Youth ppt


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Youth ppt

  1. 1. Youth, media and collective identity G325: Section B
  2. 2. Key questions to consider… How do the contemporary media represent collective groups of people in different ways? How does this contemporary representation compare to different time periods? What are the social implications of different representations of groups of people? How is human identity increasingly mediated?
  3. 3. You must include: 1. Historical representations 2. Contemporary representations (within the last 5 years) 3. Future predictions of how representations might evolve
  4. 4. You must also include: Key media theories Key media terminology (key film sequences, language/ images in newspapers) Institutional/ political argument
  5. 5. You must refer to 2 or more media. Film Newspapers TV Online
  6. 6. Which collective identity? Youth Youth culture How the media represent young people
  7. 7. What is a teenager made from? How are representations of young people constructed in the media? Draw one on the body outline – add clothes, hair, props, background location; label it if unclear.
  8. 8. Watchthesetwotrailers:Sket(2011)andTheMaze Runner(2014) In pairs: • How are young people being portrayed? (use word bank to help) • Evidence from clip?
  9. 9. Constructing the teenager Hold up your drawings/ ideas from earlier task. Media representations are usually a mixture of: • Culture produced by young people themselves • Images produced by adults (mainstream)
  10. 10. Lesson 2 – Teenagers through Time
  11. 11. Questionsto considerfor this topic: • How are teenagers and young people portrayed in the media? • WHY are the representations constructed? • social/ historical/ cultural context? • Genre? • How will the target audience interpret? More than one interpretation? • Institutions? What is the purpose of the representation? (usually to make money…exceptions?)
  12. 12. The emergence of ‘youth culture’ • 19th Century Bowery Boys or ‘Soaplocks’ • Became a recognisable youth culture: own slang, dress code, musical tastes etc • First time entertainment and fashion industries targeted a youth group. 1847 Hung out in NYC entertainment area- the Bowery’ Wore long sideburns that gave them the nickname ‘Soaplocks’
  13. 13. 1900-1940 • 400% rise in high school enrollment in USA • ‘Peer culture’ • Magazines (and fashion, beauty) industries targeting insecurities of adolescent girls • 1940s- WW2- demand for labour- young people had a disposable income.
  14. 14. 1945-60: Birth of the Teen • Economic potential is obvious- ‘market of the future’ • A new market to fuel economic boom in USA • But also the first negative stereotypes • Youth simultaneously represented ‘a prosperous and liberated future’ and ‘ a culture of moral decline’ • First sign of adult cultures dichotomous image of teenagers. • Eg. The Blackboard Jungle (1955) Watch trailer: How are youth represented? How are the adults represented?
  15. 15. 1950s mainstream • USA and UK reeling from WW2 • Many young men returning PTSD • Mood of austerity (economic and psychological) • A need for stability and calm- traditional values/ conservatism • ‘White picket fence’ America
  16. 16. 1950s- Rock and Roll culture • Not trying to ‘fit in’ to adult mainstream • Anti- austerity embraces by young, disapproved of by adults (war veterans) • Happy to rebel against it- first indication of a generation gap. • Challenging traditional values and lifestyles • Expressed through consumption.
  17. 17. James Dean • First celebrity to capture the dissonance of youth • Rebel Without a Cause (1955)- lots of delinquent behaviour. Conforms to adult fears. • But Dean’s character isn’t a ‘bad boy’, he’s confused, sensitive, frustrated and very handsome
  18. 18. ‘Teen’ Exploitation genre • ‘Exploits both teen aspirations and adult fears’ • ‘Stories torn from today’s headlines’ – social commentary • A host of delinquent young characters emerged- main ‘villain’ often the head of a brutal gang. • ‘Hero’ is often a teen that stands up to the villain • ‘sympathetic adult who offers a ‘way out’ to hero and good youth. • How does Rebel fit these conventions?
