Communication StudiesStudent:     Luc van Dijk | AeronAdviesDate:        03/2012University of Twente
Literature review on protecting children on internet           How can this be achieved without losing the benefits?Abstra...
advantages of internet. A particular focus is     in the offline world. In short: being friendschosen for the role of the ...
Mason (2008) found that new media can be a         intentions. Because of misinterpretation theplace to draw-down or other...
other hand it has also a lot of disadvantages.      internet. “Among students, 41% do not shareWhen children are playing o...
teachers what they are doing online. Even         The topic of the literature review iswhen they are bullied.             ...
Aricak, T., Siyahhan, S., Uzunhasanoglu, A., Saribeyoglu, S., Ciplak, S., Yilmaz, N., &       Memmedov, C. (2008). Cyberbu...
Radstake, M. (2010). Relatie tussen het gebruik van nieuwe media en spellingvaardigheid bij      vmbo-, havo- en vwo leerl...
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AeronAdvies research - Literature review on protecting children on internet


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Literature review on protecting children on internet
How can this be achieved without losing the benefits?

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AeronAdvies research - Literature review on protecting children on internet

  1. 1. Communication StudiesStudent: Luc van Dijk | AeronAdviesDate: 03/2012University of Twente
  2. 2. Literature review on protecting children on internet How can this be achieved without losing the benefits?AbstractInternet is a relatively new concept in the world. Where parents and teachers have to teachthemselves what it is and what they can do with it, the younger generation is ‘born’ online.Their secret: learning by doing. This article considers the positive and negative aspects ofinternet use with a particular focus on children and social media. Furthermore it describeshow children can be protected against the negative aspects of internet use but also can use thepositive aspects of it. It turns out that schools should help children to develop appropriateetiquette for the online world. According to the literature this can be done by giving lessonshow to approach social media, not only at school but also at home. Schools may always givespace for positive points of social media such as creativity, leadership development, self-presentation, creation of ideas and identity development.1. Introduction Besides the disadvantage of internet use, theNumerous articles are written about the new sort of media also has a great advantagesignificant differences in use of technological for children. New media can support childrenresources between generations. The older with identity creation (Cleemput, 2008;generation has taught themselves to use Gross, 2004). For example, it offers childrencomputers, while children in the current the opportunity to try different identities andsociety have grown up with this medium choose one that fits best (Li, 2007).(Genuis & Genuis, 2005; King, Walpole, & Moreover internet use teaches them to beLamon, 2007). As a consequence of this creative and develop good communicationbehavior there is a knowledge gap between skills. Furthermore, it helps them to establishchildren and their parents. Children are very their leadership (Green & Hammon, 2007;capable of working with the computer Sharples, et al., 2009).compared to their parents (King, Walpole &Lamon, 2007). But Delfos (2011) stated that Delfos (2011) state that children should bechildren need adults too, to help them guided by their online experiences, becauseprocess their online experiences. So it seems children cannot process their onlinethat the generations need each other. experiences on their own. Sharples, et al. (2009) agree with this statement and add thatThere are positive and negative aspects for children need to learn net etiquette.children by using the internet. One of the Panagiotes, Anastasiades, and Vitalakiproblems is cyber bullying. The lack of (2011) also find that children need to beknowledge of new media by parents prevents taught how to use internet safely. Botha support of their children when they are Sharples, et al. (2009) and Anastasiades andcyber bullied (Li, 2007). Furthermore there Vitalaki (2011) stated that the school shouldare more problems. Total freedom in internet be responsible to teach the children how touse by children can have negative deal with internet use.consequences, children do not oversee theresults of their behavior and have – because This literature review provides insights inof the lack of information from their parents internet use of children with its advantages– not learnt to use net etiquette (Sharples, and disadvantages. Furthermore it providesGraber, Harrison, & Logan, 2009). viewpoints how children can be protected against the dangers of internet use, but also stimulated to use internet because of theUNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. 2
