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How to Create Persuasive Charts, Diagrams, and Data Visualizations

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Join Dave Grow, COO at Lucid Software and Scott Berinato, Senior Editor at Harvard Business Review and author of Good Charts: The HBR Guide to Making Smarter, More Persuasive Data Visualizations [On Demand Webinar] Scott is an award-winning writer, editor, content architect, and self-described “dataviz geek” who relishes the challenge of finding visual solutions to communication problems. At HBR he has championed the use of visual communication and storytelling and has launched successful visual formats, including popular narrated infographics, on HBR.org.

Published in: Data & Analytics

How to Create Persuasive Charts, Diagrams, and Data Visualizations

  1. 1. hello#GoodCharts @ScottBerinato
  2. 2. WHY VIZ? SCOTT BERINATO GOOD CHARTS SXSW AUSTIN 03.13.16 HBS BOSTON 04.01.16 GENNARI|ARONSON WELLESLEY 05.05.16 WORKBAR CAMBRIDGE 05.17.16 MICROSOFT SEATTLE 05.24.16 TABLEAU SEATTLE 05.24.16 THREAD@YALE NEWHAVEN 06.05.16 BABYCENTER SKYPE 08.26.16 ACCENTURE BOSTON 09.07.16 HBR@WORK LONDON 09.26.16 NORTHHIGHLAND LONDON 09.26.16 CIPD LONDON 09.27.16 IRISHMBAS DUBLIN 09.28.16 BLACKWELL OXFORD 09.29.16 CWT PARIS 10.03.16 HEC PARIS 10.03.16 HBR PARIS 10.04.16 INSEAD PARIS 10.04.16
  3. 3. Goodvizworks.
  4. 4. Myhotelroomis onfire!
  5. 5. Exit this room. Turn right and walk 10 feet to the end of the hallway, where you’ll be facing a large conference room. Turn left and walk another 12 feet until you come to the end of that hallway. To your left is a fire alarm, near the elevator. To your right at the end of the hall is a stairwell. Do not go to the elevator. Turn right and walk another 12 feet to the end of the hall, turn left and enter the stairwell. Go down two flights of stairs and exit the building at the door at the bottom of the stairs.
  6. 6. FIRE ESCAPE PLAN
  7. 7. The census counted more than 20 million households as being located outside any metropolitan area—that is, in rural America. And it found that these households saw their incomes drop by 2 percent between 2014 and 2015: from $45,534 to $44,657. There were 63 million households inside metropolitan areas but outside the area’s principal city—that is, in the suburbs. These households enjoyed healthy income growth of 4 percent, from an already high $61,671 to $64,144. But the biggest gains accrued to the 41 million households located in the principal city of a metropolitan area. They saw their incomes grow an impressive 7.3 percent. Their incomes went from $47,095 to $51,378. —Vox
  8. 8. AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD INCOME -2% +7.3% +4% MEDIAN SOURCE: VOX [http://www.vox.com/2016/9/13/12903236/census-data-richer-cities] WHOSE FORTUNES IMPROVED LAST YEAR? RURAL HOUSEHOLDS SUBURBAN HOUSEHOLDSURBAN HOUSEHOLDS 20152014 $30,000 $15,000 $60,000 $75,000 $45,000 20M 41M 63M
  9. 9. Goodvizmatters.
  10. 10. A REP’S PAST PERFORMANCE DOESN’T PREDICT FUTURE PROFITS A REP’S PAST PERFORMAN DOESN’T PREDICT FUTURE Decile of sales force 2ND1ST 4TH3RD 6TH5TH 8TH 9TH 10TH7TH <<< Revenue undervalues reps’ future profitability Revenue >>> overvalues reps’ future profitability ANNUAL AVERAGES (THOUSANDS) Salesperson future value Salesperson revenue SOURCE: V. KUMAR, SARANG SUNDER,AND ROBERT P. LEONE $100 SALES REPS’ AVERAGE ANNUAL REV 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 50 0 *CALCULATED USING A PROPRIETARY FORMULA. SOURCE: RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF ONE B2B COM BYV. KUMAR, SARANG SUNDER, AND ROBERT P. LEO Costly reps Valuable reps REPS’ DECILE RANKING By looking not just at the revenue reps have generated but at their future profitability, you may find that your top performers are even more valuable than you thought—and your low performers even more costly. $100,000 $80,000 $60,000 $40,000 $20,000 $00,000 For both high—and low—performing sales reps in a B2B company, revenue generated was not a good indicator of expected future profitability, calculated using a special formula.