  19. 19. Lesson 3 – Teens and Collective Identity
  20. 20. 1960s and 70s- subculture to counter culture • Next generation of teens were very cynical about exploitation of youth. • Self conscious and aware that the adult world does not work in the way it should. • Young people support Civil Rights, Feminism and anti – Vietnam…the rebels now HAVE a cause. • Resistant to marketing and consumerism, wanted to make the world better. • For example: Easy Rider
  21. 21. 1960s: Subculture Movie • Institutions • Synergy between music and film industries • Pop music – big UK cultural export since 1950s. • Promotion for artist. • For example: Summer Holiday, Beatles- Magical Mystery Tour’
  22. 22. Subculture movies Punk- The Great Rock and Roll Swindle Rave- Human Traffic Football Hooliganism- The Football Factory Indie- 24 Hour Party People, Control
  23. 23. 1970s/80s Punk and Hip Hop • Punk- a reaction against the optimism of hippies- even more cynical of mainstream • Not just rebellious or anti consumerist. Punk was anti- establishment. • Punk- aesthetic and political rebellion • Hip Hop- dealing with the reality of poverty and racist oppression. • For example: Scratch
  24. 24. Fromtheexamplesyou have seenrecap/makealist ofhowyoutharerecognisedasacollectiveidentity. • Dress • Language • Behaviour • Music • Rebel against mainstream culture and values • See next slide for a theory!!
  25. 25. Subcultural theory (Birmingham School) • Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) – founded 1964. • Sociological theories for WHY youths form subcultures. • Stuart Hall- ‘Resistance through Ritual’ • Dress, language, behaviour, music- rebels against mainstream culture (and values)
  26. 26. Henry Jenkins • ‘Collective Identification’ • Strengthening elements of your own identity through solidarity with others. • Clothes, hair, drugs, lifestyle, films, books, music- cultural texts that offer opportunity for solidarity with others who have similar tastes. • Especially valuable for those who feel like outsiders already. • How can these two theories be used to examine the representation of youth in Quadrophenia? • Bike scene and riot scene
  27. 27. Lesson 4/5/6 - Quadrophenia
  28. 28. Screening of Quadrophenia Directed by: Franc Roddam Film released: 1979 but set in 1964 Genre: Crime, Drama, Music Tag Line: Hell on wheels! How are British youth represented in this film? What are the defining characteristics of the Mods? What attitudes did they have towards authority figures? How would audiences respond to this? Who is the audience for Quadrophenia? How realistic are these representations? Why was it made? Who made it?
  29. 29. Sequence analysis 1. Bike sequence What message is being given in this sequence? 2. Riot sequence MES C/A & C/M Composition Editing Sound 3. Analysis of ending What message do we understand about youth/ identity from the end sequence?
  30. 30. How are youth represented in the film Quadrophenia?
  31. 31. Lesson 7 – Hall, Cohen and Gramsci
  32. 32. Social implications? How would an audience respond? Stuart Hall – Reception Theory Quadrophenia is a polysemic text that can be ‘decoded’ by the audience in a number of different ways. How might some members of an audience respond to the messages and values presented in Quadrophenia?
  33. 33. Gramsci – Cultural Hegemony (1971) • Cultural Hegemony: This is the idea that one social class (usually the middle class) is able to dominate a society by making their way of life and values appear normal, natural, and common sense. • As a result other social classes accept these values as the normal way of life.
  34. 34. Cultural Hegemony • The media uses cultural hegemony to fix the social classes. • What is a social class? • What social classes do we have in Britain? • The working classes are somewhat trapped in an illusion that they will benefit from society staying the same. • Media aim to distract individuals and promote the ideals of the ruling class.
  35. 35. Cultural Hegemony in Society • How are the working class normally depicted in the mainstream media? • Can you think of any programs or news articles you may have seen recently that show a particular view of the working class? • How do the representations shown in these programs/articles shape societies view? • How do these views shape the values we have as a society?
  36. 36. Cultural Hegemony cont… • Gramsci sees hegemony as a site of constant struggle as societies are constantly debating what is and isn’t acceptable. • You can relate this to this to more positive representations of working class youth which challenge the perception of working class as thugs. • What positive representations of youth have you seen recently? • How might these shape societies views and values?
