Brown Vs Board Of Education


Published on

This is a Powerpoint presentation that explains the history of segregation in the US. It is an important tool as it illustrates the background of racial tension that can exist today and open dialogue to create change and more progressive attitudes towards race. It helps promote diversity as the injustices of segregation call us all to look at our own biases. It also bolsters diversity, as Powerpoint accommodates many types of learners, both audio and visual. Powerpoint is an important technological tool to use in a class room, providing audio and visual help to students. This presentation illustrates my understanding of the program. I have uploaded this Powerpoint to a shared slide site, which further shows my comfort with the Internet in this age of technology.

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Brown Vs Board Of Education

  1. 1. Brown vs. board of education <br />1954 US Supreme Court case<br />Lucy Eccleston Norvall<br />
  2. 2. Background: Plessy v. Ferguson<br />After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, during the period known as Reconstruction, the government was able to provide some protection for the civil rights of the newly-freed slaves. <br />Reconstruction abruptly ended with the Compromise of 1877 and federal troops were withdrawn, southern state governments began passing Jim Crow Laws that prohibited blacks from using the same public accommodations as whites.<br />
  3. 3. Plessy v. Ferguson (Continued)<br />Plessy v. Ferguson, (1896), is a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the docterine of “separate but equal“<br />"Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until Brown Vs. Board of Education. <br />
  4. 4. Plessy vs. Ferguson<br />In 1890, the State of Louisiana passed Act 111 that required separate accommodations for African Americans and Whites on railroads, including separate railway cars, though it specified that the accommodations must be kept "equal". <br />Concerned, several African Americans (including Louisiana's former governer PBS Pinchback) and Whites in New Orleans formed an association, the Citizens' Committee to Test the Separate Car Act, dedicated to the repeal of that law. They raised $1412.70 ($33711.21 in 2008 USD) which they offered to the then-famous author and Radical Republican jurist, Albion W. Tourgée, to serve as lead counsel for their test case. <br />Tourgée agreed to do it for free. Later, they enlisted Homer Plessy, who was one-eighth black, to take part in an act of planned civil disobedience. The plan was for Plessy to be thrown off the railway car and arrestedbut for violating the Separate Car Act, which could and did lead to a challenge with the high court.<br />The Committee hired a detective to ensure that Plessy was arrested for violating the Separate Car Act, which the Citizen's Committee wanted to challenge with the goal of having it overturned. They chose Plessy because, with his light skin color, he could buy a first class train ticket and, at the same time, be arrested when he announced, while sitting on board the train, that he had an African-American ancestor. For the Committee, this was a deliberate attempt to exploit the lack of clear racial definition in either science or law so as to argue that segregation by race was an "unreasonable" use of state power.<br />The intellectual roots of Plessy v. Ferguson were in part tied to the scientific racism of the era. However, the popular support for the decision was more likely a result of the racist beliefs held by most whites at the time.[3<br />
  5. 5. Plessy V. Ferguson (Continued)<br />Thirteenth Amendment Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.<br />Fourteenth Amendment Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the<br />Plessy boarded a car of the East Louisiana Railroad that was designated for use by white patrons only. He was able to purchase a ticket in first class because his light skin color, but was later asked to leave the car. Plessy refused to leave and was arrested. He sued the state of LA for infringing on his rights of the 13th and 14th Amendments. <br />privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.<br />
  6. 6. Plessy vs. Ferguson (cont’d)<br />However, the judge presiding over his case, John Ferguson, ruled that Louisiana had the right to regulate railroad companies as long as they operated within state boundaries. <br />The Committee of Citizens took Plessy's appeal to the Supreme Court of Louisiana, which ruled with the state AGAIN. <br />The committee appealed to the United States Supreme Court in 1896. The Supreme Court sided with LA and RACIAL SEGREGATION WAS WRITTEN INTO US LAW. <br />
  7. 7. Brown vs. Board of Education 1951<br />For next 90 years, “separate but equal “doctrine ruled the land. <br />In 1951, a class action suit was filed against the Board of Education of the City of Topeka, Kansas in the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. The plaintiffs were thirteen Topeka parents on behalf of their twenty children.<br />
  8. 8. Brown vs. Board of Education<br />The suit called for the school district to reverse its policy of racial segregation. Separate elementary schools were operated by the Topeka Board of Education under an 1879 Kansas law, which permitted (but did not require) districts to maintain separate elementary school facilities for black and white students in twelve communities with populations over 15,000. The plaintiffs had been recruited by the leadership of the Topeka NAACP. <br />The named plaintiff, Oliver Brown, was a parent of Linda, a third grader, had to walk six blocks to her school bus stop to ride to Monroe Elementary, her segregated black school, which was one mile (1.6 km) away, while Sumner Elementary, a white school, was seven blocks from her house.<br />
  9. 9. Brown vs. Board of Education<br />As directed by the NAACP leadership, the parents each attempted to enroll their children in the closest neighborhood school in the fall of 1951. They were each refused enrollment and directed to the segregated schools. Linda Brown Thompson later recalled the experience in a 2004 PBS documentary:<br />The District Court ruled in favor of the Board of Education, citing the Plessy vs. Ferguson, (1896), which had upheld a state law requiring "separate but equal" segregated facilities for blacks and whites in railway cars<br />The three-judge District Court panel found that segregation in public education has a detrimental effect upon negro children, but denied relief on the ground that the negro and white schools in Topeka were substantially equal with respect to buildings, transportation, curricular, and educational qualifications of teachers. The NAACP took the case to Supreme Court.<br />
  10. 10. Brown vs. Board of Education<br />Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Rights Amendment of the 14th Amendment of the US Constitution. <br />