Media as a change agent: a study of three villages- urban, semi-urban and rural
201010191751419225SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER’S DEGREE IN MASS COMMUNICATIONMedia as a change agent: a study of three villages- urban, semi-urban and ruralRESEARCH GUIDE:DR MOHANMEET KHOSLASUBMITTED BY:RADHE KRISHAN(2009-2010)<br />Media as a change agent: a study of three villages- urban, semi-urban and rural<br />A dissertation<br />Submitted to: Dr. Mohanmeet Khosla<br />Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the Master’s degree in <br />MASS COMMUNICATION<br />2010<br />Submitted by:<br />Radhe Krishan<br />MMC-II<br />School of Communication Studies<br />Panjab University<br />Chandigarh<br />ACKNOWLEDGEMENT<br />I am highly indebted to my guide Dr. Mohanmeet Khosla, for the invaluable help which she extended to me, without which my dissertation could not have been completed successfully. It was her constant, patient guidance which motivated me and helped me complete this study.<br />I am also grateful to all the respondents who participated in my research. I would also like to thank God and my family and friends for their constant support and blessings, who always been there, constantly encouraging me and helping me throughout the study.<br />Radhe Krishan<br />CERTIFICATE<br />This is to certify that Radhe Krishan has worked on his dissertation on the topic – ‘Media as a change agent: a study of three villages’, under my supervision. This research is his original work and has not been copied from anywhere.<br />Research Guide:<br />Dr. Mohanmeet Khosla<br />(Chairperson,<br /> School of Communication Studies,<br /> P.U. Chandigarh)<br />CONTENTS<br />CHAPTER 1AIMS AND OBJECTIVES6<br />CHAPTER 2HYPOTHESIS7<br />CHAPTER 3INTRODUCTION8<br />CHAPTER 4OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS24<br />CHAPTER 5REVIEW OF LITERATURE 31<br />CHAPTER 6RATIONALE37<br />CHAPTER 7METHODOLOGY38<br />CHAPTER 8SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS39<br />CHAPTER 9SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES40<br />CHAPTER 10DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS41<br />CHAPTER 11CONCLUSION67<br />CHAPTER 12ANNEXURE70<br />CHAPTER 13BIBLIOGRAPHY71<br />CHAPTER 14QUESTIONNAIRE72<br />AIMS AND OBJECTIVES<br /><ul><li>To identify the various parameters of change.
To identify primary change agent in different geographical settings.
To identify whether the primary change agent varies as per the change sector.
To identify the suitable media for a particular geographical area especially villages.
To understand the actual flow of communication at different levels at different types of villages, i.e. rural, urban and semi urban villages.
To determine whether a particular media has comparatively more usage at different places.</li></ul>HYPOTHESIS<br />Media is the primary source of information regarding governmental schemes policies and programs at villages.<br />The primary change agent varies as per the change sector.<br />Education and nature of change is associated.<br />Similar type of media cannot be suitable for all kind of villages (rural, semi-urban and urban).<br />The flow of communication varies at different levels at different type of villages.<br />Television is the most popular medium regardless of geographical settings. <br />INTRODUCTION<br />Understanding the Concept of Change<br />Throughout our existence we keep putting in efforts to bring change in our lives. Change in our status, change in our attitudes, change in our lifestyle, change in our thinking and so many other changes we keep striving to bring in. These changes are commonly known as development. To acquire these changes we act in a certain manner. We get educated; we acquire information about what is happening around and act accordingly. We use different media to acquire knowledge about plethora of things. It is almost impossible to collate information without using any media. Rather doing things for the first time we do it as specialists, scientists or theorists have stated after intensive research. Things which are beneficial, theories which are proved, inventions which are recognized are taken up by the media from the corners of the world and delivered at our doorsteps, thus changing our lives. <br />Everything in nature is bound to change and somehow change makes the survival easier and convenient. There was a time when man used to live in caves. He did not know agriculture. He lived on meat only. But due to the constant process of change in the nature he learnt agriculture. The change brought in the concept of civilization. Today’s man has stepped on the moon. The process of change is irresistible, thus every society must make sure that it adopts the change in a positive manner. The mass media thus plays a very significant role by providing the society with alternatives. Our environment, our habits, our customs, our ways of living, must change with the time. Any society which adopts a stubborn attitude and doesn’t accept change is bound to perish as a drastic change because change is the first law of nature.Even good customs hamper progress and become positive hindrances, when they are not allowed to change. Society then becomes conservative and orthodox. It fails to march with others on the road to progress.<br />The process of natural changes and events never stops in this world. Similarly, the concept of economic, socio, political and religious set ups of all countries are also subject to constant changes. No state of affairs of any individual, place or of any country can remain stable and permanent forever. We have seen in number of political-socio-economic changes in countries like Russia, America, Britain, India, Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan and so many other countries of the world. But, our efforts are, however, put to the fullest extent possible; to retain the shape which we think is beneficial and favourable to our wishes. For that purpose media works as change agent and ensures the process of change benefits the society rather harming it.<br />Indian perspective<br />India is the second most populated country after China and eighty percent of its people live in villages. There are more than six lakh villages in India. The key occupation is agriculture thus we are an agrarian state. Since independence the conditions have changed, whether these are political, economic or even geographical, the change is there. <br />There are some major events in the history of India which brought in positive changes:-<br /><ul><li>Green Revolution
Software Revolution </li></ul>There are numerous factors which cause or bring change. Among them are – the media primarily, then the government or more specifically its ideology and then the changing geographical environment. The above stated events brought in the most one can expect but it is not possible to initiate such campaigns without an active media. The media does the most important functions which are prerequisite to any kind of growth. These are- information, motivation, providing a platform for debate and discussion, entertainment and critical evaluation of the government. <br />We have a unique kind of government system. Although we have democracy, but the process of government formation is very unique in India. What matters the most here is that who chooses the candidates who ultimately form the government. Apparently, it is the people or more precisely the voters. In India eighty percent of the population lives in villages. The percentage of voting in urban areas is less than it is in rural areas and literacy rate is very less in villages if compared to urban areas. Now it is interesting to know how they choose the candidate they vote for. Most of our politicians have the understanding of the psyche of people living in the villages of India. Because of that there are people who are incapable, unqualified, and corrupt and even criminals, but still are part of the government. This creates a vicious circle and hampers the image and growth of the nation. And even here the change is noticeable. We can check recent statistics and can figure out the change in the voting behaviour of citizens of India. The credit goes to media up to a great extent as it helps people form opinion about what is wrong and what is right. People have started sending their children to school and even illiterate adults are motivated to get education. Who can forget the famous “School Chalo” and “PadhnaLikhnaSeekho O MehnatKarneWalo”campaigns on Doordarshan.<br />The media plays very important role in the social course. In fact it’s the media which has the potential to alter the nature of change a society goes through. The history of media proves it. The role of media before and during the freedom movement and even after the independence, for instance during emergency, proves the potential of media.