  37. 37. Cultural Hegemony (Gramsci 1971) and Quadrophenia • Cultural Hegemony: one social class dominate a society by making their values appear normal • Other social classes accept these values as the normal • Media to promote the ideas of the ruling class. • How can we apply this theory to Quadrophenia? • Think about: • How are the youth represented in this film? • Is their behavior seen as threatening? Abhorrent? Strange? • How does this fix social class outside of the film? • What scene could you use to discuss Cultural Hegemony in detail?
  38. 38. Stanley Cohen - Moral Panics (1972) • Societies appear to be subject, every now and then, to periods of moral panic • A condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests • Its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media • The effect of a moral panic is to reassert hegemony by allowing a society to make clear what values it does not accept.
  39. 39. Moral Panics (Cohen 1972) • Cohen first discussed this with regards to mods and rockers • Who are Mods and Rockers? • Why did they cause a Moral Panic?
  40. 40. Moral Panics Today • These days there are still moral panics with regards to youth. • For example the idea of “chavs” and “hoodies” may be considered a moral panic. • How would this theory explain this?
  41. 41. Moral Panics (Cohen 1972) and Quadrophenia • Moral Panic: • A person or group of persons become defined as a threat to societal values • Presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion • Reasserts hegemony by allowing society to define what values it does not accept. • How can we apply this to Quadrophenia? • Think about: • Who is creating the ‘Moral Panic’? • Is the panic justified? • Is the panic resolved? • How? Which specific scene could you use to illustrate ‘Moral Panic’ in Quadrophenia?
  42. 42. Write up! • Write up 2 paragraphs applying these 2 theories to Quadrophenia. • Use specific examples from the film to make your points.  Moral Panic:  A person or group of persons become defined as a threat to societal values  Presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion  Reasserts hegemony by allowing society to define what values it does not accept.  Cultural Hegemony:  One social class dominate a society by making their values appear normal  Other social classes accept these values as the normal  Media to promote the ideas of the ruling class.
  43. 43. Representation in Newspapers
  44. 44. Representation in newspapers • Differences between tabloid and broadsheet reporting • Political affiliation of newspapers • Micro analysis of news articles (eg language, images) • Link analysis to theory (eg audience response to news reports) • Write up a formal analysis
  45. 45. Tabloid vs Broadsheet How many tabloid/ broadsheets can you name? Tabloid Broadsheet Look at/ read the news articles you have been given. Write down some ideas of the ways the stories have been reported differently. Think about: size, layout, typical readership, content, language.
  46. 46. Political affiliation of newspapers British class system What are the stereotypical connotations of each: Upper class: Middle class: Working class:
  47. 47. Political affiliation of newspapers What does this mean? Liberal Democrats Labour Conservative left centre right The Guardian The Mirror The Telegraph The Times The Daily Mail The Sun The Independent The Daily Express Place these newspapers affiliation line. How do you think this effects the way news is reported?
  48. 48. Analysis of historical newspapers Read the news articles about the Mods and Rockers riots and analyse how youth are represented. Focus on: Language, images, pull quotes, subheadings How would their political affiliation affect the way youth are represented?
  49. 49. Stanley Cohen: Folk Tales and Moral Panics Now read Cohen’s article about what actually happened. Draw a table like this one to help you write notes. What the papers say… What Cohen says happened…
  50. 50. Theory Time! • How can you apply this theory to the newspapers you have studied?
  51. 51. Acland – Deviant Youth (1995) • Media representations of delinquent youths actually reinforce hegemony. • They do this by constructing an idea of ‘normal’ adult and youth behaviour, and contrasting it with deviant youth behaviour which is shown to be unacceptable. • What examples of this have you seen in the newspapers you have studied? VS
  52. 52. Deviant Youth • Media representations of young people out of control allows the state to have more control of them (e.g. media reports about delinquent youths led to ASBOs). • ‘Ideology of protection’ – the idea that young people need constant surveillance and monitoring. This happens because youth is the time when young people learn about social roles and values, and allows the state to make sure they conform to hegemonic values.
