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Solar Energy to BioFuels

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Solar Energy to BioFuels

  1. 1. 1 MJ = 0.28 kWh 1 tep = 41.80 MJ/kg 1 ege = 80.14 MJSun Tropic 5,000 9,200 MJ/m²y Temperate 1,500 6,000 Average 6,000 1,650 kWh/m²yHeat 40.0% 70.0%Electricity 10.0% 42.0%H2 29.0%Plants Max C3 4.6% Max C4 6.0% Miscanthus 3.7 kg/m²y 17 MJ/kg 62.9 MJ/m²y 1.05% Algae (max) 12 kg/m²y 30.0% wt oil 33 MJ/kg 118.8 MJ/m²y 1.98% Plants average 1.86 kg/m²y 17 MJ/kg 31.7 MJ/m²yBiomass 0.53% 220,000,000,000 ton/y world 2,000,000,000,000,000 MJ 10 x world energy consumptionCharcoal Biochar 200 250 kg/m³ (mcs) 420 kg/ton Non-condensable gases 200 Tar 380Electricity CTCE 184 kWh/ton (dry) CEST 214 BIGSTIG 831 BIGGTCC 1032Liquid Fuel Losses 20.0% 50.0% Max yield 320 ege/ton biomass FT-Diesel 87 106 Cellulosic etanol 75 105 HDO Diesel 110 Biochemical Ethanol 100 300 L/dry t Thermo-chemical FT Diesel 75 200 Syngas-to-ethanol 120 160Energy Density Li-ion batteries 1 MJ/L H2 at 700bar 4.7 MJ/L Diesel 36 MJ/L

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