Chapter 1 part 1 microbial world and you


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  • Requirements: Look for an article in the net or newspaper about certain outbreak in a certain community. Identify its chain of infection.
  • Archaea Methanogens, Halophiles, Extreme Thermophiles
  • Anthrax mid November 2001 5 killed - at least 13 infected
  • Chapter 1 part 1 microbial world and you

    1. 1. Microbial World and You By: LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN
    2. 2. Terminologies…• Colony – A visible mass of microbial cells arising from one cell or a group of the same microbes.• Procaryotes – A cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope• Eucaryotes – Cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane-enclosed nucleus. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 2
    3. 3. Terminologies…• Algae – Photosynthetic eukaryotes• Bacteria – Prokaryotic organism characterized by peptidoglycan cell wall• Saprophytes/decomposers – Organisms that obtain nutrients from dead organic matters LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 3
    4. 4. What is Microbiology?• Micro - too small to be seen with the naked eye• Bio - life• ology - study of• Is the study of very small living organisms called microorganisms/microbes.• Microbes are ubiquitous – Meaning they are virtually everywhere! LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 4
    6. 6. • Microbes play important roles… – They are living on/in our body – Some colonize our body – Produce oxygen thru photosynthesis – Decomposition of dead organisms/waste products of living organisms • Decomposers/saprophyte – Decompose industrial waste (oil spills) – bioremediation – Involved in Elemental cycle (carbon, nitrogen,oxygen, sulfur and phosphorous cycles) LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 6
    7. 7. • Algae and bacteria serve as food for tiny animals• Aid in the digestion of food in human (E. coli)• Microbes process our food and beverages – biotechnology• Genetic engineering• Cause 2 categories of diseases: – Infectious diseases (colonizes the body) – Microbial intoxications (ingest toxin) LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 7
    8. 8. Organisms included in the study of Microbiology• 1. Bacteria • Bacteriology• 2. Protozoans • Protozoology• 3. Algae • Phycology• 4. Parasites • Parasitology• 5. Yeasts and Molds – Fungi • Mycology• 6. Viruses • Virology Microorganisms - Microbes - Germs LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 8
    9. 9. 5 Kingdoms of Living Organisms• 1. Animalia• 2. Plantae• 3. Fungi• 4. Protista• 5. Monera - Bacteria and Cyanobacteria• Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 9
    10. 10. 5 Characteristics of Life• 1. Cells• 2. Maintain structure by taking up chemicals and energy from the environment• 3. Respond to stimuli in the external environment• 4. Reproduce and pass on their organization to their offspring• 5. Evolve and adapt to the environment LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 10
    11. 11. Taxonomic Classification • Man• Kingdom • Animalia• Division/Phylum • Chordata• Class • Mammalia• Order • Primate• Family • Hominidae• Genus • Homo• species • sapien LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 11
    12. 12. Taxonomic Classification • Cat• Kingdom • Animalia• Phylum • Chordate• Class • Mammalia• Order • Carnivora• Family • Felidae• Genus • Felis• species • domestica LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 12
    13. 13. Binomial System of Taxonomic Classification• Use only the Genus and species – Homo sapien – Felis domestica – Escherichia coli• Genus and species are either underlined or italicized• Genus is always capitalized• species is never capitalized LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 13
    14. 14. Classification System• 3 Domains 1978 Carl Woese – 1. Bacteria • Unicellular prokaryotes with cell wall containing peptidoglycan – 2. Archaea • Unicellular prokaryotes with no peptodoglycan in cell wall – 3. Eukarya • Protista • Fungi • Plantae • Animalia LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 14
    15. 15. Bacteria - what comes to mind?• Diseases• Infections• Epidemics• Food Spoilage• Only 3% of all known bacteria cause human diseases• About 4% of all known bacteria cause plant diseases• 95% of known bacteria are non-pathogens LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 15
    16. 16. Microbes Benefit Humans• 1.Bacteria are primary decomposers - recycle nutrients back into the environment (sewage treatment plants)• 2. Microbes produce various food products – cheese, pickles, green olives – yogurt, soy sauce, vinegar, bread – Beer, Wine, Alcohol LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 16
    17. 17. 3. Microbes are used to produce Antibiotics • Penicillin • Mold – Penicillium notatum • 1928 Alexander Fleming LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 17
    18. 18. 4. Bacteria synthesize chemicals that our body needs, but cannot synthesize• Example: E. coli – B vitamins - for metabolism – Vitamin K - blood clotting• Escherichia coli – Dr. Escherich – Colon (intestine) LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 18
    19. 19. 5. Biochemistry and Metabolism• Very simple structure• rapid rate of reproduction• provides “instant” data LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 19
    20. 20. 6. Microbial Antagonism• Our normal microbial flora prevents potential pathogens from gaining access to our body LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 20