  3. 3. advantages of internet. A particular focus is in the offline world. In short: being friendschosen for the role of the school. with those who are friends in the real world. Nevertheless, other researchers find2. Internet use and children something else. A part of the children feelsThe newest generation lives online (Genuis better online than offline. This is because& Genuis, 2005). According to King, they can express themselves better in theWalpole, & Lamon (2007) 89% of the online world (King, Walpole, & Lamon,children have home internet acces. In 2007). Besides, children experiencecomparison Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts anonymity online (Aricak et al., 2008).(2010) are saying that 84% of the children Owing to this children think they can doare using social media at home. 33% even whatever they want to do (Genuis & Genuis,have internet in their own room. Table 1 2005). Furthermore some children experienceillustrates the changes over time, stemming themselves as invisible and anonymous whenfrom this research: they are online. As a result some of them try different identities (Slonje & Smith, 2008). Because they have no supervisors, there are no limits or boundaries, furthermore there are no rules (Mason, 2008). 3. Benefits of internet use by children Social media can help children with identity development. As an example children learn abilities such as creativity, self-presentation, leadership and the development of ideas (Green & Hammon, 2007; Sharples et al., 2009). Actually they can train these skills by presenting as themselves and presenting himself like another person. The last point Table 1 Home internet access, over time can be positive for answering the questions: (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010) who am I? What can I be? These are the main questions of the adolescence phase of identity development (Harder, 2009).Children use internet mainly to presentthemselves to the outside world. Half of the Whether a child is presenting as himselfchildren are logging in a couple of times a online or just as another person, in both casesday to change their own profile on social they have to think about how the person innetwork sites or look at profiles of others question should react. As a matter of fact the(Cleemput, 2008). They are using internet child sees how other people react (or not) toprivate, outside the sight of their parents. the online personage. Consequently the childMost of the time they chat with (offline) can learn how to react in certain situationsfriends about friends and gossip. Also a small and what kind of identity he wants to creategroup of children is gaming (Gross, 2004). in real life (Sharples et al., 2009).According to Cleemput (2008) children findthat the online identity should fit the offline This statement is conducted by Collin,identity. This means that a person should Rahilly, Richardson and Third (2011). Theybehave quite the same online as offline. state in their article that internet use can be aGross (2004) additionally finds that children way to experience with different identities,want to connect online with those they know without the regulations of their parents. AlsoUNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. 3
  4. 4. Mason (2008) found that new media can be a intentions. Because of misinterpretation theplace to draw-down or otherwise behave as other child is upset and as a concequence theanother person than themselves. On the misunderstanding continues in the offlinewhole children can build a certain identity, it with peers and develop an ownidentity (Colin et al., 2011). Some children Another disadvantage according to Duimelwho are bullied in real life see internet as the (2009) is that children can steal the usernameplace to be respected (King, Walpole & and password from each other, basicallyLamon, 2007). Summarizing being online is stealing an online identity. As a result aa good way for identity development person can send messages from the profile of(Cleemput, 2008; Gross, 2004). another child. Obviously the posted reactions with a stolen profile are not always that well educated. Moreover it causes more damageFor learning language skills it does not because the private information, protected bymatter whether or not children use a lot of the password, is not private media. Nevertheless, it is not adisadvantage either (Radstake, 2010). Also children can create fake accounts by pretending to be a real person, for example a classmate (Duimel, 2009). By ‘stealing’4. Disadvantages of internet use by someone’sidentity, other children can thinkchildren this person is a real friend of them and addIt is good for children to be online, on the the person to their network. Nevertheless it isother hand it has to be controlled (Sharples et a fake account, so the messages coming fromal., 2009). As an example children are getting this ‘person’ are not instructions about safe and responsibleuse of the internet at this moment. Unfriending – not being an online friendFurthermore there is no supervision (Genuis anymore with somebody – can hurt a child& Genuis, 2005). As a consequence children deeply (Duimel, 2009). In real life peopledo not always know what they are doing normally can end a relationship when they doonline and what the impact is of what they not speak to each other anymore. Howeverare doing. It is possible that a child is cyber online someone is a friend or is not