  53. 53. Deviant Youth (Acland 1995) and Historical Newspapers • Representations of delinquent youths reinforce hegemony. • ‘Normal’ adult and youth behaviour, contrasted with deviant youth behaviour • Representations of young people out of control allows the state to have more control • Ideology of Protection: young people need constant surveillance and monitoring. State ensures that they conform to hegemonic values. Apply this theory to the historical newspapers you have studied. Think about: • The extent to which the text shows young people as in need of control. • Does the text show young people as behaving in an unacceptable way? • If so does this identify what behaviour society thinks is acceptable? (i.e. hegemonic) • How does the text show class youths to be deviant thus reinforcing middle class hegemony.
  54. 54. An analysisof the representationof British youthin historicalmedia. Homework. Write an analysis of how youth are represented in historical film and newspapers. You need to include: Micro analysis of texts Social, political, historical context of texts Links to theory Audience response
  55. 55. Representation of contemporary youth: Ill Manors
  56. 56. Production info: • Written and directed by Ben Drew/ Plan B • Released 6th June 2012- one year after the London Riots (2011) • Production company- BBC Films/ Microwave • Budget £100,000 • Genre: Urban/ Crime drama
  57. 57. Film poster Tag line: “We are all products of our own environment” What does this mean?
  58. 58. How are youth represented? Initial thoughts… Using the subheadings to help write down your initial ideas about how youth are represented and why. Mise en scene Music Narrative Audience response? Media theory? Can you think of any good key scenes to show these ideas? Any similarities to Quadrophenia?
  59. 59. Character analysis Annotate the sheet with ideas about how the characters are represented.
  60. 60. Reviews Daily Mail 2156210/Rapper-Plan-Bs-film-debut-Ill-Manors-awful- contemplate-Plan-C.html Telegraph LL-Manors-review.html Guardian review
  61. 61. Ill Manors - Plan B music video
  62. 62. How are youth represented in the film Ill Manors?
  63. 63. • What is a CHAV? • In your pairs/groups define this term.
  64. 64. • The Collins English Dictionary defines the word chav as "derogatory slang" • It says a chav is "a young working class person whose tastes, although sometimes expensive, are considered vulgar" • Do you agree with this definition? Definition of Chav
  65. 65. • Who do you think created the term CHAV? • Who does it benefit? CHAV
  66. 66. • Watch the video for Ill Manors. • What representation of British Youth do you see in this video? • Plan B – Ill Manors (Music Video)
  67. 67. • Read The Guardians article on Plan B’s Ill Manors. • What are the key points in the article? • Do you agree that Ill Manors can act as a ‘protest song’? The Guardian on Ill Manors
  68. 68. Giroux (1997) • Giroux argues that in media representations youth becomes an ‘empty category’ • Media representations of young people are constructed by adults. Because of this they reflect adults concerns, anxieties, and needs.
  69. 69. Empty Category • Imagine this figure is a British Youth  A stereotypical image is created of this youth by the mainstream media (Adults)  The ‘empty’ figure becomes filled with this representation.  This is what society sees rather than the reality
  70. 70. Empty Category • As a result of this media representations of young people do not necessarily reflect the reality of youth identity. • Can you think of any examples of this?
  71. 71. Empty Category (Giroux 1997) and Ill Manors • Youth becomes an ‘empty category’ • Representations constructed by adults. • Reflect adults concerns, anxieties, and needs. • Representations do not necessarily reflect the reality of youth identity.  How can we apply this theory to Ill Manors?  Think about:  Who constructed the text?  Who it is aimed at?  Does the text reflect adult anxieties or serve the purposes of adult society? (reinforcing hegemonic values).