  11. 11. RMANCE TURE PROFITS A REP’S PAST PERFORMANCE DOESN’T PREDICT FUTURE PROFITS TH 6TH5TH 8TH 9TH 10TH7TH ue >>> alues reps’ e profitability n future value Salesperson revenue D ROBERT P. LEONE $100 SALES REPS’ AVERAGE ANNUAL REVENUE (IN THOUSANDS) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 50 0 *CALCULATED USING A PROPRIETARY FORMULA. SOURCE: RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF ONE B2B COMPANY BYV. KUMAR, SARANG SUNDER, AND ROBERT P. LEONE Current Future potential* Costly reps Valuable reps REPS’ DECILE RANKING WITHIN SALES FORCE ue reps have generated but at their future our top performers are even more d your low performers even more costly. oth high—and low—performing sales reps B2B company, revenue generated was not od indicator of expected future profitability, ulated using a special formula.
  12. 12. 0 2 4 6 8 10% 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 GLOBAL LIGHT VEHICLE PENETRATION— ONE SCENARIO LIGHT VEHICLE SALES TESLA SHARE GLOBAL PROJECTIONS LIGHT VEHICLE SALES IN MILLIONS 2017 SOURCE: GOLDMAN SACHS GLOBAL INVESTMENT RESEARCH 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
  13. 13. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 GLOBAL LIGHT VEHICLE PENETRATION— ONE SCENARIO LIGHT VEHICLE SALES IN MILLIONS All other light vehicles Tesla SOURCE: GOLDMAN SACHS GLOBAL INVESTMENT RESEARCH GLOBAL PROJECTIONS 2017 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
  14. 14. GOODMATTERS TOBUSINESS
  15. 15. “Everyone in our business knows they need to visualize data, but it’s easy to do poorly. We invest in it. We’re excited if we can use it right while they use it wrong.” —Daryl Morey, GM, Houston Rockets
  16. 16. TRAVEL FREQUENCY (TRIPS PER YEAR) TRAVEL STRESS INDEX WHO SUFFERS MOST FROM TRAVEL STRESS? 5 10 15 20 25 300 10 0 20 30 40 50 60 70% SOURCE: CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL (CWT) SOLUTIONS GROUP, TRAVEL STRESS INDEX RESEARCH (2013) GOODMATTERS TOCAREERS
  17. 17. “Right now, I’m special because so many people are intimidated by dataviz. But that’s changing. I’m working on getting to the next level.” —India Swearingen, United Way of the Bay Area
  18. 18. WHATIS AGOOD CHART? SCOTT BERINATO GOOD CHARTS SXSW AUSTIN 03.13.16 HBS BOSTON 04.01.16 GENNARI|ARONSON WELLESLEY 05.05.16 WORKBAR CAMBRIDGE 05.17.16 MICROSOFT SEATTLE 05.24.16 TABLEAU SEATTLE 05.24.16 THREAD@YALE NEWHAVEN 06.05.16 BABYCENTER SKYPE 08.26.16 ACCENTURE BOSTON 09.07.16 HBR@WOR K LONDON 09.26.16 NORTH HIGHLAND LONDON 09.26.16 CIPD LONDON 09.27.16 IRISHMBAS DUBLIN 09.28.16 BLACKWELL OXFORD 09.29.16 CWT PARIS 10.03.16 HEC PARIS 10.03.16 HBR PARIS 10.04.16 INSEAD PARIS 10.04.16
  19. 19. GOOD? VINYL SALES SINCE 1993 8 10 6 4 2 1993 SOURCE: RIAA 96 99 02 05 08 11 14 MILLIONS OF UNITS VINYL SALES SINCE 1993 8 10 6 4 2 1993 SOURCE: RIAA 96 99 02 05 08 11 14 MILLIONS OF UNITS
  20. 20. ARETHESE GOOD?