    21. 21. 7. Insect Pest Control• Using bacteria to control the growth of insects• Bacillus thuringiensis – caterpillars – bollworms – corn borers LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 21
    22. 22. 8. Bioremediation• Using microbes to clean up pollutants and toxic wastes• Exxon Valdez - 1989• 2 Genera – Pseudomonas sp. – Bacillus sp. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 22
    23. 23. 9. Recombinant DNA Technology Gene Therapy Genetic Engineering• Bacteria can be manipulated to produce enzymes and proteins they normally would not produce – Insulin – Human Growth Hormone – Interferon LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 23
    24. 24. 10. Microbes form the basis of the food chainMarine and fresh water microorganisms LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 24
    25. 25. Microbes do benefit us, but they are also capable of causing many diseases• Pneumonia Whooping Cough• Botulism Typhoid Fever Measles• Cholera Scarlet Fever Mumps• Syphilis Gonorrhea Herpes 1• Chlamydia Tuberculosis Herpes 2• Meningitis Tetanus RMSV• Strep Throat Lyme Disease AIDS• Black Plague Diarrhea Gangrene LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 25
    26. 26. History of the Study of Microorganisms• 1665 Robert Hooke – “little boxes” - “cells” – Cell Theory - all living things are made up of cells LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 26
    27. 27. Spontaneous Generation• Theory that life just “spontaneously” developed from non-living matter• Example: – toads, snakes and mice - moist soil – flies and maggots - manure and decaying flesh LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 27
    28. 28. Experiments to disprove Spontaneous Generation• Francesco Redi 1668 – Showed that worms which appeared on rotting meat were from fly eggs• Rudolph Virchow 1858 – Theory of Biogenesis • Cells can only arise from preexisting cells• Louis Pasteur 1861 – Showed that appearance of microbes in sterilized media was from air-borne bacteria – Showed that sterilized materials remained sterile if kept isolated from the external environment LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 28
    29. 29. Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674 - 1st person to actually see living microorganisms “wee animalcules” LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 29
    30. 30. ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK• 1st to see live bacteria and protozoa• FATHER OF MICROBIOLOGY• FATHER OF BACTERIOLOGY & PROTOZOOLOGY• Fabric merchant, a surveyor, wine assayer and a minor city official• Hobby: – ground tiny glass lenses, which he mounted in small metal frames (single-lens microscope) LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 30
    31. 31. ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK• He never speculated on the origin of microbes nor associate them with infectious disease. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 31
    32. 32. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 32
    33. 33. • Scientist became convinced of the existence of tiny creature (not seen by naked eye)• SPONTANEOUS GENERATION THEORY /ABIOGENESIS was established – Life could develop spontaneously from inanimate substances/nonliving organisms. – UNTIL the time of Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall who disproved the theory and prove that • “LIFE CAN ONLY ARISE FROM PREEXISTING LIFE ALONE” LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 33
    34. 34. LOUIS PASTEUR• Contributions makes the foundation of – science of microbiology – modern medicine… LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 34
    35. 35. LOUIS PASTEUR’S CONTRIBUTION…• 1. Wine contamination: Discovered what occurs during alcoholic fermentation. – Demonstrated that different microbes produce different fermentation products. – E.x. yeast converts glucose in grapes to ethanol by fermentation – Acetobacter, a contaminating bacteriaconverts glucose to acetic acid (vinegar)- ruining the taste of the wine. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 35
    36. 36. 2. Thru experiment, dealth the fatal blow to the theory of spontaneous generation. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 36
    37. 37. Pasteur designed special “swan-necked flasks”with a boiled meat infusion Shape of flask allowed air in (vital force) but trapped dust particles which may contain microbes LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 37
    38. 38. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 38
    39. 39. LOUIS PASTEUR’S CONTRIBUTION …• 3. Discovered forms of life that are with no oxygen. – Aerobes – microbes needs Oxygen – Anaerobes – microbes can live without oxygen LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 39
    40. 40. LOUIS PASTEUR’S CONTRIBUTION…4. Pasteurization – process that kills microbes that cause wine to spoil - Can be used to kill pathogens in liquids. - Process: - Heating and maintaining to 63-65oC for 30 minutes or 73-75oC for 15mins - Note: not ALL microbes are killed, ONLY the pathogens LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 40
    41. 41. LOUIS PASTEUR’S CONTRIBUTION…• 5. Discovered the causative agent that were causing silkworm diseases in silk industry in France and how to prevent such disease.• 6. Contributed on the GERM THEORY OF DISEASE – specific microbes cause specific infectious diseases. – e.x. anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis – TB by Mycobacterium tuberculosis LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 41