  72. 72. London Riots Case Studies
  73. 73. Mediation • A process of filtering a message • Everything we see or hear in the media is mediated to some extent Mediated Message Mediation Original Message
  74. 74. London Riots Timeline and background
  75. 75. Mark Duggen • 29-year-old black man • Shot on 4th August 2011 by police attempting to arrest him in Tottenham, North East London, England • He was suspected of planning a revenge attack following the fatal stabbing of his cousin and had a gun with him • He died from a gunshot wound to the chest • There was a considerable reaction from some people to the apparent circumstances of his death • A public demonstration and an attack on police vehicles, were contributory factors to a riot in Tottenham • This escalated into widespread riots, looting and arson in London
  76. 76. Thursday 4th August • Mark Duggan, 29, is shot dead by police at Ferry Lane, Tottenham. • His death occurs during an operation where specialist firearm officers and officers from Operation Trident, the unit which deals with gun crime in the African and Caribbean communities, are attempting to carry out an arrest. • Duggan is a passenger in a minicab and is shot after an apparent exchange of fire. • A police officer's radio is later found to have a bullet lodged in it • The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) announces it will investigate the incident and later says it believes two shots were fired by police • It also confirms that an illegal firearm was recovered from the scene.
  77. 77. Saturday 6th August • A series of disturbances by people in Tottenham in Haringey followed the protest march on 6 August • The rioting occurred shortly after approximately 120 people marched from the Broadwater Farm estate to Tottenham Police Station
  78. 78. Sunday 7th August • Approximately 100 hooded youths gather outside Enfield Police Station • There are reports on Twitter of a police presence at Oxford Circus in London's West End • Police later say a mob of around 50 people damaged property in the area
  79. 79. Monday 8th August • London: • Rioting is taking place in Ealing, West London • Windows of a Tesco supermarket have been broken, a car is on fire and rubbish is strewn in public areas. • There is also a fire in Haven Green park, opposite Ealing Broadway Tube. • Nottingham: • About 40 vehicles were damaged in a night of violence • Described by one senior officer as "motivated" by the London riots • Most of the incidents happened in the St Ann's area • Police foiled an attempt to break into the Victoria Centre in the city centre • The trouble lasted about three hours.
  80. 80. Tuesday 9th August • London Fire Brigade says it faced its busiest night in recent history • The brigade's 999 control centre answered 2,169 calls between 18:00 on Monday and 07:19 on Tuesday. • This is around 15 times the normal rate of calls the brigade would expect on an average day. • The Football Association confirms that England's friendly against Holland at Wembley tomorrow has been called off because of the rioting in London. • David Cameron makes his first statement outside Number 10 after cutting short his holiday to return to London • He announces a massive increase in police numbers and the recall of Parliament.
  81. 81. Wednesday 10th August • A 21-year-old man is arrested on suspicion of starting a fire at the House of Reeves furniture store in Croydon - destroyed during Monday night's rioting in London. • David Cameron makes a statement from Downing Street, paying tribute to police and the emergency services • He warns that more people will be arrested and charged • “We will not allow a culture of fear to exist on our streets” • Cameron announces contingency plans for water cannon, to be used at 24 hours' notice. • Ministry of Justice statement says there are enough prison places for all those sentenced to custody • The Met Police release a second set of images of people they would like to speak to about the recent disorder • Greater Manchester Police release a batch of CCTV images of suspects wanted in connection with the rioting and looting.
  82. 82. Thursday 11th August • David Cameron makes a statement to MPs in which he admits there are questions to be answered over the shooting of Mark Duggan in Tottenham last week • He calls the rioting "criminality, pure and simple“ and says the courts will continue sitting for as long as necessary to deal with the extra cases • He says police will be given powers to force people to remove masks and scarves covering their faces where there are reasonable grounds to believe they are planning criminal activity • Cameron also announces a £10m recovery scheme to make areas safe and clean again. • Labour leader Ed Miliband calls for an inquiry to look at the deeper causes of the "wanton vandalism and looting“ • He says the riots have been a “stark reminder” of the need for police on the streets and he calls on the government to rethink cuts in police spending.
