Adverbs grammar sem 2011


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Adverbs grammar sem 2011

  2. 2. OBJECTIVES Students will be able:  To identify adverbs in sentences. To classify adverbs under the correct categories. To place adverbs correctly in sentences. 2/17
  3. 3. GRAMMAR II AND III YEAR Warm-up exercise  Write sentences on the board and ask what is it that they have in common. Examples: 1. You almost never arrive on time. 2. Have you already finished your practice? 3. Check your answers carefully. 4. Last time you overlooked a lot of mistakes. 5. Apparently every body understood the explanation . 6. I need to see her now. 7. She’s currently working in Panama city. 8. I just saw him. 9. You seem totally confused. 10. She doesn’t eat much. 3/17
  4. 4. Warm-up # 2 Ask questions about adverbs.  1. What do you know about adverbs?  2. Which parts of the sentence do they modify ?  3. How many types of adverbs are there?  4. What do adverbs tell us?  5. What do they look like? ( most frequent ending)  6. Which adverbs are you familiar with? Give examples  7. What questions word do you use to identify adverbs of manner?  8. What question do you use to identify adverbs of frequency?  9. What question do you use to identify adverbs of degree?  10. Where do adverbs come in sentences? 4/17
  5. 5. Adverbs Categories Examples manner Carefully; slowly frequency Always; often time and place Now; here relative time Already; recently; soon degree Extremely; rather; very quantity A lot; a little focusing Even; also; only; particularly Attitude markers Apparently, fortunately
  6. 6. Adverbs Explain each category and give examples in context.  Adverbs of manner – they usually explain how something is done. Example: Open it quickly! He hit me hard. Position: The most common place is at the end of a clause. After a verb: You spoke convincingly. After an object: You described everything convincingly. After an adverbial: You described everything to the board convincingly. However, we can vary the position of adverbs of manner according to what we want to emphasize. Before the subject : Carefully, she put it on the shelf. Before a verb: She carefully put it on the shelf. Between an object and an adverbial: She put it carefully on the shelf 6/17
  7. 7. Adverbs Adverbs of frequency- we use adverbs of frequency to indicate how often we do things or how often things happen.  Examples: always, usually, often, sometimes , occasionally, hardly ever, seldom, rarely, never. Sentence position: Before the main verb: She never speaks. Two auxiliary verbs: They would often have eaten before we arrived. (To) be: She was always the best student. Is she often ill? Front and end position: Sometimes her attitude is rather off-putting. ( for emphasis) I don´t go out often. 7/17
  8. 8. Adverbs Adverbs of time and place: To specify both times and places, and to stand in place of adverbials which make the precise time or place known. Examples : Time- yesterday, today, now, then, etc. Place: outside , underneath, here, there, etc. Adverbials: on Wednesday, at the bus stop, etc. Position: Generally at the end of a clause. Note: When we use adverbs of time and place together, we usually specify the place before the time. Example: She is coming here now. 8/17
  9. 9. Adverbs  Adverbs of relative time: provide information about the time of an action or event in relation to some other point of time. Examples: just, afterwards, soon, currently, presently, and recently. Sentence position: Just Immediately before the main verb: I just saw him. Between two auxiliary verbs: They have just arrived. Afterwards and soon At the end of a clause: We are leaving afterwards. We will be at the station soon. Currently, presently, and recently At the end of a clause: She’s trying to finish the book currently. Precede a main verb: I’ll presently be going out. Between two auxiliary verbs: She has recently been getting back late. Formal style Presently, she got up the bench and…. 9/17
  10. 10. Adverbs Special Adverbs: already, still and yet Their meanings depend on assumptions we make about the knowledge and expectations our readers or listeners share with us. Consider the difference in meaning: Do you know the result? Do you know the result yet? Sentence position: Immediately before the main verb: I already Know Between the verb to be and the complement: They are still teenagers. At the end of the clause: I know already. I’m using it still. Yet - at the end of the clause: Has he finished yet? Note: Use already in affirmative sentence and yet in negative statements and questions. 10/17
  11. 11. Adverbs  Adverbs of degree: Intensifiers - make adjectives stronger Down toners- make adjectives weaker Examples of intensifiers: extremely, very, really, real , so We are very hungry. I am totally confused. Examples of down toners: fairly, quite, rather We ran fairly quickly. The intensifiers we choose depend not only on the degree of the intensification, but also on the meaning of what we want to intensify, the grammar of what is intensified and on style. With gradable adjectives we choose intensifiers such as very or extremely. With un gradable adjectives we choose intensifiers which express absoluteness such as absolutely, completely or totally. Other intensifiers such as largely and wholly comment on the completeness of something. We use some intensifiers only to describe abstract qualities (e.g. massively successful, hugely ambitious). The intensifiers we use with gradable adjectives can also be used with adverbs (e.g. really soon), and we use a few adverbs with verbs ( e.g. I really like it, I totally agree We use down toners only with gradable adjectives such as angry, cold, hot or with related adverbs. Quite- functions as a down toner with gradable adj. And adverbs: She was quite tired Quite- expresses absoluteness with non gradable words : She was quite exhausted. Position - We generally place adverbs of degree immediately before the word they modify.