  21. 21. AGOODCHART, RIGHT?
  22. 22. ISTHISGOOD? ORISITGREAT?
  23. 23. Howdowe judgecharts?
  24. 24. ISTHISA GOODCHART? THOSEBARS ARETOOTHIN. THELABELS AREALLOVER THEPLACE. WHYISTHEY AXISONTHE RIGHT? THECOLORS DON’TMAKE SENSE. THEREAREN’T ENOUGHTICK MARKS. ISTHISTHE RIGHTKIND OFCHART?
  25. 25. “Ending a sentence with a preposition is something up with which I will not put.” —Churchill (supposedly)
  26. 26. OOOOH!
  27. 27. “I would be remiss if, at this moment, I didn’t pause to cogitate on two important matters related to the discussion at hand.” —Anonymous
  28. 28. VISUALGRAMMAR COLORMATTERS WHEN DO PEOPLE BUY ON OUR WEBSITE? PERCENTAGE OF SALES Men’s apparel Women’s apparel Men’s apparel Women’s apparel TIME OF DAY Men’s apparel Women’s apparel 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am WHEN DO PEOPLE BUY ON OUR WEBSITE? PERCENTAGE OF SALES Men’s apparel Women’s apparel Men’s apparel Women’s apparel TIME OF DAY Men’s apparel Women’s apparel 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am WHEN DO PEOPLE BUY ON OUR WEBSITE? PERCENTAGE OF SALES Men’s apparel Women’s apparel Men’s apparel Women’s apparel TIME OF DAY Men’s apparel Women’s apparel 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am 12–6am 6am–12pm 12–6pm 6pm–12am
  29. 29. VISUALGRAMMAR THEGRIDMATTERS GOLD PRICE PER OUNCE IN $US 1,200 1,100 1,300 1,250 1,125 1,225 1,275 1,325 1,375 1,150 1,175 1,350 $1,400 6/1/2014 8/2/2014 9/1/2014 10/1/2014 11/2/2014 12/2/2014 1/1/2015 2/2/2015 3/2/2015 4/1/2015 5/1/2015 5/15/2015 7/1/2014 GOLD PRICE PER OUNCE IN $U 1,100 $1, GOLD PRICE PER OUNCE IN $US 1,200 1,100 1,300 $1,400 May 2014 Sept. 2014 Jan. 2015 May 2015
  30. 30. VISUALGRAMMAR USAGEMATTERS Executives TRAVEL EXPENSES BY DEPARTMENT Marketing IT Sales Finance HR $2,000 IN THOUSANDS 1,500 1,000 500 SOURCE: COMPANY RESEARCH Executives TRAVEL EXPENSES BY DEPARTMENT Marketing IT Sales Finance HR $2,000 IN THOUSANDS 1,500 1,000 500 SOURCE: COMPANY RESEARCH
  31. 31. Somethingelse mattersmore.
  32. 32. context
  33. 33. contextwhat am I trying to say, to whom, and where?
  34. 34. Let’simaginethatSt.BenedictchapelinSumvitg, Graubünden,Switzerland,isourdataset.Andthe followingphotographsareourcharts.
  35. 35. context:fieldofview
  36. 36. context:fieldofview
  37. 37. context:angle
  38. 38. context:angle
  39. 39. context:pointofview
  40. 40. context:whatamItryingtosay,towhom,andwhere?