    42. 42. LOUIS PASTEUR’S CONTRIBUTION…7. Championed changes in hospital practices to minimize the spread of disease by pathogens.8. Developed vaccines to prevent cholera,anthrax and swine erysipelas (skin disease)9. Developed RABIES vaccine in dogs and successfully used to treat human rabies. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 42
    43. 43. Germ Theory of Disease• Hard for people to believe that diseases were caused by tiny invisible “wee animalcules”• Diseases, they thought, were caused by: – demons – witchcraft – bad luck – the wrath of God – curses – evil spirits LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 43
    44. 44. Robert Koch - 1st to prove that bacteria actually caused diseases• 1876• Microbial Etiology of Infectious Disease – etiology - the cause of a disease• Developed methods of fixing, staining, and photographing bacteria• Established “scientific rules” to show a cause and effect relationship between a microbe and a disease – Koch’s Postulates LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 44
    45. 45. Staining Koch Postulate LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 45
    46. 46. Koch’s Postulates• 1. The same organisms must be found in all cases of a given disease.• 2. The organism must be isolated and grown in pure culture.• 3. The isolated organism must reproduce the same disease when inoculated into a healthy susceptible animal.• 4. The original organism must again be isolated from the experimentally infected animal. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 46
    47. 47. Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates1. Some organisms have never been grown inpure culture on artificial mediaTreponema pallidum - Syphilis LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 47
    48. 48. Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates Mycobacterium leprae Leprosy Never been grown in pure culture on artificial media Seven Banded Armadillo LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 48
    49. 49. Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates• In exclusively human diseases, it is not morally acceptable to inoculate a deadly pathogen into a “human guinea pig”• HIV LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 49
    50. 50. Koch established the Microbial Etiology of 3 important diseases of his day• 1. Cholera (fecal-oral disease) – Vibrio cholerae• 2. Tuberculosis (pulmonary infection) – Mycobacterium tuberculosis – Work on tuberculin (protein from M. tuberculosis) that led to dev’t of skin testing to diagnose TB.• 3. Anthrax (sheep and cattle) – Bacillus anthracis – Discovered that B. anthracis produce spores that is capable of resisting adverse conditions. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 50
    51. 51. Anthrax• Bacillus anthracis – Gram (+), non-motile, aerobic, spore forming rod – Streptobacilli with central spores – Livestock • Sheep, cattle, goats – Humans • Handle hides, wool, goat hair, handicrafts from the Middle East made from animal products LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 51
    52. 52. 3 Forms of Human Anthrax• 1. Cutaneous Anthrax – Enters thru cut or abrasion – Results in painless ulcer (1-3 cm) with black (necrotic) center – About 20% mortality rate in untreated cases LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 52
    53. 53. • 2. Gastrointestinal Anthrax – Contaminated meat – Abdominal pain, fever, vomiting blood, severe diarrhea – 25% to 60% mortality rate LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 53
    54. 54. • 3. Inhalation Anthrax• Initial symptoms resemble common cold – Progress to severe breathing problems and shock – Usually results in death 1-2 days after onset of acute symptoms – Mortality rate 99% in untreated cases – Treatment usually not effective after symptoms are present LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 54
    55. 55. Anthrax as a Biological Weapon• Deadly if not treated early• Spores can be produced in large quantities using basic knowledge of biology• Spores may remain viable for years (60 at least)• Spores can be spread – Missiles, rockets, bombs, mail, crop dusters ?• No cloud or color• No smell• No taste• Antibiotics – only effective if administered early (within 24 –48 hours) LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 55
    56. 56. Koch - 1st to use Agar to solidify culture media LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 56
    57. 57. Golden Age of Microbiology 1857 - 1914• Pasteur – Pasteurization – Fermentation• Joseph Lister – Phenol to treat surgical wounds – 1st attempt to control infections caused by microoganisms• Robert Koch – Koch’s Postulates• Edward Jenner – vaccination• Paul Erlich – 1st synthetic drug used to treat infections – Salvarsan - arsenic based chemical to treat Syphilis • “salvation” from Syphilis LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 57
    58. 58. Naming of Bacteria• Genus and species - Binomial System of Taxonomic Classification• Information usually given: – 1. Describes an organism – 2. Identifies a habitat – 3. Honors a scientist or researcher LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 58
    59. 59. Bacterial Morphology• Bacilli• Cocci• Spiral LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 59