<br />Not only the corporate sector but the media itself is eying to capture this almost unexplored market of rural India. Various permutations are being tried out by media conglomerates. Thus the scenario is changing rapidly. There are so many studies carried out in the past, which have shown varied results regarding the communication system in rural India.<br />Understanding Mass Media<br />In general, "media" refers to various means of communication. The term can also be used as a collective noun for the press or news reporting agencies. Media includes all the channels of mass communication available. For instance, Newspapers, Magazines, periodicals etc. comes under print media. Radio, Television and films come under broadcast or electronic media.<br />Johannes Guttenberg invented the press in mid-15th century. The initial forerunners of the present newspapers appeared soon after that. The first newspapers called “corantoes” were single sheet newsletters. The “London Gazette” was the first English newspaper, published for the first time in 1665. The circulation of daily newspapers started off. During the times of Pulitzer the practice of yellow journalism started which gave rise to Sunday Supplements coming with the newspaper every Sunday. These supplements coined the idea of magazines. There were many more kinds of publications started, for instance, weekly newspapers, Sunday magazines, fortnight publications, evening newspapers, and monthly magazines etc.<br />Present societies in the world depend on media for all kinds of information and entertainment. A major reason for this dependency is that we live in a society in which networks of interpersonal ties are not as deeply established as they once were (McQuail, 1994). In modern societies most of our information is not received through family ties and networks of friendships but rather through the mass media. Most people live in physical proximity to one another but with extensive differences based on ethnicity, race, education, income, religion, language, and other characteristics. Such social and cultural differences can impede interpersonal communication. This tends to inhibit the free flow of information between people and leads them to turn to other sources. As a result, the mass media, in satisfying this need for information, create a condition of dependency (DeFleur and Ball Rokeach, 1982). People come to depend more and more on the media and less on each other.<br />Communication models and media theories<br />Not only in India but around the globe researchers had worked in the field of communication and came up with many communication models and theories which were logical and practical enough to gain recognition around the world. Although these studies were carried out by experts and had absolute validity in their times and conditions but as the scenario kept changing, most of them were modified or changed completely by researchers. For instance Bullet Theory or Hypodermic Needle Theory had validity and logic in its times when dictatorship was in practice. But it is not applicable in democracies. Thus it is refuted and SMCR model was introduced and the importance of feedback in communication process had been understood.<br />It is argued that mass communication begins with the senders, professional communicators who decide on the goals of the message to be produced in a form suitable to be transmitted via a particular medium. The intended meanings are then encoded by production specialists. This encoding process includes the selection of verbal and non-verbal symbols, and the special effects that are possible with a particular medium. The message is then transmitted through the use of specialized technologies characteristic of print, film, or broadcasting to disseminate it as widely as possible. <br />The next stage centers on large and diverse audiences of individual receivers who attend to the medium and perceive the incoming message. Next, individual receivers construct interpretations of the message in such a way that they experience subjective meanings, which are to at least some degree parallel to those intended by the professional communicators. As a result of experiencing these meanings, receivers are influenced in their feelings, thoughts, or actions; that is, the communication has some effect.<br />To bring change the prerequisite is a medium by which masses can be reached and similar message can be delivered. Media does this job always. It would be wrong if said that the media alone is capable of change. It requires a proper strategy to influence the masses. There must be proper identification of the opinion leaders and then the most appropriate media must be used to bring change in people’s attitude. For that purpose researchers always put in efforts to define new theories in accordance with contemporary requirements of the society. <br />Media theories deal with:-<br />the links between the media and other institutions of society.<br />effects of the media on society and institutions.<br />the links between media organizations and audience.<br />audience composition and behaviour.<br />how media organisations work.<br />formation and transmission of media messages etc.<br />Magic Bullet Theory <br />The magic bullet theory, or hypodermic needle theory, was much more common among media researchers in the early 20th century. This theory suggests that media messages impact people in direct, measurable, and immediate ways as if a bullet hit the body, or as if the body was injected with a substance from a needle. Most researchers argue that these kinds of effects are rare, or involve events of little consequence. For example, when someone watches a pizza commercial and then orders the pizza seen on the TV, this is more or less a magic bullet effect.<br />Cultivation Theory<br />Cultivation theory focuses more on how people's attitudes are impacted by the media, rather than just behaviours. Although attitudes and behaviours are complexly related, cultivation theorists focus on how people think more than what people do. Much of this research involves comparing the attitudes of heavy media users, moderate media users, and light media users.<br />One finding of this research is that when people are exposed to heavy media violence, they seem to have an attitudinal misconception called mean world syndrome. This means that they overestimate how much violence actually occurs in their communities and the rest of the world. People who are exposed to less media violence have a more realistic sense of the amount of violence in the real world.<br />The Two Step Flow Theory<br />‘The people’s Choice’, a 1944 study focused on the process of decision-making during a Presidential election campaign, introduced the Two Step Flow of Communication Theory by Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet. These researchers expected to find the influence of media messages on voting intentions. But to their utmost surprise, however, they discovered that informal and personal contacts were mentioned far more frequently than exposure to any mass media channel like newspaper, radio or television.<br />This theory asserts that information from the media moves in two distinct stages. First, individuals (opinion leaders) who pay close attention to the mass media and its messages receive the information. Opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content. The term ‘personal influence’ was coined to refer to the process intervening between the media’s direct message and the audience’s ultimate reaction to that message. <br />Opinion leaders are quite influential in getting people to change their attitudes and behaviours and are quite similar to those they influence. The two-step flow theory has improved our understanding of how the mass media influence decision making. The theory refined the ability to predict the influence of media messages on audience behaviour, and it helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to alter audience attitudes and behaviour. The two-step flow theory gave way to the multi-step flow theory of mass communication or diffusion of innovation theory.<br />Mass Media= Opinion Leaders= Individuals in social contact with an opinion leaderConceptual Model<br />Four ‘normative theories’ of mass media and society<br />Authoritarian theory<br /><ul><li>media should do nothing which could undermine established authority
media should always (or ultimately) be subordinate to established authority
Media should avoid offence to majority, or dominant, moral and political values (NB! What was said about the dominant values in a class society?)
