effect of touch therapy between the experimental group and control group as to: 3.1 activities 3.2 reducing stress 3.3 promotion of wellbeing?06/09/12 Free template from
  49. 49. RESEARCH PURPOSE• is generated from the problem and clearly focuses the development of the study.• comes after the written research problem• States exactly what you intend to do, where and when you intend to do it, and with whom, in order to answer the question.• Contains an active verb preceded by the preposition. 06/09/12 Free template from
  50. 50. RESEARCH PURPOSE• Example: • The purpose of this study is to explore and describe the behavioral interactions that occur between mothers and their infants during the first week in the hospital and in the home. 06/09/12 Free template from
  51. 51. RESEARCH PURPOSE• The research purpose is stated as “Significance of the Study”• Example on how to state the significance of the study:• Research Topic: • Time and Activity Study of Nursing Personnel in a Selected Tertiary Hospital in Metro Manila: Its Implications to the Administration of Nursing Service (Source: Tan: Master’s Thesis, UST, 1987) 06/09/12 Free template from
  52. 52. Time and Activity Study of Nursing Personnel in a Selected Tertiary Hospital in Metro Manila: Its Implications to the Administration of Nursing Service• This study is significant to the following target populations:• To hospital administration, to better insights into the actual activities of nursing personnel in relation to the hospital’s standard of health care as prescribed in their job description and the standards set by the Association of Nursing Service Administrations of the Philippines• To nursing personnel……• To nursing education…… 06/09/12 Free template from
  54. 54. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY• Scope • Defines where and when the study is conducted and who the subjects are. • It deals with the extent of the study to be made 06/09/12 Free template from
  55. 55. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY• Limitations • A phase or aspects of the investigation which may affect the result adversely but over which you have no control. • Perceived weakness of the study which are identified discussed and reported. 06/09/12 Free template from
  56. 56. • Note: • Some examples were taken from finished research studies. Notice the verb used - past tense however, in your work you will use the present tense. 06/09/12 Free template from
  57. 57. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY• Example:• Scope and Delimitations of the study• The study was administered to the PWU College of Nursing graduates of 1997 who took the NLE on two occasions, the May and November Board Examinations. The total number of graduates was 51 but the researcher did not include those who did not take the NLE. Therefore, only 45 graduates were included in the study.• These were the ones who took the examination either in May or November 1997. Only the first NLE results for each examinee were included. 06/09/12 Free template from
  58. 58. Quiz 2
  59. 59. Library Activity
  60. 60. Library Activity1. Each group to present their output from previous lesson composed of proposed research topics and draft of statement of problem.2. Each group must finalize their research topic and statement of problem. 06/09/12 Free template from
  61. 61. ASSIGNMENT :EACH GROUP MUST FORMULATE THEIR PROPOSED CHAPTER 1.• Chapter I. The Problem A. Introduction B. Statement of the Problem C. Hypothesis D. Definition of Terms E. Significance of the Study F. Scope and Limitation of the Study06/09/12 Free template from
  62. 62. • OUTPUT WILL BE SUBMITTED ON JANUARY 10, 2009 (SATURDAY)06/09/12 Free template from
  63. 63. SEE YOU NEXT WEEK…