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The Rise Of Democratic Ideas


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The Rise Of Democratic Ideas

  1. 1. The Rise of Democratic Ideas 600 B.C.E - 1790 A.C.E
  3. 3. SOLON’ REFORMS <ul><li>Solon is known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>He created a series of political </li></ul><ul><li>reforms that increased the </li></ul><ul><li>participation of the greeks in </li></ul><ul><li>the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though his intentions </li></ul><ul><li>were just, his reforms did </li></ul><ul><li>not please either the wealthy nor the poor. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CLEISTHENES <ul><li>He helped the rise of democracy </li></ul><ul><li>by reorganizing the assembly, </li></ul><ul><li>wanting to break the power </li></ul><ul><li>of nobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased power of the assembly </li></ul><ul><li>by allowing all citizens to </li></ul><ul><li>submit laws and debate for </li></ul><ul><li>passage. </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE GOLDEN AGE- PERICLES <ul><li>He led Athenes for 32 years, from 461 B.C.E to 429 B.C.E </li></ul><ul><li>He strenghtened democracy by increasing the number of paid public officials and by paying jurors. </li></ul><ul><li>Athenes evolved into a direct democracy, which is a form of government in which all citizens have the right to vote directly and not through rappresentatives. </li></ul>
  8. 8. DIRECT DEMOCRACY DURING A CRISIS BENEFITS DRAWBACKS Ideas are well though and so actions are pundered and reviwed Not everyone is admited into voting in the council A large section of citizens have the opportunity to share their knowledge and opinion Decisions take more time becasue of opinions and arguments A larger number of people are satisfied with the decision taken Voting takes time You have more time to make the correct choice People in a democracy may revolt if not satisfied with the government’s ideals I experiences may lead to bad choices
  9. 9. SEARCHING THE TRUTH- GREEK PHILOSEPHERS <ul><li>Philospheres mean “lovers of wisdom.” </li></ul><ul><li>Based their philosophy on: </li></ul><ul><li> the universe (land, sky, sea) is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute and unchanging laws </li></ul><ul><li> people can understand these laws to logic and reason </li></ul><ul><li>I think that the Greeks’ respect for human reason is one of the key points that helped the ideas of democracy to rise. </li></ul>
  11. 12. ROME BECOMES A REPUBLIC <ul><li>In 509 B.C.E. a new governmnet was set up, called a rupublic. A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the righ to elect the leaders that will make up the government. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast to the direct democracy in Greece, this was indirect </li></ul>
  12. 14. A WRITTEN LEGAL CODE <ul><li>In 528 A.C.E. Emperor Justinian ordered the compiling of all Roman Laws, which were made up by </li></ul><ul><li>four works: </li></ul><ul><li> The Code (containing about 5000 </li></ul><ul><li>Roman laws) </li></ul><ul><li> The Digest (a summaryof legal </li></ul><ul><li>opinions) </li></ul><ul><li> The Institutes (a textbook for law </li></ul><ul><li>students) </li></ul><ul><li> The Novellea (laws passed after </li></ul><ul><li>584 A.C.E.) </li></ul>
  13. 15. WHICH CHARACTERISTIC OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE ROMAN REPUBLIC HAD THE GREATES IMPACT ON THE DEMOCRATIC TRADITION? <ul><li>One of the characteristics of the government under the Roman Republic that had a great impact on the democratic tradition is the idea that an individual is a citizen in a state rather than a subject of a ruler and so that he /she has the right to vote and be part of the democratic say. Another great characteristic that helped the rise of democratic ideas and gave the worldd the idea of a republic is the written legal code and the idea that this code should be applied equally and impartially to all citizerns. </li></ul>
  16. 19. WHAT IDEAS, CRUCIAL TO THE SHAPING OF DEMOCRACY, DID JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANITY SHARE ? <ul><li>There were several ideas that Judaism and Christianity, being both monotheistic, share. One si the duty of the individual and the community to combat opression. Then, the wroth of an individual is equal since people share equality before God’s eyes. These two religions also share the idea of written moral codes and ethics that had to be followed. </li></ul>
  18. 21. RENIASSIANCE <ul><li>By the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic church had become the most important institution in Europe. In the 1300s, a cultural movment, called Renaissance meaning “rebirth” developed in Italy and spread for the next 300 years throughout Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Renaissance, individualism became a major concept in the people’s lives. It is “the belief in the importance of an individual and in the reliance of personal independence. (1) </li></ul>
  19. 22. REFORMATION <ul><li>The Reformation was a religious reform movment that began in the 1500s. Those who wanted to reform the Roman Catholic Church, called Protestants, stressed the importance of a direct realtionship with God. </li></ul><ul><li>This protest ended into a new form of Christianity, called Protestantism. It encouraged the people to make their own religious judgments and to interpret the Bible for themselves.They belived that everyone could find their own path to God, further strenghtening the importance of the individual. </li></ul>