censorship can be justified to enforce these principles
Attacks on authority, deviations from official policy or offences against moral codes should be criminal offences.</li></ul>Free press theory<br /><ul><li>publishing should be free from any prior censorship
publication and distribution should be open to anybody without permit or licence
attack through the media on any government, official or political party should not be punishable, even after the event
there should be no compulsion to publish anything
in matters of opinion and belief publication of ‘error’ is protected equally with that of truth
no legal restriction should be placed on the collection of information for publication
there should be no restriction on export or import or sending or receiving ‘messages’ across national frontiers</li></ul>Social responsibility theory<br /><ul><li>media should accept and fulfil certain obligations to society
the media should set high standards of informativeness, truth, accuracy, objectivity and balance = professional standards;
the media should be self-regulating within the framework of law and established insitutions
the media should avoid whatever should lead to crime, violance or civil disorder or give offence to ethnic or religious minorities
the media should be pluralist and reflect the diversity of society
society and the public have a right to expect high standards of performance
intervention can be justified to secure public good</li></ul>Soviet media theory<br /><ul><li>the media should serve the interests of, and be in control of, the working class
media should serve positive functions for society by: socialization to desired norms; education; information; motivation, mobilization
media should respond to wishes and needs of their audiences
society (the authorities) has a right to use censorship and other legal measures to prevent, or punish after the event, ‘anti-societal’ publication
media should provide ‘a complete and objective view’ of society and the world, according to marxist-leninist principles
media should support progressive movements at home and abroad </li></ul>Complemented by McQuail in 1983 by<br />Democratic participant media theory<br /><ul><li>focuses on the needs, interests and aspirations of a ‘receiver’ in a political society
the rights to relevant information, to answer back, to use the means of communication for interaction in small scale settings
favours multiplicity, smallness of scale, locality, deinstitutionalization, interchange of sender-receiver roles, interaction
media institutions are in control of their audiences</li></ul>Development media theory<br /><ul><li>media should accept and carry out positive development tasks in line with nationally established policy
freedom of the media should be open to restriction according to economic priorities and development needs of society
media should give priority in their content to the national culture and language
media should give priority in news and information to links with other developing countries
journalists and other media workers have both responsibilities and freedoms in their information gathering and dissemination tasks
in the interests of development ends, the state has a right to restrict or intervene in media operations </li></ul>Media Scenario in India<br />As on 31st March 2006, there were 62,483 newspapers are registered with RNI. The total circulation of newspapers increased from 156719209 copies in 2004-05 to 180738611 copies in 2005-06. (http://www.pib.nic.in/)<br />THE PRESS IN INDIA IN 2005-06: AT A GLANCEPeriodicityNumberCirculationDailies2,1308,88,63,048Tri/Bi-Weeklies395,66,198Weeklies3,4285,05,80,648Fortnightlies9551,23,09,948Monthlies1,4712,11,36,710Quarterlies21915,52,138Annuals4929,86,256Others22127,43,665TOTAL8,51218,07,38,611Miscellaneous Publications12671,69,952<br />(http://www.pib.nic.in/)<br />Electronic Media<br />The national television (Doordarshan) and radio (All India Radio, or Akashwani) networks are state-owned and managed by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Their news reporting customarily presents the government's point of view. For example, coverage of the 1989 election campaign blatantly favoured the government of Rajiv Gandhi, and autonomy of the electronic media became a political issue. V.P. Singh's National Front government sponsored the PrasarBharati (Indian Broadcasting) Act, which Parliament considered in 1990, to provide greater autonomy to Doordarshan and All India Radio. The changes that resulted were limited. The bill provided for the establishment of an autonomous corporation to run Doordarshan and All India Radio. <br />Since the 1980s, India has experienced a rapid proliferation of television broadcasting that has helped shape popular culture and the course of politics. Although the first television program was broadcast in 1959, the expansion of television did not begin in earnest until the extremely popular telecast of the Ninth Asian Games, which were held in New Delhi in 1982. Realizing the popular appeal and consequent influence of television broadcasting, the government undertook an expansion that by 1990 was planned to provide television access to 90 percent of the population. In 1993, about 169 million people were estimated to have watched Indian television each week, and, by 1994, it was reported that there were some 47 million households with televisions. There also is a growing selection of satellite transmission and cable services available.<br />According to PIB data, a total 241 private FM Channels are operational in 83 cities of the country. As on date, Information and Broadcasting Ministry of India has permitted 381 private satellite TV channels to uplink from India as per uplinking guidelines, out of which, 201 are news & current affairs TV channels and 180 are non-news & current affairs TV channels. Besides this, 67 private satellite TV channels, uplinked from abroad, have also been permitted to downlink in India as per downlinking guidelines. Out of this, 14 are news & current affairs TV channels and 53 are non-news & current affairs TV channels. As such, total number of news and current affairs TV channels is 215 and number of non-news & current affairs TV channels is 233 under uplinking and downlinking guidelines.<br />Internet-the new media<br />Internet has emerged as the new media for this century. It is getting strong and popular day by day and surpassing all the mediums of information and communication. It has the characteristics of all other mediums apart from its own unique features. Internet has the potential to bring in change on its own. People use it for reading, listening, watching, surfing and social networking, chatting and in so many other ways, which make it almost omniscient and omnipotent medium. As shown in this chart issued by PIB, it is growing at a rapid pace.<br />As onISP Licenses issued(A+B+C)ISP licenses terminated (A+B+C)ISP licensees who have given Internet Service report (A+B+C)Internet Subscribers(Lakh)13.3.9985 (15+31+39)Nil72.331.3.2000270(44+104+122)3659.4331.3.2001456(83+184+189)2911829.0931.3.2002515(91+205+219)7316132.3931.3.2003587(94+230+263)199(29+87+83)205(49+88+68)35<br />(http://www.pib.nic.in/)<br />Diversity in media at urban, semi-urban and rural villages<br />Media plays vital role in the development and growth in every sphere of society. But the face of media or the medium differs at different levels of society and it keeps changing with the time. For instance, at present internet is a very powerful medium but it has varied impact on villages. In some villages it may have some impact, in some it may have least impact and at some it may have none. To identify which media has most impact at what kind of village area, we can classify them in three categories which can be – urban, semi-urban and rural villages. These villages are diversified in terms of region, language they speak, traditions they have, geographical patterns of their area and history of their region. We can identify them in terms of regions like north, west, south or east India, and in terms of languages like Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu and many more, in terms of wide ranging geographical patterns like Rajasthan has desert land, Himachal comprises hills etc.<br />Urban Village<br />Urban villages, in simple terms, are villages which are usually deliberately planned or modified to make them comfortable to live in. The roads, dwellings, parks, markets etc. are planned well according to the modern architecture. These villages usually situated at the outskirts of a city. Literacy rate is higher and most of the residents work in city for their living. Media consumption is higher and access of media is much more. <br />Everything which human beings need in daily life, like market, temples, other services are within walking distances thus these are pleasure to live in. As a result these villages enjoy less traffic and healthy environment. These places are getting popular as people have had enough of urban traffic and lack of good urbanism. In these places one can live without a car, as it is possible to get around on foot or by bicycle. <br />Urban villages are pedestrian oriented and ensure a better quality of life, a friendly and pleasant environment. As these villages are situated at the outskirts of the city people working in the city prefer these places to make their dwelling as the growing traffic of cities irritates them and makes life miserable. Urban villages have a very good connectivity with the cities with the public transport systems, thus daily commuting doesn’t create any inconvenience.<br />Semi-urban village<br />These villages are usually old villages being modernized by incorporating advance strategies of planning and architecture, but the process of modernization is incomplete. Most of the basic amenities are available in such villages. These villages usually located far from the cities. The geographical environment is different from the urban villages. Literacy rate in such villages is not very high. People earn their living by agriculture and those, who are educated, go out in cities to earn.<br />Rural villages<br />These are villages lacking even the basic amenities like transport, hospital and other services etc. These are considered backward and most of the people make their living from agriculture only. Literacy rate is very low and media access is least. In these areas urban characteristics are absent. In developing countries like India there are villages which are not too far from cities but still lack basic amenities thus considered rural villages. India is an agrarian state and most of the population is involved in agriculture. India is number one in milk production and the credit goes to villages. In India there are more than six lakh villages. Most of the villages are rural villages. They have altogether different system of society in comparison with the urban societies. Village panchayats enjoy powers of judiciary. Customs, beliefs, and traditions are given much more importance. These villages have a certain kind of design. For instance, a pond, usually in the middle of the village, a big old oak tree, also called village tree, near the pond surrounded by a concrete platform on which old age men sit and chat.<br />OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS<br /><ul><li>Media: The term refers to television, radio, newspaper, which are used by the respondents as common sources of information.