  41. 41. CONTEXT FIELDOFVIEW VINYL SALES SINCE 1993 8 10 6 4 2 1993 SOURCE: RIAA 96 99 02 05 08 11 14 MILLIONS OF UNITS VINYL SALES SINCE 1993 8 10 6 4 2 1993 SOURCE: RIAA 96 99 02 05 08 11 14 MILLIONS OF UNITS
  42. 42. CONTEXT FIELDOFVIEW VINYL SALES SINCE 1973 SOURCE: RIAA MILLIONS OF UNITS 1973 600 450 300 150 Vinyl single (45) Vinyl LP/EP 8178 8784 90 93 96 99 0502 08 11 14 VINYL SALES SINCE 1973 SOURCE: RIAA MILLIONS OF UNITS 1973 600 450 300 150 Vinyl single (45) Vinyl LP/EP 8178 8784 90 93 96 99 0502 08 11 14
  43. 43. CONTEXT ANGLE GOLD PER OUNCE SILVER PER OUNCE 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 $22 1,100 1,150 1,200 1,250 1,300 $1,350 SOURCE: BULLIONVAULT.COM PRICE PER OUNCE $1,500 PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER GOLD PER OUNCE SILVER PER OUNCE 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 $22 1,100 1,150 1,200 1,250 1,300 $1,350 SOURCE: BULLIONVAULT.COM PRICE PER OUNCE Silver Gold 300 600 900 1,200 $1,500 PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER GOLD PER OUNCE SILVER PER OUNCE 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 $22 1,100 1,150 1,200 1,250 1,300 $1,350 SOURCE: BULLIONVAULT.COM PRICE PER OUNCE Gold 900 1,200 $1,500 PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER
  44. 44. CONTEXT ANGLE 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 Silver 300 600 SOURCE: BULLIONVAULT.COM PERCENT CHANGE IN PRICE FROM 5/14 PRICECHANGE:GOLDAND SILVER Silver Gold -20 -10 0 10% SOURCE: BULLIONVAULT.COM 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 PRICE PER OUNCE Silver Gold 300 600 900 1,200 $1,500 SOURCE: BULLIONVAULT.COM PERCENT CHANGE IN PRICE FROM 5/14 PRICECHANGE:GOLDAND SILVER Silver Gold -20 -10 0 10% SOURCE: BULLIONVAULT.COM GOLD PER OUNCE SILVER PER OUNCE 5/14 8/14 11/14 2/15 5/15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 $22 1,100 1,150 1,200 1,250 1,300 $1,350 SOURCE: BULLIONVAULT.COM PRICE PER OUNCE Silver Gold 300 600 900 1,200 $1,500 PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER
  45. 45. CONTEXT POINTOFVIEW CUSTOMER PURCHASE ACTIVITY BY TIME OF DAY SALES DOLLARS, IN THOUSANDS $800 600 400 200 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 0 SOURCE: COMPANY RESEARCH CUSTOMER PURCHASE ACTIVITY BY TIME OF DAY SALES DOLLARS, IN THOUSANDS $800 600 400 200 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 0 SOURCE: COMPANY RESEARCH CUSTOMER PURCHASE ACTIVITY BY TIME OF DAY SALES DOLLARS, IN THOUSANDS $800 600 400 200 0 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 SOURCE: COMPANY RESEARCH CUSTOMER PURCHASE ACTIVITY BY TIME OF DAY SALES DOLLARS, IN THOUSANDS $800 600 400 200 0 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 SOURCE: COMPANY RESEARCH
  46. 46. rulescontext
  47. 47. contextrules
  48. 48. context:whatamItryingtosay,towhom,andwhere? HOWMUCH TIMEDOI HAVE? WHAT DOTHEY ALREADY KNOW? HOW WILLITBE DISPLAYED? WHATAM ITRYINGTO ACCOMPLISH? HOWBIGIS THEROOM? WHATDO IWANTTHEM TODOABOUT IT? HAVETHEY EVERSEEN THISKIND OFCHART BEFORE? WHOELSE MIGHTSEE IT?
  49. 49. context:whatamItryingtosay,towhom,andwhere? HOW WILLITBE DISPLAYED? HOWBIGIS THEROOM?
  50. 50. DON’TBE THISGUY
  51. 51. So.What’s good?
  52. 52. THEGOOD CHARTSMATRIX WHAT AM I TRYING TO SAY, TO WHOM, AND WHERE? CONTEXTUALAWARENESSLOW HIGH
  53. 53. EXCELLENT POOR DESIGNEXECUTION THEGOOD CHARTSMATRIX HOW WELL IS THIS CHART CONSTRUCTED?
  54. 54. EXCELLENT POOR LOW HIGH DESIGN EXECUTION HOW WELL IS THIS CHART CONSTRUCTED? THEGOOD CHARTSMATRIX CONTEXTUAL AWARENESS WHAT AM I TRYING TO SAY, TO WHOM, AND WHERE?