  83. 83. Friday 12th August • The Metropolitan Police say 1,103 people have now been arrested in connection with the riots and 654 people have been charged. • Greater Manchester Police said they had so far made 147 arrests and more than 70 people had already gone through the courts • Merseyside Police said they had made 77 arrests and charged 45 people • West Midlands Police said 445 people had been arrested and Nottinghamshire Police said they had arrested 109 people and charged 69 • The night passes off peacefully - with officers still on the streets in large numbers.
  84. 84. Representations of youth in film (Future)
  85. 85. The hoodie horror/ urban crime drama Genre theory David Buckingham: “Genre is not simply ‘given’ by the culture. Rather it is in a constant state of negotiation and change” Steve Neale: “Genre’s are instances of repetition and difference” The hoodie genre has changed over time and will continue to do so. We will still see elements (eg costume, locations) but different attitudes will be evident.
  86. 86. Gg Gone Too Far (2014) Destiny Ekaragha Drama/ Comedy What elements of the hoodie/ urban drama can you still see and what has changed? How does this show changing representations of youth?
  87. 87. TV: People Just Do Nothing • BBC Iplayer • British mockumentary
  88. 88. And the changing face of identity
  89. 89. Katherine Hamley Media use in identity construction (2003) • The construction of a personal identity can be somewhat difficult / problematic • Young people are surrounded by influential imagery • Can you think of any examples of this? • It is no longer possible for an identity to just be constructed in a small community and influenced by a family • Everything concerning our lives is ‘media saturated’ • Can you explain this comment?
  90. 90. Hamley Continued… • When constructing an identity, young people make use of imagery derived from popular media. Hamley states that; • “It is becoming increasingly common for young children to have their own television and music systems in their bedrooms whilst also having easy and frequent access to magazines especially aimed at the ‘developing’ child and/or teenager. • “Such young people would also have a way of accessing the Internet be it at school or sometimes at home.”
  91. 91. Hamley Continued… • “If young people have such frequent access and an interest in the media, it is fair to say that their behaviour and their sense of ‘self’ will be influenced to some degree by what they see, read, hear or discover for themselves” • This can affect the way they behave, dress or the kind of music they may listen to. • These are aspects which go together to construct a person’s own personal identity. • From your research can you think of any examples of this? • This article was written in 2003. Can you think of any changes that have affected ‘young peoples’ access to media since then?
  92. 92. David Buckingham Introducing Identity (2008) • He classifies identity as an ‘ambiguous and slippery’ term; • Identity is something unique to each of us, but also implies a relationship with a broader group; • Identity can change according to our circumstances; • Can you think of any examples of this? • Online identity • Professional identity • Personal identity • Identity is fluid and is affected by broader changes; • Identity becomes more important to us if we feel it is threatened;
  93. 93. David Gauntlett CreativeExplorations:NewApproachestoIdentitiesandAudiences(2007) • “Identity is complicated everybody thinks they’ve got one” • Religious and national identities are at the heart of major international conflicts • The average teenager can create numerous identities in a short space of time (Especially using the Internet, social networking sites, etc.) • We like to think we are unique, but Gauntlett questions whether this is an illusion, and we are all much more similar than we think.
  94. 94. How is the internet changing Identity? • The internet, social networking sites and content sharing sites like YouTube are changing how identity is perceived and constructed. • What evidence can you think of that agrees with this statement?
  95. 95. • How can we create an identity online? • Does this identity change from reality?
  96. 96. •“Texting, emailing, posting all of these things let us present the self as we want to be. We get to edit, and that means we get to delete, and that means we get to retouch.” • Sherry Tuckle, Connected… but Alone
  97. 97. YouTube, Facebook, Tumblr, Instagram etc… • Sites like YouTube, Facebook, Instagram etc… allow us the opportunity to increasingly MEDIATE our own identity • By choosing what to post or what to say in our latest status we chose what version of ourselves we will present to the online world • “Whenever there is time to write edit and delete there is room for performance” – Sherry Tuckle, Connected… but Alone
  98. 98. Facebook Facts • Every 60 seconds on Facebook: 510 comments are posted, 293,000 statuses are updated, and 136,000 photos are uploaded • At 1.64 billion, Facebook has more monthly active users than WhatsApp (500 million), Twitter (284 million) and Instagram (200 million)—combined. • 91% of 15-34 year olds (millennials) use Facebook
  99. 99. Identity is changing • Look at your Facebook profile. • Do you mediate your own identity at all? • Look at the posts you have created? What image of you do we get from each of these? • Is it different from your other profiles? (Twitter, Instagram, SnapChat etc..)