Change agent: For the purpose of this study change agent is defined as a source which brings about positive or negative changes in society. Here is change defined as the transformation which is brought about in the people, their attitudes, beliefs and ideologies as a result of use or exposure to Media sources like television, radio, newspapers. This change could be in the social sphere, economical and political sphere, wherein media makes the people aware and keeps them informed on the goings on at local level, regional, national and even international levels, and also helping them in formulating opinions. The nature of this change could be defined as positive or negative when it hinders all round development and constructive growth in the attitudes of the users.
Health sector: For the purpose of this study health sector has been defined as the field which includes various issues the regarding the health of the society and citizens. For instance, female foeticide, AIDS, treatment of diseases etc. It also includes the interactions and communications between various members of society regarding the treatment to be adopted for the cure of diseases.
Area of work: For the purpose of this study, the economic sphere includes occupations of the respondents from the urban village, rural village, and semi-urban village, which comprise of basically agriculture in the rural village, agriculture, business and other professions at semi-urban village and business and other professions like, law, medical and teaching etc. at urban village. The role which media plays in terms of helping the respondents in their deriving more out of their profession/occupation by giving them new ideas, solutions. For instance, agricultural programmes shown on television, were watched by the farmers, so the way in which they utilize the information available in these programmes to improve their crop productivity, avail new facilities given by the government, get reasonably priced fertilizers, seeds etc. would affect their economic conditions. Similarly for the urban villages where most of the people involved in business and occupations, there business news and programmes etc. were watched and also read which suggested useful inputs. All this helped ultimately in improving the economic conditions and aspects related to the respondent’s economic development. Thus, all these factors have been broadly put together to comprise the economic sphere.
Cultural traditions: for the purpose of this study, cultural traditions included the religious beliefs and practices followed by the respondents. For instance, marriage practices, interpersonal relationships, celebration of festivals, rituals and other rights etc.
Age: This variable can be defined by dividing it into groups of
70-80</li></ul>Introduction: Himachal, Punjab and Chandigarh<br />Himachal<br />Location: North West, Himalayas Capital: Shimla Population: 6.08 mil (2001) Area: 55,673 sq km Population density: 110 persons per sq km Urban: less than 10% Languages: Hindi, Pahari (incl 60 dialects) Religion: 95.9% Hindu, 1.7% Muslim, 1.2% Buddhist (1991) Literacy rate: 76.5% (male 85.3%, fem 67.4%) (2001) Gender ratio: 968 fem to 1000 male (2001) Number of districts: 12 Number of villages: 20,118 (2001) Main income: tourism, agriculture<br />The state of Himachal Pradesh is mostly hilly and hence the use of any other media except for the print media; that is newspaper dailies and weeklies, was very difficult even two decades earlier. But now-a-days, mass media and the technical development in the field of satellites and transmissions have simply burgeoned, and its rippling effects are amply evident even in the secluded hilly climes of Himachal Pradesh. Now more and more people of Himachal Pradesh are turning to the electronic media to be up-to-date with the global, national and local news and views. The latest addition to this information boom is in the shape of Internet, which have enabled even remote areas of Himachal Pradesh to get connected with the world. <br />The most common and widely used language by the media in Himachal Pradesh is Hindi. Most newspapers and many of the regional channels broadcast their content in the Hindi language. Even then the media in Himachal Pradesh has a number of news dailies and channels that broadcast their content in other languages also. The Telegraph, Hindustan Times, The Times of India and Punjab Kesari are some of the important newspapers which have their presence in the state. Vernacular newspapers in Punjabi and Nepali also attract selective readership. However, due to the mountainous terrain of the region, the television mostly operates with the help of the broadcasting of the satellites. Television has emerged as a popular medium for the infotainment of Himachal Pradesh people.<br />With the popularizing of radio and television, the number of broadcasters has also increased. Apart from the traditional Doordarshan channel, a number of regional channels that broadcast their content in the languages that are spoken in the state have opened their shops. Even the English and Nepali channels, along with the Hindi channels, are provided by the broadcasters, and the broadcasting is decoded by the local cable operators and the transmitted to the people. <br />However, even today, the radio is the only means of communication and entertainment in the most interior parts of the state. For the information and entertainment of the people who cannot afford television or are located at a place where the television signals cannot reach, there are a number of FM stations in Himachal Pradesh. The city of Shimla has its own FM radio station, which has been started while keeping in mind the tastes of the local people as well as the tourists. The radio helps people in remote areas to connect with the rest of the world. Also special programs are conducted during festivals. The radio channels are now negotiating with the government to allow them to broadcast even the international channels. <br />Seran village of district Kasauli was chosen as the semi-urban village as it is near to Baddi and Barotiwala, the industrial hub of Himachal Pradesh. The village is yet to see the original phase of development but a considerable part of the respondents from this village <br />Chandigarh<br /> Status: state capital of Punjab and Haryana; Union Territory Location: North India Built: 1953 Town planner and architect: Le Corbusier Altitude: 1150 ft Population: 900,635 (2001) Area: 114 sq km Population density: 7,900 persons per sq km (2001) Number of sectors: 57 Languages: Hindi (61.1%); Punjabi (34.7%) (1991) Religion: 75.8% Hindu; 20.3% Sikh; 2.7% Muslim (1991) Literacy rate: 81.9% (male: 86.1%; fem: 76.5%) Gender ratio: 777 fem to 1000 male (2001) Chandigarh is one of the most well planned cities in India. It serves as the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana States. It is bounded on North and West by Punjab and on the East and South by Haryana. It was designed by the French Architect, Le Corbusier.<br />The media in Chandigarh, which is also called city of retirees, is not as much vigorous as it is in other cities. Reason may be any but it is true that Chandigarh is yet to make it big in terms of status among states of India. As far as media is concerned all big media organizations have their branches or bureau offices in the city.<br />Newspapers like Times of India, Hindustan Times, Indian Express, The Tribune in English and Dainik Bhaskar, Amar Ujala, Punjab Kesari and many more have their Hindi and Punjabi editions. There are many villages at the outskirts of the city like, Daddumajra, Kansal, Dhanas, Manimajra, Naya Gaon etc. These villages are well maintained by the administration. Villages, like Dhanas, are very well planned and examples of urban villages.<br />During the recent times the city beautiful has experienced a boom in telecommunications and the impact is visible on these villages too. There are a good number of employment opportunities generated in the communications sector. The penetration of media is on a rise constantly. Dhanas was chosen as the urban village for the purpose of this study. It is just a half kilometre away from the Panjab University. The majority of the population is in service industry. The total population of the village is between 3800 to 1000. Village Dhanas Consists of newly build houses in these colonies of middle class residents who due to escalation of real state value in Chandigarh could not able to build their houses in sectoral area but there all concerns and working in city beautiful Chandigarh.<br />Punjab<br />Location: North India <br />Capital: Chandigarh<br />Area:50,362 Sq. Km.