  55. 55. EXCELLENT POOR LOW HIGH CONTEXTUAL AWARENESS WHAT AM I TRYING TO SAY, TO WHOM, AND WHERE? DESIGN EXECUTION HOW WELL IS THIS CHART CONSTRUCTED? THEGOOD CHARTSMATRIX GOOD CHARTS
  56. 56. GOOD? 8 10 6 4 2 1993 SOURCE: RIAA 96 99 02 05 08 11 14 MILLIONS OF UNITS VINYL SALES SINCE 1993
  57. 57. $125GOOD
  58. 58. FOREXAMPLE
  59. 59. FOREXAMPLE REVENUE AND MARGIN GROWTH SCENARIOS Assuming 9% membership growth. SOURCE: COMPANY RESEARCH STATUS QUO 2015 2016 2017 2018 Revenue Margin 100 200 300 $400 million 100 200 300 $400 million 2015 2016 2017 2018 SCENARIO 1 100 200 300 $400 million 2015 2016 2017 2018 SCENARIO 2 100 200 300 $400 million 2015 2016 2017 2018 SCENARIO 3 REVENUE AND MARGIN GROWTH SCENARIOS Assuming 9% membership growth. SOURCE: COMPANY RESEARCH STATUS QUO 2015 2016 2017 2018 Revenue Margin 100 200 300 $400 million 100 200 300 $400 million 2015 2016 2017 2018 SCENARIO 1 100 200 300 $400 million 2015 2016 2017 2018 SCENARIO 2 100 200 300 $400 million 2015 2016 2017 2018 SCENARIO 3
  60. 60. ACHART...
  61. 61. AGOODCHART.
  62. 62. ACHART... $8 6 4 2 RedSox Cubs Phillies Twins Braves Giants BlueJays Orioles Nationals Royals WhiteSox Dodgers Mariners Yankees Marlins Brewers Rockies Mets Pirates Reds Rays Cardinals A’s Tigers Padres Astros Rangers Angels Indians Diamondbacks COST OF ONE SMALL BEER AT EVERY MLB STADIUM MLB Average: $5.98 SOURCE: TEAM MARKETING REPORT INC. TEAM Expen $81–$ Pirates Indian Dodge Range Angels Diamo Liquor store case: $20 $0 Fans know they’re getting robbed, but converting the cost of beer at all the MLB parks into a measure they can easily relate to shows just how bad it is. IF YOU BOUGHT A CASE OF BEER AT A BALLPARK
  63. 63. AGOODCHART. Cardinals A’s Tigers Padres Astros Rangers Angels Indians Diamondbacks MLB STADIUM 8 SOURCE: TEAM MARKETING REPORT INC. Unconscionable $186/case Red Sox Outrageous $138–$144/case Giants Mariners Yankees Marlins Blue Jays Cubs Mets Exorbitant $103–$131/case Braves Reds Orioles Rays Cardinals A’s Tigers Nationals Royals White Sox Twins Brewers Rockies Phillies Padres Astros Expensive $81–$99/case Pirates Indians Dodgers Rangers Angels Diamondbacks Liquor store case: $20 Ballpark average: $115 $0 $150 Fans know they’re getting robbed, but converting the cost of beer at all the MLB parks into a measure they can easily relate to shows just how bad it is. IF YOU BOUGHT A CASE OF BEER AT A BALLPARK
  64. 64. By 2010-06-05-lueneburg-by-RalfR-10.jpg: Ralf Roletschek WHAT’SFEARED
  65. 65. Unicorns don’texist(mostly)
  66. 66. EXCEL|1912
  67. 67. DATAVIZ|1969
  68. 68. BUTTHEN|1990S
  69. 69. DATAVIZ|2016
  70. 70. DATAVIZ|2016 SME me DESIGNER marta DEVELOPER tyler + +
  71. 71. UNDERSTAND HISTORY SCIENCE CREATE TYPES METHODS REFINE IMPRESS PERSUADE DON’TLIE! PRESENTAND PRACTICE CAPTIVATE CRIT GOOD CHARTS
  72. 72. thankyou#GoodCharts @ScottBerinato

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