    60. 60. Arrangements StaphyloStrepto DiploSarcinae TetradVibrio (comma shaped) LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 60
    61. 61. • Staphylococcus aureus • Escherichia coli• Staphylococcus • Bacillus anthracis epidermidis • Salmonella enteridis • Streptococcus pyogenes• Streptococcus pneumoniae • Steptococcus lactis • Streptococcus faecalis• Vibrio cholerae • Erlichia canis• Rhodospirillium • Campylobacter jejuni rubrum • Helicobacter pylori• Bacillus subtilis • Enterobacter aerogenes• Micrococcus luteus LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 61
    62. 62. Microbiology: A Human Perspective• Microorganisms cannot be seen without the aid of a microscope• There are more than 200,000 known microbes• Exist in virtually any environment that has water• Exhibit tremendous biodiversity• Compose the largest biomass group of living organisms• Microbes exist for more than 3.5 billion years LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 62
    63. 63. Applications of Microbiology• Food production: bread, beer• Bioremediation: decontamination of hazardous wastes• Useful products: ethanol fuel, antibiotics, amino acids• Genetic engineering: pharmaceuticals, vaccines• Genomics: genome sequencing permits understanding of disease mechanisms LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 63
    64. 64. Medical microbiology• Infectious diseases have killed more people than all wars and natural disasters combined• Outbreaks have changed the course of history• Vaccines have dramatically decreased the incidence of infectious diseases, especially in children LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 64
    65. 65. Medical microbiology (cont.)• Re-emergence of “Old” Infectious Diseases – Cases of whooping cough have increased in the last few years – Many microbes have evolved antibiotic resistance LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 65
    66. 66. Medical microbiology (cont.)• Emerging infectious diseases – As humans encroach upon wild habitat, new infectious agents (microbes) are discovered – These agents are typically hosted by animals and are termed zoonotic agents Agent Host Disease Ebola virus Bats Ebola hemorrhagic fever SARS virus Bats Severe acute respiratory syndrome Sin Nombre virus Deer mouse Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome Nipah virus Bats Nipah encephalitis Dengue virus Mosquitos Dengue fever; Dengue hemorrhagic fever Machupo virus Vesper mouse Bolivian hemorrhagic fever Avian influenza viruses Various birds Influenza Some recently discovered agents and their animal hosts LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 66
    67. 67. Terminologies…• Bacteriocins – Toxins produce by enterobacteria that are lethal to related strains of bacteria.• Resident flora – Collective vegetation in a given area in one part of the body, yet produce infection in another.• Infection – Is an invasion of body tissue by microbes and their growth LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 67
    68. 68. • Infectious agent – Microbes that cause infection.• Asymptomatic/subclinical – Microbes do not produce clinical evidence of disease.• Disease – Detectable alteration in normal tissue function LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 68
    69. 69. • Virulence – Microbe’s ability to produce disease• Communicable disease – Infectious agents that can be transmitted to an individual by direct or indirect contact or as airborne infection – e.x. common colds• Pathogenicity – Ability to produce disease• Pathogen – Disease causing microbes – 3% of known microbes are capable of causing disease.• Non-pathogens – Do not cause disease. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 69
    70. 70. Terminologies…• Opportunistic pathogen – Causes disease only in a susceptible individual• Asepsis – Freedom from disease-causing microbes.• Medical asepsis – All practices intended to confine a specific microbes to a specific area, limiting the #, growth, & transmission of microbes. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 70
    71. 71. • Medical asepsis – Objects are CLEAN (absence of almost all microbes)• Surgical asepsis/sterile technique – Practices that keep an area or object free of all microbes – Practices that destroys all microbes & spores• Sepsis – State of infection and can take many forms, including septic shock. LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 71
    73. 73. Microorganisms are said to be ubiquitous.Can you think of any locations thatwould be devoid of microorganisms? LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 73
    74. 74. Of all the various areas of microbiology mentioned in this chapter, which appeal to you the most? Why? LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 74
    75. 75. Assume that you are entering a health-related profession. Of what value will knowledge of microbiology be to you? LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 75
    76. 76. Many people consider Louis Pasteur’s contributions to be the foundation of the science of microbiology and a cornerstone of modern medicine.What contributions did he make that would cause people to believe that? LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 76
    77. 77. You have isolated a bacterium from the blood of a patient with a newly described disease. What steps would you take to prove that the organism that you’ve isolated is the cause of the patient’s disease? (Hint: Remember Koch’s Postulates.) LUDY MAE B. NALZARO, BSM, RN, MN 77