  100. 100. Online Identity Theory • With the growing popularity of online social networks, they have brought with them developments in identity construction in the form of users creating an avatar or 'second self.' • Having an online ‘self’ or avatar enables people's identities to be ‘entirely generated by what can be typed or posted in images and text.’ (Jones & Holmes,2011) • This enables online users the power to create themselves as someone who does not mirror who they are in reality.
  101. 101. Online Identity Theory Cont… • The social identity theory suggests that ‘individuals strive to maintain or enhance their self esteem; they strive for a positive self concept' (Tajifel and Turner,1979) • In previous generations who were without the internet, would have to prove that they achieved something by actually doing it to receive the recognition and gratification. • The introduction of online social networking in the 21st century has added a new dimension to the theory of social identity as people are given a chance to effectively portray themselves, what they do, what they care about and even how old they are inaccurately in order to receive recognition, gratification or acceptance.
  102. 102. How can this affect the representation of youth? https://w ww.youtub ch?v=0cKp vwlSGOI
  103. 103. New communities • This new sense of identity and community is both connecting and isolating at the same time • We are increasingly connected to the world, but at the same time increasingly disconnected from reality • MMORPG (Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games) like WOW (World of Warcraft) are increasing in size, allowing people to escape into a imagined world where community and identity are malleable and easily constructed • Second-Life-divorce--whos-engaged-web-cheat-shes-met.html
  104. 104. Authenticity? • This ability to construct an identity, to be unseen while communicating increases the risk for impersonation and fraud • It creates a sense of anonymity, a false sense of security • People post things they would never say in person, trolls etc…
  105. 105. What does this mean? • Identity is constantly in flux, we are unable to distinguish between what is authentic and what isn’t. We are frequently constructing our own identities, presenting a mediated version of ourselves to the world • Equally the collective identity of youth and youth culture can also be affected by this movement to online cultures • Rather than being controlled and constructed by outside onlookers, British youth can now take control of their own representation creating UGC (User Generated Content) to reflect what they see, feel and experience
  106. 106. • This idea was realised by the TIME magazine person of the year in 2006
  107. 107. Exam Question • Plan a digital media paragraph on the following question: • “The media do not construct identity; they merely reflect it” Discuss.
  108. 108. Practice Exam Questions • Analyse the ways in which the media represent one group of people you have studied. • ‘The media do not construct collective identity; they merely reflect it.’ Discuss • With reference to any one group of people that you have studied, discuss how their identity has been ‘mediated’. • ‘Media representations are complex, not simple and straight forward’. How far do you agree with this statement in relation to the collective group you have studied. • Analyse the ways in which he media represent groups of people • What is collective identity and how is it mediated?
  109. 109. Practice Exam Questions cont… • Discuss how one or more groups of people are represented through the media. • Explain the role played by the media in the construction of collective identity. • How do media representations influence collective identity? You may refer to one group of people or more in your answer. • Discuss the different ways in which groups of people are represented by the media. You may refer to one group of people or more in your answer. • Analyse the ways in which at lease one group of people is ‘mediated’. • Discuss the social implications on media in relation to collective identity. You may refer to one group of people or more in your answer.
  110. 110. Practice Exam Questions cont… • Analyse the impact of media representation on the collective identity of one or more groups of people. • Compare the different ways in which one or more groups of people are represented. • Explain what is meant by ‘collective identity’ and the role of media in its construction. • ‘Media representations are just reflections of reality, not constructions or distortions.’ Discuss with reference to one or more groups of people. • Media and collective identity: how does one affect the other? • ‘Media simply represent collective identity, they don’t create it.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Make reference to one or more groups of people in your answer.