  21. 25. MAGNA CARTA <ul><li>The Magna Carta is a list of demends </li></ul><ul><li>presented to King John by angry nobles that </li></ul><ul><li>rebelled in 1215, presenting certain traditional </li></ul><ul><li>political rights. </li></ul><ul><li>It is celebrated as the source of traditional English </li></ul><ul><li>respect for individual rights and </li></ul><ul><li>liberites and was basically a contract between </li></ul><ul><li>king and the nobles of England. </li></ul><ul><li>The Magna carta had 63 clauses. Two clauses </li></ul><ul><li>established legal rights for individuals. One </li></ul><ul><li>was Clause 12, declaring that the king could not demand taxes but rather has to ask for popular consent. Clause 39 instead delcelared that a person had the right to a jury trail and to the protection of the law. </li></ul>
  22. 26. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO THE AGREEING OF THE MAGNA CARTA King John ADVANTAGES No civil war/revolt More money for the king on a long term Commoners and nobles will pay taxes The people are happier Makes the king look reasonable DISADVANTAGES Less power to the king Lower money income at the start No persecution of people arbitrarily Makes him look weak
  23. 27. CONFLICT WITH THE MONARCH <ul><li>The struggle to limit the power of the monarchy continued over the centuries. In the 1600s, monarchs had a very large amount of power. They claimed that the king’s power came from God and called it the divine right, which pratically stated that monarchs were chosen by God and were therfore responsible only to God. </li></ul>
  24. 29. HABEAS CORPUS <ul><li>Parliament continued to restrict monarch’s power. In 1679 the Habeas Corpus Amendment Act was passed, which is a Latin term that means “you are order to have the body.” It is used in the Parliament to prevent authorities from detening a person unjustly or unfairly. </li></ul>
  26. 32. “LEVIATHAN”- THOMAS HOBBES <ul><li>The English philosepher Thomas Hobbes’s ideas were inflenced by the Scientfic Revolution, whiich caused thinkers to rely much more on their own reason. He was rather pessimistic on human nature and in his book “Leviathan” published in 1651, he wrote that he belives that people are by nature </li></ul><ul><li>selfish and ambitions and that </li></ul><ul><li>therefore the type of government </li></ul><ul><li>that should reign over this kind of </li></ul><ul><li>people was absolute monarchy. </li></ul>
  27. 33. “ TWO TREATISES ON GOVERNMENT”- JOHN LOCKE <ul><li>In 1690, an English philosepher called John Locke published “Two Treatises on Government.” Compared to Hobbes, Locke had a a much more positive view on human nature and wrote that the English people had the right to overthrow James II since the government had failed under James to perform the basic duty, which was protecting the rights of his people. He stated that all human being had, by righ of nature, the right to life, libery and property which the Greeks had also based their democracy on, calling them natural rights. He also stated that the power of the government didnt come from the government itself but from its people. “Locke’s ideas about self-government inspired people and became cornerstones of modern democratic thought.” (1) </li></ul>
  28. 34. “ THE SPIRIT OF LAWS”- BARON DE MONTESQUIEU <ul><li>Montesquieu, a French philosepher, reconginzed libery as a natural right. In his book “The Spirit of laws”, he pointed out that any group of people in charge will always try to gain more power and so he searched, like thew Greek philosephers, for a way to keep the government under control. He arrived to the conclusion that </li></ul><ul><li>separation of powers was the best way to </li></ul><ul><li>safe liberty, so by dividing the government </li></ul><ul><li>into three seperate branches: </li></ul><ul><li> legisalture (make laws) </li></ul><ul><li> executive (to enforce the laws) </li></ul><ul><li> judicial (courts to interpret the laws) </li></ul>
  29. 35. “THE SOCIAL CONTRACT”- JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU <ul><li>Rosseau, considered the most free -thinking of all the philosephers that lived during the Enlightment, published “The Social Contract” in 1762. In it, he </li></ul><ul><li>wrote that the social contract was an </li></ul><ul><li>agreement among free individuals to </li></ul><ul><li>create a government that would answer </li></ul><ul><li>the citizens’ will: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The problem to find a form of association </li></ul><ul><li>which will defeat and protect with the </li></ul><ul><li>whole common force the person and the </li></ul><ul><li>goods of each assosciate.” (2) </li></ul>
  32. 38. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION <ul><li>After winning the French and Indian War, the </li></ul><ul><li>British placed a higher number of soldiers on the </li></ul><ul><li>newly acquired territories and to pay the soldiers, </li></ul><ul><li>they increased the colonists’ taxes. The colonists </li></ul><ul><li>protested on the fact that they viewed that as </li></ul><ul><li>a violation of their British citizenship. Because of </li></ul><ul><li>the protestes, theBritish Parliament issued the </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act in 1765. The colonists opposed this </li></ul><ul><li>measure and all the other acts that came </li></ul><ul><li>afterword by boycotting. “To protect their </li></ul><ul><li>economic and political rights they united and </li></ul><ul><li>began to are themselves against what they called </li></ul><ul><li>British oppression.” This oppresiion became know as the American revolution, while </li></ul><ul><li>was the fighting of the american colonsits to gain independence. It began with th </li></ul><ul><li>e battle of Lexington and Concord, the night of April 18 and morning of April 19, 1775. </li></ul>
