There are 12 stages to film making.1. The idea 7. The shoot2. Development finance 8. Post production3. Script 9. Sales development 10. Marketing4. Packaging 11. Exhibition5. Financing 12. Other windows6. Pre-production
Inspirations are all around us for example in books,newspapers and even something as simple as a conversation.Wherever and whoever the idea comes from its always theproducer who decides to make the magical moment into reality.The directors take and visualise the script. They know how toput it onto the BIG screen!Next the writers define and clarify the idea, the plot, and themain characters. The writers then write a treatment, a one pagedescription of the main story and characters of the film.A pitch contains all the information the producer needs inorder to sell the idea to the financiers to commission ascript.In general most film ideas come from making a film from a bookor an idea from a newspaper, rarely a film is made from acompletely fresh new idea. For example Harry Potter was madebecause of a book however, Avatar was a fresh idea.
All films cost money, a lot of it.The producer uses the treatment, pitch and persuasion toget money for the development of a script.Producers approach film production companies fordevelopment money but they dont always have time, theyhave projects of their own.Producers offer future sales and broadcast rights to thefilm in return for money to develop the script.Producers can also apply to a public funding body such asthe UK film council for a development grant.Producers can pitch the film to a private investor In thehope for support for the project.
With the development finance secured itsdown to the writer to deliver the productthat the producer and financiers want.First the writer produces a synopsis, heand the producer agree (or not) on they keyscenes and events in the film.Most writers create a step outline to plantheir script.Part of the writers fee is conditional ondelivery of the first draft, this can bethe hardest part of screenwriting.When the writer and producer are happy, thedraft is sent to the financiers, all ofwhom will have their own ideas.When everyone Is happy, the script islocked and becomes the final draft, the
With the script complete, the director and producer decide how they wantto film it and who they will employ to help them.The producer and director must package the script into a full Liam Neesoncommercial proposition ready for financing.A common way to make the project more commercial is to attachwell known stars to the script.Commercially successful heads of department carry considerableclout with knowledgeable financiers.The producer must know how much it will cost before turning thefilm into a proper business proposition.Potential investors will want to know how the producer plans toraise the money, and how she plans to pay them back.The producer packages the film into a viable commercialproposition, now they need to see what people think of it.
Producers must secure enough funding to make the film to thehighest standard possible.Financiers can be anywhere in the world and if the producers wantto make enough money, they must travel.Private individuals. Production companies and public bodies allinvest in films. The producer’s lawyer draws up contracts to sealthe deals.Producers can also make money from pre-sales, selling the rightsto film before it has even been made.There are departments of banks that specialise in film finance.Most financiers insist that a completion bond is in place beforethey agree to invest. It is insurance for the production.When all the insurance and funding is secured, the film gets the‘green light’ and the producer celebrates.
With everything secured, the full cast and crew are hiredand detailed preparation for the shoot begins.When all heads of departments are hired, the shooting scriptis circulated, and pre-production begins in the earnest.The casting director, with the director and producer beginsthe long process of identifying and casting the actors.Storyboards are the blueprints for the film, where every shotis planned in advance by the director and DOP.The production designer plans every aspect of how the filmwill look, and hires people to design and build each part.Effects shots are planned in much more detail than normalshots, and can take months to design and build.The 1’st ad, the line producer and production manager makeup the key logistics triangle of the production.
Film making can be a constant struggle to keep it onschedule and budget.Shooting begins, funding is released.The camera department is responsible for getting all thefootage that the director and editor need to tell the story.Lighting, sound, hair and makeup must be done before the shotcan be taken.Actors must create an emotional world and draw the audienceinto it.Every special effect is carefully constructed and must be filmedwith minimum risk of injury to cast and crew.Film productions are run with military precision. If they fallbehind schedule the financiers and insurers may step in.
Post production usually starts during theshoot.As the processed footage comes in, the editor assemblesit into scenes and creates a narrative sequence for thefilm.Once the picture is locked, the sound department workson the audio track laying, creating and editing everysound.Digital effects, titles and credits are added.Picture and colour are adjusted.Rough sound mix goes into dubbing theatre where soundmixer sets final levels.After final lock the film reaches full lock and is nowfinished and ready for duplication.
As finishing touches are being made, the distributors plantheir strategy and begin to market It.The marketing team runs test screening to see how the filmis received from the audience.Potential audience for the film is targeted byposters, cinema trailers, T.V spots and other marketingmaterials.T.V, newspapers and magazines all help spread word aboutthe film.Digital media and internet has flooded the world withinformation but has also made niche marketing possible.To get the audience to see the trailers, distributors mustnegotiate a deal with cinemas to screen it.
The producer sells the film but not outright to the public, sheneeds a distributor.To help sell the film to the distributor, the producer secures theservices of a sales agent.A trailer is made to advertise the film.The producer and sales agent collect everything they will needto sell the film to the distributors.Producers go to great lengths to attract attention to theproduct.High-profile screening at one of the top film festivals can begreat for selling the film.The producer can now negotiate good deals with distributorsaround the world.
Box office success equals finance success!A premiere is used to launch the film to the media andpublic.The UK has more than 3,500 cinema screens, but not allare British.Distributors supply exhibitors with prints of the film.The more screens that the film is shown, on the moreprints are needed.Exhibitors take there share of the box office receipts,after which the distributors recoup their marketingcosts.When distributors have been paid the financiersrecover their investments.
‘Hospitality’ sales for hotel channels and flightentertainments can bring in millions.DVD’s can make up for box office failure.T.V is the final source of revenue. Rights are soldseparately for pay-T.V showings and terrestrialbroadcast.Computer games and other product licences can beextremely lucrative sources of additional revenue.Once the film has made profit, producers and keycreative people can reap their rewards.The final income from a film is never known.Distribution continues in perpetuity, and it may evenbe re-released in the future.