a friend.bullying another child, but the child is not It might happen when some child is ‘cleaningaware of the bullying behavior. When given up’ his or her account he will delete someawareness of this behavior, most of the time ‘friends’. This can be cruel for the child whoa child will stop bullying (Li, 2007). is being unfriended. The younger they are, the more difficult it normally is for a childAccording to Duimel (2009) there are more (Duimel, 2009).disadvantages. In the first place onlinecommunication can result in As a whole, the problem is that this kind ofmisunderstandings. Children communicate disadvantages take place outside the sight ofwith each other online but they normally do the parents or teachers. As follows it isnot see or hear the other person. difficult for parents to control their childrenConsequently, children say something while (Genuis & Genuis, 2005; King, Walpole, &they mean something else and are not always Lamon, 2007).aware of this situation.Additionally, Aricak et al. (2008) also found 5. Guidancethat statements made online can cause To summarize, internet use has a lot ofproblems in the real word. To illustrate: a advantages for children, not in the last placechild says something online and has no bad to help with identity development. On theUNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. 4
  5. 5. other hand it has also a lot of disadvantages. internet. “Among students, 41% do not shareWhen children are playing on a playground, where they go or what they do on the Internetthey are in sight of their parents or teachers. with their parents and 26% of studentsOnline there is not (always) a supervisor. To believe their parents would at least “bego more in-depth about this issue the concerned” if their parents knew what theyfollowing sub question is researched: How did on the Internet.” (p. S67).are children being guarded by parents orteachers in social media? Scharples et al. (2009) state that children need help with their internet use. This can beBecause children know better the way online, done by teaching children to developit is difficult for parents to check their appropriate etiquette and teach them to knowchildren (King, Walpole, & Lamon, 2007; when social networking becomes risky andGenuis & Genuis, 2005). As a result parents unacceptable. “Most of all, schools,often are not aware of what their children are supported by agencies including Becta, needdoing online. Actually parents learn to use to develop an approach to the social Internetthe computer and social media from their that complements home use while developingchildren (Genuis & Genuis, 2005). On the a distinctive educational space for creativity,other hand a child needs to speak with adults community and personal learning” (p. 79).about their online experiences (Delfos,2011). This is because they can experience In short Slonje & Smith (2008) say childrensituations with are unclear or unknown for a who are being bullied online will not tellchild, just as in real life, and need some adult their teachers and very few tell it to theirsupport. parents. Where Delfos (2011) finds that adults should talk to – their – children toA problem hereby is that there is too little protect them against dangerous aspects ofawareness of professionals and parents about internet use.for instance cyber bullying (Li, 2007). As anexample most school professionals are not Kuter-Luks, Heuvelman and Peters (2011)aware of this online problem. And when they state that schools should help children withare, they do not know how to deal with the their internet use. Not to provide technicalproblem (Mason, 2008). Moreover Slonje & eductation, because children are better in thisSmith (2008) make clear that parents think than adults, but to provide skills to deal withthey are aware of what the child is doing the medium. What they want is that schoolsonline and would notice if the child is bullied provide programs to increase the criticalonline. Although from their research comes attitude of children towards internet (Kuter-that parents are less aware of cyber bullying Luks, Heuvelman & Peters, 2011). Scharples,compared to traditional bullying. As a result Graber, Harrison en Logan (2009) also findthis can lead to children who will not report that schools should learn children net-bullying behavior from others to their etiquette.parents. Likewise they will not tell it to theirteachers, because the person in questionknows too little about the subject. 6. Conclusion, discussion and directionsConsequently this frustrates the positive for future researcheffects of internet use. Nonetheless, for 90 At this moment parents as well as teacherspercent of all parents it is important that theirchild learn good internet use skills (Sharples know too little about the online world toet al., 2009). In addition King, Walpole & support children. In the eyes of children it isLamon (2007) give the following interesting a problem that they know too little. As ainformation. From a survey comes that many result they will not tell it to their parents andstudents experience no rules for usingUNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. 5