  12. 12. Adverbs Adverbs of quantity: a lot, a little , much  A little - generally only in affirmative statements  Much - in negative or question forms.  A lot- in affirmative and negative statements and in questions Examples: She cried a little/ a lot. She doesn’t eat much/ a lot. Does she complain about the service much/ a lot ?  Position: We generally place these adverbs at the en of the clause. 12/17
  13. 13. Adverbs  Focusing adverbs We use focusing adverbs:  To single out information ( e.g. especially, even, particularly, specifically).  To express some kind of restriction ( e.g. just, merely, only, purely).  To refer back to something (e.g. Also, either, too.) Note: each adverb has its own rules about what kinds of words it can be used with and where it comes in the sentence. Even- We use even to indicate that something is unexpected or surprising. Example: Every one is lying to me- even you. Only- We use only to express some kind of restriction. Example: I was only asking you a simple question. Also- We use also to draw attention to the fact that we are adding information about something. Example: You have to teach the positive form of verbs and also the question form. Position: We usually place them immediately before the item they qualify. Examples: Even the doorman was smiling as they left. She invited even me. She left only what she didn’t need. 13/17
  14. 14. Adverbs Attitude markers- We use attitude markers to interpret the events we describe or to convey our attitude towards them. Examples: apparently, blindly, clearly, hopefully, fortunately, frankly, naturally, obviously, ostensibly, really, stupidly, surprisingly, unfortunately. In sentences: Clearly we’ll want to sign the contract. Apparently they tried to call the doctor. Note: Most words which can be attitude markers can also function as an adverb of manner. Sentence position: At the beginning of a clause: Obviously nobody is going to blame you. At the end of a clause: The called the doctor several times, apparently. Before a complement: She’s obviously a born teacher. Between a subject and a verb: You naturally want to get recognition for what you achieve. 14/17
  15. 15. FOLLOW-UP EXERCISE # 1 Group work- Read the text and answer the questions bellow: It’s nearly Christmas- a time when I traditionally (1) make efforts to renew contact with friends individually (2) and when I think about you all and about what is particularly (3) special about each and every one of you. This year, however, I am afraid I’m writing to you collectively (4)- I’ll be thinking of each of you individually (5) as I sign and address your card, but I hardly ever (6) seem to have the time to sit down nowadays (7) and partly (8) I thought this would be better than nothing and partly (9) I also (10)want to practice my word processing. a) What category of adverb does each of these belong to? b) What alternative words or expressions could be used? c) Which adverbs could be used in alternative sentence position? 15/17
  16. 16. FOLLOW-UP EXERCISE # 2 Group or Pair work Look at the following texts and answer the questions: 1. She explained grammar effectively and simply. 2. I’m interested in the quality of the product and not simply how many units we can sell. 3. I went completely over my head. 4. I still make mistakes when I am tired. 5. Woody Allan boldly goes into new territory- a Fatal Attraction – style thriller with laughs- to produce an elegantly written, beautifully acted film. a) Which words are adverbs? b) What category of adverb does each of these words belong to? c) What effect would removing these adverbs from the texts have? 16/17
  17. 17. FOLLOW- UP EXERCISE # 3 Game- Divide the class in two groups. Each group takes turns going to the whiteboard to correct the mistake. They have one minute to figure out the answer. If they correct the mistake, they get to play their turn. Note: They need to explain the correction. 1. Rarely we ever saw him. Tic-tac-toe 2. Not often she managed to get here on time. 3. I like very much music. 4. She works hardly. 5. He improved rapid. 6. She opened carefully the door. 7. Come now here. 8. I haven’t never seen him. 17/17