<br />Total Population: 243.59 Lakh<br />Rural Population: 160.96 Lakh<br />Literacy: 69.7 %<br />Female per 1000 Male: 876<br />Inhabited villages: 12413 (census 2001)<br />(india.gov.in/statesofindia/)<br />Punjab is leading state in the field of agriculture and with only 1.5 per cent geographical area of country produces 22 per cent of Wheat 12 per cent of Rice and 12 per cent of Cotton in the country, which makes it one of the most prosperous states. The state has experienced a constant change in all the sectors of growth. The achievements of the state were only possible due to the open heart attitude of the natives towards new technologies introduced in areas of work. For instance, the farmers in the state are using latest techniques of farming and have manifolded their productions. The media played a very important role in this rapid growth of the state. Since the independence and even before that, media had a great impact on the people of Punjab. Prominent leaders, during freedom movement used media for the struggle for attainment of freedom. Newspapers like Hindustan Times, started by Akalis, and many vernacular publications have played a crucial role. Present day Punjab has many regional channels like PTC, Alfa Punjabi, ETC. Punjabi etc.<br />Naggal village is around 15 kilometers from Chandigarh and belongs to district Roopnagar. The total population of the village is between 800 and 1000. The prime occupation is agriculture and literacy rate is very poor. The village lack basic amenities like, education system, dispensary or health centre, sanitation etc.<br />REVIEW OF LITERATURE<br />Malhan, P. N. (1977). Radio and television: change agents in rural areas. In AMIC- SMANIA-ICCSR Asian Regional Seminar on Rural Communication: Hyderabad, Dec 8-20, 1977. Hyderabad: ICSSR.<br />Professor P.N. Malhan in this book wrote, “With the immense vastness of India and the low literacy level of her people, no communication channels are more effective relevant to her rural masses than radio and television. They are timely and can speak in the language or dialect of the listeners.”<br />Consistent with the oral traditions among the rural folk, the spoken word in India often has the authority of an oracle, provided the media enjoy the credibility of the people. Of the two, radio is more widespread and cheaper. With the network of 83 stations spread over the length and breadth of the country, All India Radio is one of the major broadcasting networks in the world and its broadcasts cover nearly ninety per cent of the people and 77 percent of the area. Comparatively, television, known as Doordarshan in India, has a periphery rural reach, the SITE experiment of 1975-76 however created history and the television system of India by linking up viewers in 2400 villages situated comparatively backward clusters of six states. <br />The successful operation of broadcasting system in the Phillippines, Malaysia and Indonesia proved that the electronic media have the potentiality of serving as good development communicators or educators. Planned, innovative or participatory programmes, creative voice organized group listening, visuals and integrate and flavour of words can add to their usefulness as motivators and change agents. Despite the forebodings of the ‘idiot box’ and the political overtone of the media being government operated, both the electronic media to the extent of their professionally meaningful operation, have served well in the sphere of agriculture, education, health, nutrition and family welfare. Some of the innovative programmes or experiments that have been evolved during the recent times account for this success.<br />Cassirer R. Henry, Rural Development and the Flow of Communication. (International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems (49), A UNESCO document)<br />Rural communication is predominantly personal; in a traditional setting it takes place within the family, at the well, market place or under the village tree. Event influences from the outside are carried largely by persons: communications (transport) are a major factor in the communication of information and ideas. Deliberate agents of expression and communication like folk media, modern media, political agents etc., require to be closely interlocked with different forms of interpersonal communication which prolong the impact of media and are a source of themes and information.<br />Under these conditions, effective social communication in the rural areas will have to proceed simultaneously in three directions:<br /><ul><li>Communication from the top to down, from authorities to people, from experts to peasants, from broadcasters to audience, from the capital to the countryside.
Communication from the bottom up, from villagers to administrations, from citizens to political leaders.
Communication across society horizontally, from person to person, village to village, one member of a professional group, religious community or cultural entity to another, from people on the land to those in the cities.</li></ul>Television and the press are primarily urban phenomena. Without a television network which covers the national territory or the equivalent of satellite transmissions, the rural areas are deprived of television, yet only relatively few countries of the Third World have assured such national coverage. The press, especially when financed on a commercial basis, tends to be available where there is a relatively dense and commercially rewarding literate public. Press and printed publications cannot play a major role in rural areas and in the fight against illiteracy unless efforts are made to facilitate publication in vernacular languages, preferably elsewhere than in the capital. To facilitate the distribution of publications beyond the cities in the rural areas requires additional support.<br />Bostian, Lloyd R. (1974). Mass Communication Differences Between Urban, Suburban and Rural Areas: Cross-cultural Comparisons<br />The history of mass media development shows striking geographic patterns, and the development and use of mass media differs greatly among urban, suburban and rural people. Although we might expect the pattern of mass media development to differ on a national level, say for example between a developing African nation and an earlier developed European country, basically the media development pattern is similar no matter what the cultural heritage involved. Generally it is the stage of media development which varies, not the pattern of that development. The way we talk about areas often reflects their stage of modernization. Rural is associated with tradition, urban with modernization. Suburban is either ultra-modern or transitional, depending on the country’s stage of development.<br />As a country modernizes, media spread from larger urban centres to smaller towns and into rural areas. This spread is not uniform if development is not uniform among rural areas.<br />Research has produced a plethora of data to back generalizations concerning the relation of mass media to modernization and urbanization. In fact one author sees mass communication as a part of all social science approaches to explaining modernization. Urbanization and modernization are seen as concomitant, mutual and reciprocal, with mass media an integral aspect.<br />Farace and Donohew utilized data from 115 countries to examine the relationship of 43 variables to mass media. Of the 43 factors, the variables most representative of urbanization were the percent of the urban population. The authors found a high correlation (.68) between percent urban population and newspaper circulation, and almost as high (.63) urbanization and the number of radio receivers per 100 people. These urbanization-mass media linkages were among the highest correlations found. From the point of view of social science methodology, we should place considerable value on this regression analysis which examined data from so many countries with different experiences in modernization.