  6. 6. teachers what they are doing online. Even The topic of the literature review iswhen they are bullied. continuous changing. Therefore it is possible that some information from used articles orIt turns out that internet has great advantages books is outdated.and disadvantages for children. As a positiveexample children can stay in touch with thosethey know from school and the playground.Furthermore they learn the skills of self-presentation, creativity, leadership, thedevelopment of ideas and it is positive foridentity development. To illustrate thedisadvantages: because there is almost nocontrol from parents or teachers they can puttoo much information online, not only canthey contact the wrong people but they canalso start bullying online or even beingbullied.This research gives thus insight in theadvantages and disadvantages of internet usefor children and it gives a solution to protectchildren against the danger of internet usenamely through have open conversations asadults with children (Delfos, 2011) and withspecial school programs (Kuter-Luks,Heuvelman & Peters, 2011). It is stated thatschools should provide lessons for internetuse etiquettes. So a theoretical solution forthe actual problem is given.Nevertheless, how the problem practicallycan be solved, is not known. Additionallyhow to resolve the problem of the knowledgegap between parents, teachers and children isalso not totally clear. One clear advise foradults and children is to talk to each otherabout the topic, but it is unclear what theschool lessons in practice should look like.In order to give an answer to these openquestions more research is needed on how topractically provide children with protectionagainst the danger of internet use withoutlosing the benefits of it such as identitydevelopment.ReferencesAnastasiades, P. S., & Vitalaki, E. (2011). Promoting Internet Safety in Greek Primary Schools: the Teachers Role. Educational Technology & Society, 14 (2), 71–80.UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. 6
  7. 7. Aricak, T., Siyahhan, S., Uzunhasanoglu, A., Saribeyoglu, S., Ciplak, S., Yilmaz, N., & Memmedov, C. (2008). Cyberbullying among Turkish Adolescents. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(3), 253-261. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2007.0016Collin, P., Rahilly, K., Richardson, I. & Third, A. (2011). The Benefits of Social Networking Services: A literature review. Cooperative Research Centre for Young People,Technology and Wellbeing. Melbourne. ISBN: 978-0-9871179-1-5, M.F. (2011). Luister je wel naar mij? Gespreksvoering met kinderen tussen vier en twaalf jaar. Amsterdam: SWP Uitgeverij.Duimel, M. (2009). Krabbels & Respect plz? Hyves en kinderen. Mijn kind online. Retrieved January 18, 2011, from, S. J., & Genuis, S. K. (2005). Implications of Cyberspace Communication: A Role for Physicians. Southern Medical Journal, 98(4), 451-455.Green, H., & Hannon, C. (2007). Their Space Education for a digital generation. Demos: London.Gross, E. F. (2004). Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(6), 633-649. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2004.09.005Kaplan, A.M., & Haenlein, M. (2009). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons 53(1), 58-68King, J. E., Walpole, C. E., & Lamon, K. (2007). Surf and Turf Wars Online—Growing Implications of Internet Gang Violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6, Supplement), S66-S68. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.09.001Küter‐Luks, T., Heuvelman, A., & Peters, O. (2011). 1.Making Dutch pupils media conscious: preadolescents’ self‐assessment of possible media risks and the need for media education. Learning, Media and Technology 36(3), 295-313Li, Q. (2007). Bullying in the new playground: Research into cyberbullying and cyber victimisation. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23(4), 435-454.Mason, K. L. (2008). Cyberbullying: A preliminary assessment for school personnel. Psychology in the Schools, 45(4), 323-348. doi: 10.1002/pits.20301UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. 7
  8. 8. Radstake, M. (2010). Relatie tussen het gebruik van nieuwe media en spellingvaardigheid bij vmbo-, havo- en vwo leerlingen. archive library UU. Retrieved January 18, 2011, from http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nlRideout, V.J., Foehr, U.G., & Roberts D.F. (2010) Generation M2 Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds In The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Retrieved December 16, 2011, from http://www.kff.orgRosenthal , D.A., Gurney ,R.M., & Moore, S.M. (1981). From Trust to Intimacy: A New Inventory for Examining Eriksons Stages of Psychosociai Development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 10(6), 525-537.Sharples, M., Graber, R., Harrison, C., & Logan, K. (2009). E-safety and Web 2.0 for children aged 11–16. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(1), 70-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2008.00304.xSlonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(2), 147-154. doi: 10.1111/j.1467- 9450.2007.00611.xVan Cleemput, K. (2008). Zelfpresentatie op profielsites door Vlaamse jongeren. Tijdschrift voor Communicatiewetenschap, 36(4), 253-269.UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. 8