PEPE VINAIXA KINNEAR
GABRIEL HAN PORRAS
LUCIA TRILLO CARRERAS
• Dark matter is an invisible phenomenon that
acts on the visible matter( a pencil, a table…)
allowing us to notice its existence
• Throughout the universe, there is 6 times
more dark matter than normal matter
• The string theory gives a better explanation
• In 1933, a Swiss astronomer called Fritz Zwicky
discovered some kind of “invisible matter”
meanwhile examining the Coma galaxy.
• In the 1970’s, an astronomer called Vera Rubin
was sure about the existence of dark matter
and she started to understand the universe in
a proper way.
• Although neither of them were mistaken, they
Dark Matter Nowadays
• The mystery of dark matter has drawn the
attention of many scientists in such an
impressive way that many improvements have
• In contrast, nature doesn’t agree that we’ll
ever be able to detect dark matter.
WHAT IS DARK
• As same as dark matter, dark energy has been one of the
most mysterious issues it exists in science.
• Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that
permeates all of space and produces a negative pressure,
resulting in a repulsive gravitational force. Dark energy may
account for accelerated expansion of the universe, as well
as most of its mass.
It can not be seen with today
technologies, as dark matter
TYPES OF DARK
Two possible forms of dark energy are the cosmological
constant and quintessence, the first static and the second
dynamic. To distinguish between the two very precise
measurements of the expansion of the universe is needed to
see if the expansion rate changes over time. These
measurements are a topic of current research.
WHAT IS ITS FUNCTION?
• Dark energy produces an effect
opposite to the force of
gravity, thus opposing the
approach and subsequent collision
of all the elements that make up
the cosmos, and by contrast is
responsible for the continued
expansion of the universe
accelerating and causing
separation the above elements of
the percentage of the visible
• We shouldn´t confuse
dark matter with dark
energy dark matter is a
form of matter as dark
gravitational effects (is
matter) while dark
energy is a field that
fills all space.
String theory holds several possibilities for the
existence of dark matter. It provides a natural
candidate for dark matter in super symmetric
particles which scientists have never observed
Probably the simplest explanation of dark
matter would be a vast sea of supersymmetric
particles residing inside galaxies, but we can’t
Supersymmetry implies that every particle
science knows about has a superpartner.
A computer simulation, reported in the
journal Nature in November 2008, offers dark matter
in the halo of the Milky Way galaxy should produce
detectable levels of gamma rays. This simulation
indicates a direction to start looking for such tell-tale
signs, at least.
Another possible dark matter candidate comes from
the various brane world scenarios. Though the
details still have to be worked out, it’s possible that
there are branes that overlap with our own 3-brane.
Perhaps where we have galaxies, there are
gravitational objects that extend into other branes.
Finally, the 4-dimensional string theories present
yet another possibility, Bringing string theory down
to four dimensions seems to greatly expand the
number of particles that physicists would expect to
find in the universe, and (if they exist) these could
account for dark matter.
String Theory Features
• String theory is a work in progress, so trying to pin down
exactly what the science is, or what its fundamental
elements are, can be kind of tricky. The key string theory
• All objects in our universe are composed of vibrating
filaments (strings) and membranes (branes) of energy.
• String theory attempts to reconcile general relativity
(gravity) with quantum physics.
• A new connection (called supersymmetry) exists between
two fundamentally different types of
particles, bosons and fermions.
• Several extra (usually unobservable) dimensions to the
universe must exist.