<br />Ramachandran Rajeswari, Jaggarajamma K, Muniyandi M, Balasubramanian Rani. (2006). identifying effective communication channels in a rural Community: a field report from south India<br />The salient finding of this study was that more than 80% of the villages had community TV and cable connections in the study area. Also this study clearly shows that in rural South India, television (100%) is the main source of information and this channel of communication may meet the challenge of reaching the “interior pockets” of rural India. This is contrary to that expressed in an earlier report that for rural populations there is a need to have separate communication plans9. In the current series we also found that 53% of villagers were getting information through local panchayats, 55% through wall posters, 3% through dandora and 18% through announcement by loud speakers. Therefore, multiple approaches are likely to achieve the goals of any health communication programme, especially in rural areas with limited availability of communication channels. Among the different types of mass media available in rural areas, television has the greatest reach. However, exposure to mass media like television varies from place to place and from time to time. National Family Health Survey-II conducted by International Institute for Population Sciences Mumbai described that regular exposure to television was the highest in Delhi (90%) and the lowest in Bihar (17%) in the year 1998-99. In an earlier study from our centre in the year 1995, among urban educated persons the source of information on tuberculosis appeared to be mainly from books, magazines and television (65%). However, it appears that within a decade, more than 80% of rural villages have access to television and all information including health were through mass media as shown in this study. In Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) phase I, TV spots on TB were telecasted in regional channels and cable networks generated awareness about TB. This strategy continues to be an important component of advocacy and social mobilization to create demand for services and increase utilization of services in phase II as well. The focus in RNTCP phase II is on a combination of centrally produced core messages with appropriate state and district specific strategies, with local innovations to reach all possible groups through the most appropriate channels, material and activities.<br />Annual Report, (2008-09). Department of School Education and Literacy & Department of Higher Education Ministry of Human Resource Development Government of India <br />Electronic Media in Educational Programmes of IGNOU<br /> Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is utilizing electronic media to impart education across the country successfully. It has taken a number of initiatives to reach out to the audiences in most cohesive ways. Gyan Darshan and Gyan Vani are broadcasting channels, through which it is imparting quality education at the door steps of students.<br /> Gyan Darshan: IGNOU coordinates the functioning of exclusive 24 hour satellite based Educational TV channels, which are collectively known as Gyan Darshan (GD). It is a collaborative venture of various Government agencies. It has potential to offer bouquet of 6 channels. Under this, Gyan Darshan-1 is the 24 hours exclusive Educational TV channel. Prasar Bharti in 2005 put this channel on Direct to Home (DTH) mode. Gyan darshan-2 is being utilized as interactive channel for tele-counselling, tele-lecturing and tele-training of coordinators counsellors. Gyan Darshan-3, commonly known as ‘Eklavya Channel’ is devoted to technical education for the benefit of engineering students in the country. Gyan Darshan-4 is known as “Vyas” Channel and is dedicated to curriculum based higher education. <br />Gyan Vani: IGNOU is the nodal agency for the implementation of radio cooperative of 40 FM channels dedicated to education and development. In addition, radio counselling is also provided from 14 FM Stations under Gyan Vani programme of Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Bhopal, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Kanpur, Patna, panaji, Lucknow, Delhi, Kolkatta, Jaipur, Raipur and Shillong Stations to learners. Under Gyan Vani Programme, toll free conferencing facility is available to the learners who interact freely with the experts. 202 Annual Report 2008-09 during the year 2008-09, a number of audio and video programmes were produced. These include30 Audio programmes and 204 Video programmes (includes 49-Curriculum based, 16- Edusat ased, 06-Urdu enrichment, 35-Other enrichment programmes including Open Channel & n Focus and 01 acquired audio programme). In addition to these, a total of 2996 video and 7906 Audio programmes have been produced by the University. Further, in order to strengthen the regional network services, the University has set up 340 new study centres and 4 Regional Centres in 2008, making it a total of 2300 Study Centres and 59 Regional centres. <br />RATIONALE<br />Media is considered the fourth pillar of democracy. In today’s scenario it is playing a significant role in the development process of the country. <br />With so many new TV channels coming up daily, increasing newspaper circulation figures, emergence of market driven journalism etc, media seems to be going strong. But when the researcher observed closely, there still existed a difference in media penetration levels in the villages according to their geographical setting and nature. While in the urban villages, having a daily newspaper and cable television or dish TV was very easy; getting a newspaper in other villages(rural and semi-urban), was difficult. For instance, in the sample rural village Naggal none of the resident subscribed to a newspaper.<br />Television, which arrived late in the rural area as compared to the surrounding urban area, seemingly was the most popular media source in the villages. Also, since a lot of change had taken place in the sample village in terms of social, political, economical aspects, the researcher was interested in finding the main reasons behind them. This motivated the researcher to take up this study to find out and compare the spheres of the change at the three villages and also to have an idea of people’s attitude and perception of media.<br />METHODOLOGY<br />Research Method: The research is a cross sectional analytical survey.<br />Population: The population comprised of male and female residents of three villages, a rural village, an urban village and a semi urban village. Naggal village of district Mohali in Punjab was chosen as rural village. Seran village of district Solan in Himachal Pradesh was chosen as semi urban village and Dhanas village in Chandigarh as urban village. The reason for choosing these villages for the purpose of this study was the difference in the level of development or change that the researcher had observed in the villages. Following this observation, the researcher, was motivated to look further into the reason which finally resulted in her taking up this study.<br />Sample size: The sample size comprised of 105 respondents, 35 from each village.<br />Sampling technique: Area sampling procedure was used. The number of dwelling units was counted. These were numbered and then out of them, using chits, thirty five dwelling units were selected randomly, then one individual from each dwelling unit were questioned. <br />Unit of data collection: An individual<br />Data collection tool: The questionnaire comprised of both close ended and multiple choice questions. The questionnaire was administered personally because it had to be translated into the local language.<br />Data analysis and presentation: The data has been presented in tabular and graphical form. For the open ended questions, interpretative and descriptive analysis has been done, qualitative and quantitative analysis has been done for open ended and close ended questions respectively. <br />SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS<br />Scope: The scope of the study was to study and compare the role of media as an agent of change in different rural areas. The study helped to understand the primary source of information at villages and also to understand the flow of communication at different levels at villages.<br />The study was carried out taking three different kinds of villages, one rural, one urban and one semi urban, which helped to find out the functioning of different media at different rural settings. Associations between the demographic variables and the capacity of their effects on the nature of media usage or vice versa have been found. Efforts have been made through the study to find out factors which prevented media from being an agent of change in the sample villages.<br />Limitations: <br /><ul><li>More villages could have been taken up to conduct the study but only three villages could be taken up because of budgetary and time constraint.
The samples size was limited to only a hundred and five respondents, thirty five from each village, because of time constraints and also due to the distance that the researcher had to cover in order to get the questionnaires filled from each respondent personally.
More associations could have been shown but due to time constraint only a few have been included.</li></ul>SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES<br /><ul><li>The research could be useful to study media and issues related to it by taking a bigger sample size and a bigger area of sampling.
The study could be used as the basis to initiate bigger and comprehensive research to individually study the good and bad effects of media sources on the people.
The scope of media’s role in the development of the rural areas could be studied on a much broader level.