  33. 39. <ul><li>On July 4, 1776 during the Second Continental Congress held in Philadelphia, the Comittee of Five decided that Thomas Jefferson ha to write the Decleration of Independence, signed that same day. In it, they wrote a series of set rules based on the enlightment ideas, espescially the ones of Locke and Montesquieu. </li></ul><ul><li>In the summer of 1787, a group of American leaders met in Philadelphia and they worked to find out a way to better the government that they had created at the end of the revolution. “There was a great debate over a very basic question: Was it possible to establish a governmetn that is strong and stable but not tyrannical? The answer was yes- if they creayed a system in which power and responsability were shared in a balanced way.” (1) </li></ul><ul><li>They decided to set up a rappresentative government in which citizens elected rappresentatives to make laws and polices for them. Then, they created a federal system where the power was divided between the federal government and the states’ government. They also created, based on Montesquieus ideas, three braches: legislative, executive and judicial. </li></ul>
  34. 40. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION <ul><li>In 1774, at the age of 19 Louis XVI went to the throne. During his short reign, the clergy and nobility had many privileges and even though the state was largely in dept only the commoners had to pay taxes. Because of the ideas of the Enlightment, the french relised that there were inequalities in the society they lived in and on July 14, 1789, the people of Paris stormed the Bastille, seizing it. </li></ul><ul><li>This is considered the official date of the start of the Frech revolution, in which the commoners fought for equal democratic freedoms. They created a Decleration of the Right of Men and of the Citizen, a document strongly influenced by the Enlightment. It guaranteed the right of liberty, property, security and resistence to oppression to all citizens. </li></ul>
  35. 41. <ul><li>The document was not accepted by the king and the state went through a democratic crisis during which the royal </li></ul><ul><li>family was imprisoned. A harsher legisalture </li></ul><ul><li>took charge and this period, led by </li></ul><ul><li>Robspierre and several other aristocrats, </li></ul><ul><li>became known as the Reign of Terror. </li></ul><ul><li>All the people that were thought to </li></ul><ul><li>sympathize for the royal family or were </li></ul><ul><li>aganst the aristrocrats were beheaded by </li></ul><ul><li>the guillotine. Finally in 1799, Napoleone </li></ul><ul><li>Bonaparte assumed the control of </li></ul><ul><li>France and created a dictatorship . </li></ul>
  36. 42. IN WHICH WAY WAS THE FRENCH REVOLUTION SIMILAR AND DIFFRENT FROM THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION? <ul><li>The American and French Revolution, desipite taking places in diffrent occasions, both contain by one majority (colonists/commoners) oppressed and abused in order to make the comanding class (British/aristocracy) to gain more money and power. A main diffrence bewtween the two revolution is that the issues and problems were confronted diffrently but both classes got the same result- revolution. </li></ul>
  37. 43. THE UNITED NATIONS <ul><li>Ater the end of WWII in 1945, an international organization denominated United Nations (UN) was established. The organisation’s goal was to work for world peace and the betterment of humanity. The general Assembly, one og th UN’s branches, is shaped like a democracy. In it, nations describe and discuss their problems with the hope of resolving them peacefully. One of the UN’s most important contributions to the worls id the Universal Decleration of Human Rights, which draws a democratic standard for basic social, political and economic rights. In many places throughout the world now, the document’s ideals still ahve to be fully achieved. “There is no guarantee thst democracy can be achieved in any particular time and place. There is also no guarantee that once achieved, democracy will not be lost if the people are not constently watchful.” </li></ul>
  38. 44. CONCLUSION-WHICH STAGE OF THE RISE OF DEMOCRACY WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT IN THE CREATION OF MODERN DEMOCRACY? <ul><li>From my point of view, I think that the most important stage of the rise of democracy was the Enlightment which was, however, strongly based on the ideas of the Greek philosephers. During the Enlightment, great international thinkers arosed, questioning the power of the democracy. Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu and Rosseau’s views have helped create the democracies we have today around the world. The idea of the human being having, by nature, the right to liberty, life and property, together with the idea of freddom of speech inspired the american colonists when they decided to revolt. If it werent for Locke and Montesquieu, the Decleration of Independence and the way the United States govern themsleves may not be as well balanced as it is now. The ideas of Hobbes are viewed by some countries as the right way to address and rule a state. Rosseau’s idea of the separation of powers is used not only in the United State’s government but in many other countries as well and allows them to run smoothly and clearly by dividing the federal system in three branches: legislature, executive and judicial. Even though the Enlightment is the most important stage in the rise of democracy, it is strongly based on the ideas of the greek philosephers of natural laws, which were, for both Plato, Socrates and Locke, the right a human being had by nature and by a series of pedictable patterns. The Enlightment was the main stage that enabled the growth and rise of the democracy that would not be what it now. </li></ul>
  39. 45. BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>(1) Little, McDougal- Modern World History Patterns of Interaction; 2001 by McDougalLittell Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Boardman John, Griffin Jasper, Murrey Oswin- The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World; 2001 Oxford University Press </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Hofstadter Richard, Ver Steeg Clarence L.- Great Issues in American History; 1998 Vintage Edition </li></ul>