A detailed study could be conducted to find out the reasons behind the lack of infrastructure facilities in the rural areas which was a major problem in proportional dissemination of media sources. For instance since television was the most commonly used media source in the village, reason for inability of newspapers be a common and regular media source like television could be researched.
A separate study could be conducted to find out the least popularity of other media, like magazine, at villages.</li></ul>DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS<br />Hypothesis:<br /><ul><li>Media is the primary source of information regarding governmental schemes policies and programs at villages.</li></ul>Analysis: The table shows that, in villages, the primary source of information, regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs, is panchayats rather than media. Out of the total sample majority of the respondents (54) considered panchayats as primary source of information regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs. Media was considered primary source of information by 35 respondents. These schemes, policies and programs included (as cited by them during the personal administration of the questionnaire) the awareness regarding National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, seeds distribution policies and information about new facilities in agriculture sector.<br />As the table shows the respondents considered government officials less accessible than panchayat or media. Although some of the respondents agreed that government officials do inform programs such as polio vaccination day.<br />Media lacked here in the sense that although most of the respondents use it to get information about new methods of farming, new seeds, fertilizers etc. but it was the panchayat who inform them how government is helping them accessing these.<br />Although the overall result shows that media is not the primary source of information regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs at villages, but the results vary according to the nature of village and media access. Tables below prove that the nature of the village and media access determine the primary source of information about governmental policies, programs and schemes.<br />Urban Village<br />lefttop<br />Analysis: At Dhanas (Urban village), out of the total 35 of respondents 26 said that media is the primary source of information regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs, while eight said its government officials and surprisingly none of the respondent named panchayat here.<br />Rural Village<br />Analysis: At Naggal (rural village), out of the total 35 of respondents 31 said that panchayat is the primary source of information regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs, while only one said its government officials and surprisingly only one of the respondent named media here.<br />Semi Urban Village<br />Analysis: At Seran (semi-urban village), out of the total 35 of respondents 23 said that panchayat is the primary source of information regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs, while seven said its media and surprisingly none of the respondent named panchayat here.<br />Overall media used<br />Analysis: Among all those respondents, who said that media is the primary source of information, regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs, majority of the respondents said newspaper is the primary source among all media.<br />Hypothesis: <br /><ul><li>The primary change agent varies as per the change sector. </li></ul>For the purpose of this study the researcher considered various sectors where change was noticeable. This included the health, area of work and culture.<br />Health:<br /> <br />Analysis: All the respondents from all three villages accepted that there is a change in medication and treatment of diseases practices. Among them 73 said that media is the primary change agent for this change. <br />Cultural Traditions:<br />Analysis: 85 of all the respondents from all three villages accepted that there is a change in cultural traditions. Among them 78 said that media is the primary change agent for this change. <br />Work:<br />Analysis: 56 of the total respondents from all three villages accepted that they got inspiration from media to adopt new changes at workplace. <br />Among them 22 said that panchayat inspired them to adopt the new technology. <br />16 of the respondents agreed that it is neighbours who inspired them to adopt new technologies introduced in various trades and area of work. There were three who said they didn’t adopt any new technology and still practising the old traditional ways.<br />Analysis according to the nature of the village:<br />Rural village:<br />Change agent for cultural traditions<br /> <br />Health:<br />Work: <br />Analysis: There is much of variation in responses for these three sectors of change at rural areas. At work sectors majority of the respondents from rural area accepted that it is panchayat which is the primary change agent and inspire them to adopt new technologies.<br />Semi-urban village:<br />Change agent for cultural traditions<br />Health:<br />Work: <br />Analysis: There is much of variation in responses for these three sectors of change at semi urban village. At all sectors majority of the respondents accepted that media is the primary change agent and inspire them to adopt new technologies in area of work. Other inspirational forces are panchayat and neighbours.<br />Urban village:<br />Change agent for cultural traditions<br />Health:<br />Work:<br />Analysis: At urban village, the results were totally different and all the respondents accepted that media is the primary change agent in these three sectors. Only one respondent said that in health sector it is the government official who is responsible for change. <br />Conclusion: After analysing the charts it was found that the primary change agent at villages in all sectors is media. Although there are variations in the number of respondents who accepted that the media is the primary change agent with regard to different sectors. For instance, regarding change in health sector, 73 accepted that media is the primary change agent, regarding cultural traditions 78 accepted that media is the primary change agent, whereas at work media as the primary change agent accepted by 56 of the respondents. But in all sectors, it was found that media was regarded as primary change agent by majority, thus the hypothesis is disapproved. <br />If we analyse this data by the nature of village we can have more specific results regarding the question that who is the primary change agent at one particular sector at particular kind of village. For instance we can analyse what is the primary change agent at health sector in rural village or urban village or semi urban village. Tables shown below fulfil this requirement by providing such data.<br />Hypothesis:<br /><ul><li> Education and nature of change adopted is associated.</li></ul>Analysis: as shown in the tables below the nature of change adopted and level of education are negatively associated. These results indicate that there is no statistically significant relationship between the level of education and nature of change adopted (chi-square with two degree of freedom = 1.239, p = 0.538). <br /> <br />Analysis: There were 49 respondents having education level below metric and 47 of them said that they have adopted advanced techniques in area of work. The next level consisted of 26 respondents and 25 of them said they adopted new techniques, only one denied.<br />Hypothesis:<br /><ul><li>Similar type of media cannot be suitable for all kind of villages.</li></ul>Following charts are showing the most credible source of information, according to the respondents, at villages according to the nature of the village. <br /> <br />Rural village<br />At rural village majority of the respondents considered friends as most credible source of information. Out of 35 respondents 10 considered colleagues as most credible source of information.<br />Majority of those who said, media is the primary source of information, ranked TV most credible type of media.<br />Semi-urban village<br />At semi-urban village majority of the respondents considered media as most credible source of information. Out of 35 respondents 7 considered friends most credible. <br />Here also the most credible type of media is television and out of 16, who regarded media as most credible source of information, 14 said TV is the most credible type of media.<br />Urban village<br />At urban village majority of the respondents considered media as most credible source of information. <br />Those who said that media is the most credible source of information, ranked newspaper as the most credible type of media.<br />Analysis: It was found that at different type of village setting different type of media and different channel of communication is suitable. For instance at rural village only 9 respondents considered media as most credible source of information and only two respondents ranked newspaper more credible than other media while at urban village 24 respondents regarded media most credible source of information and 20 respondents regarded newspaper as most credible source of information. Thus it is evident that the level of acceptance of different media is different at different geographical settings, i.e. at rural, urban and semi-urban levels. Hence the hypothesis is proved.<br />Hypothesis: <br /><ul><li>The flow of communication varies at different levels at different type of villages.</li></ul>Communication flows according to the situation and with respect to the type of village. For instance at interpersonal level people make decision through discussions with family members or on the basis of information provided by media, depending on the nature of village they are living in and on the level they are communicating. For instance when respondents from different type of villages were asked how they form opinion about a political group the results shows that there is variation in the responses with respect to the nature of the village. The following charts show this variation and hence the hypothesis is proved.<br />Rural village:<br />At rural village majority of the respondents said that they form opinion about a political group through discussions with family and friends. Out of the total 35 respondents 32 said they form opinion about a political group through discussions with family and friends.<br />Semi-urban village:<br />At semi-urban village majority of the respondents said that they form opinion about a political group through discussions with family and friends. Out of the total 35 respondents 24 said they form opinion about a political group through discussions with family and friends. 11 said they form opinion by the information provided by media.<br />Urban village:<br />At urban village the results were totally different as 23 respondents said they form opinion by the information provided by the media. 12 respondents said through discussions with family and friends they form opinion about a political group.<br />Hypothesis: <br /><ul><li>Television is the most popular medium regardless of geographical settings.</li></ul>At villages, it was found that irrespective of the geographical settings TV is the most popular medium and it has the capacity to modify the behaviours and attitudes of the people. The tables below show the responses from the respondents about primary change agent responsible for the change in behaviour of the people. Hence the hypothesis is proved.<br />Rural village:<br />At rural village 25 of the respondents regarded TV as the primary change agent for the changes in the behaviour of the people. They agreed that it has immense power of attraction and attention capturing.<br />Semi-urban village:<br />At semi-urban village 29 of the respondents accepted television as the primary change agent for the changes in behaviour of people. There were two respondents only who said that newspaper is the change agent for the changes<br />Urban village:<br />At urban village all the respondents, except one, said that TV is the primary change agent for the changes in the behaviour of the people. One respondent said it was newspaper who is primary change agent. Overall out of the total 105 respondent at all three villages, 91 said it is media who is the primary change agent for the behaviour of people as the table shown below.<br />CONCLUSION<br />From the analysis and comparison of data collected from the rural, urban and semi-urban villages and the acceptance of hypothesis which had also been proven, it can be concluded that media did act as an agent of change at villages. The change brought about by it was in all the sectors but the degree varied. <br />When compared to each other, there was a difference in the perceptions of the respondents from all three types of villages, regarding the nature and extent to which media was an agent of change and also in which sector; health, work or cultural. The hypothesis pertaining to this although had been disapproved but through the analysis of data we can conclude that although media is not an agent of change at every sector of growth at different types of villages (rural, urban, Semi-urban) but still results have shown that there is a strong impact of media on the behaviour of people living at all three type of villages.<br />In urban village Dhanas, majority of the respondents said that the primary source of information regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs is media, while at rural village Naggal, majority of the respondents replied that they receive information regarding governmental schemes, policies and programs primarily from panchayat. There is apparent difference between the responses due to the nature of the village. Dhanas enjoys more access of media and majority of the respondents agreed that they have high access to media like news papers, internet etc, for instance at this urban village from all 35 respondents 34 had subscription to newspapers. Whereas at Naggal and Seran, media penetration is less and there were none of the respondents at Naggal and only five of the respondents at Seran said that they have newspaper subscription. At the urban village Dhanas, more than 50 percent of the resident had internet connection whereas at rural and semi-urban villages none of the respondents had internet connection. Through these data it can be concluded that the access of media is certainly much better at urban villages and at rural villages it is very less.<br />There are some more interesting findings which were revealed during the study. For instance the level of confidence among people at rural and semi-urban villages is very less as compared to the people living in urban villages. While talking to the respondents the researcher noticed that at rural and semi-urban villages people had least willingness and many of the respondents initially wished to escape. Also the gender determines the level of confidence at rural and urban villages, up to a great extent; this is evident if we compare the gender of the respondents. At rural and semi-urban villages, females were least interested in being respondent. They either denied to respond, or called in male member of the family to respond. At rural village 28 of the respondents were male and only seven were females, whereas at semi-urban village 26 of the respondents were male and only nine were females. At the urban village 25 of the respondents were male and 10 were females, also the level of confidence among females at urban village was higher than that of females at rural and semi-urban village.<br />It can also be concluded that the age of respondents at villages also affect their credibility in different type of sources of information. For instance 31 of the total 105 respondents belonged to the age group of 30 to 40 years and out of them 18 said that media is most credible source of information for them, whereas 25 of the respondents belonged to the age group of 40-50 years and out of them only 12 respondents said that the media is most credible source of information.<br />Thus the perceptions and opinions of the respondents differ according to the nature of the village they were living in, age group they belong to and access to media. It can also be concluded that the nature of village also determine the level of education of the respondents belonging to a particular type of village. For instance, at rural village 27 of the respondents had educational qualifications below matriculation and rest of the eight respondents had qualifications between matriculation and senior secondary, at semi-urban village there were 18 respondents who had qualifications below matriculation and 13 of them had education level between matriculation and senior secondary, rest of four were graduates or above. At urban village the level of education was higher. Only four of the 35 respondents were below matriculation and five of them were between matriculation and senior secondary and majority of the respondents i.e. 26 of them were graduates and above. There is a clear difference between the education levels at different type of villages.<br />It can also be concluded that people living at villages wish to have more access to media and they also have this opinion that media should have more access at villages and there must be more types of media available like internet, newspapers, and magazine etc.<br />This study showed the media as playing much more progressive role in the rural areas. It has brought in positive changes among people at rural areas and they are now more exposed to the world due to the media efforts. People have their attitudes changed for developmental and educational programs. It can also be concluded that it is the media which brings in positive changed in the behaviour of people and plays the role of an agent of change in rural areas. This study also showed that there are different channels of communication working at different levels at villages. Schemes, policies and programs should be promoted using these channels for most effective communication. Also the level of education determines the type of media consumption thus the education level of the target audience must be taken care of. This study also showed that regardless of geographical settings TV is the most popular medium of information, thus TV can be used for better communication at villages for the promotion of governmental programs and policies.<br />ANNEXURE<br /><ul><li>Bibliography
Questionnaire </li></ul>BIBLIOGRAPHY<br />Malhan, P. N. (1977) “Radio and television: change agents in rural areas”. Dec 8-20, (available at - http://hdl.handle.net/10220/284)<br />Cassirer R. Henry. “Rural Development and the Flow of Communication”. (International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems (49), A UNESCO document).<br />Bostian, Lloyd R. (1974). “Mass Communication Differences between Urban, Suburban and Rural Areas: Cross-cultural Comparisons”.<br />Ramachandran Rajeswari, Jaggarajamma K, Muniyandi M, Balasubramanian Rani. (2006). “Identifying effective communication channels in a rural Community: a field report from south India”. <br />Annual Report, (2008-09). Department of School Education and Literacy & Department of Higher Education Ministry of Human Resource Development Government of India <br />Bhatnagar, Gurnam S.; Singh, Raghu N. (August 1972) “The two step flow of communication in rural India”. Paper prepared for third world congress of rural sociology, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.<br />http://www.google.com<br />http://ijoc.org<br />http://gaz.sagepub.com<br />QUESTIONNAIRE<br />DETAILS OF THE RESPONDENT:- <br /><ul><li>Age – _______________________