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Virtualize or Containerize

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Choosing between containerization and virtualization.

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Virtualize or Containerize

  1. 1. Open Source Thanks, Open Source Bridge organizers Bridge + volunteers Summer 2009
  2. 2. Open Source Bridge Summer 2009 Virtualize or Containerize? irving + andy cyberstalk : irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  3. 3. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Source Agenda Bridge Summer 1. Why we're here 2009 2. Act I -  Virtualize or Containerize (aka "So, you're a provider...") 1. Define and Differentiate 2. State of the Art -> dealbreakers + dealmakers 3. Act II - The Trouble with Clouds (aka "So you're looking to buy?") 1. A Market for Lemons 2. How it's hurting consumers 3. Wouldn't it be cool if... 4. Further resources 5. Get in touch... irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  4. 4. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Containerization: Now you can handle the truth Source Bridge Summer Now that we all know + love 2009 virtualization, it's easier to wrap our brains around containerization • Reminder: Virtualization is everywhere, even when you don't know it.  • Amazon EC2, Xen, Vmware... Perhaps you've heard of them? • Containerization branding chaos. irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  5. 5. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Source Why we're here Bridge Summer 2009 Irving said blasphemous things about virtualization in IRC. irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  6. 6. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Containerization: Source Bridge Is that even a thing? Summer 2009 irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  7. 7. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Rollcall Source Bridge Summer Virtualization users and their admirers 2009 irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  8. 8. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Rollcall Source Bridge Summer Containerization users and their admirers 2009 irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  9. 9. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Source Act I Bridge Virtualize vs. Containerize: Summer 2009 Define + Differentiate  So, you're a provider... irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  10. 10. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Before we begin, assumptions Source Our focus: Bridge     x86 Server Market Summer     Open Source Operating Systems 2009     Open Source & Web Application stacks      Yes, we know that:     Virtualization actually kicked off in the 1970s     Mainframe world.     Things are different when you bring Windows into the     picture. If you want to discuss Windows, Mainframes, etc, you may be at the wrong talk. irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  11. 11. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Virtualization Explained Source Virtualization in a Nutshell: Bridge A software technique used to separate an Operating Summer System from Physical Resources 2009 The virtualization "host" presents a complete set of hardware (CPU, memory, disk, devices) to the "guest", fooling the guest into thinking it is running on real hardware Analogy:   The Matrix   Examples VMware (Full Virtualization) Xen (Paravirtualization) KVM (Paravirtualization) Virtualbox (Full Virtualization)     irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  12. 12. Virtualize or Containerize? Virtualization Explained Open Source (cont.) Advantages: Bridge System Consolidation Summer System Protection 2009 Simplicity - Run any x86 OS! Disadvantage:  CPU Performance Memory Performance IO Performance Noticing a trend? Expensive translation Scheduler Contention irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  13. 13. Virtualize or Containerize? Containerization: Open The Difference is found in the Translation Source Bridge Summer 2009 Virtualization -- much Containerization -- It's all must be translated native irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  14. 14. Virtualize or Containerize? Open The Alien is the Guest, the Human is the Host Source Bridge Summer 2009 *Except when you containerize, then a Human is both the Guest and Host irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  15. 15. Virtualize or Containerize? Containerization Explained Open Source Containerization in a Nutshell Bridge Also called Operating System-level virtualization, the Summer host and guests all share a single kernel 2009 Essentially, virtualization in user-land Single kernel provides greater control of guests, yet thinner separation between guests Some ability to run different OS distributions Examples OpenVZ (Linux) Linux-Vserver FreeBSD Jails Solaris Containers irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  16. 16. Virtualize or Containerize? Containerization Explained Open Source (cont.) Advantages Bridge Some advantages shared with virtualization (consolidation, Summer protection) 2009 IO and Memory Performance levels similar to native operation CPU Scalability - no "virtual SMP" limits Greater control over guests from the host, much finer grained resource constraints Much lower resource tax on the host Disadvantages You can only run guests which share the same kernel/architecture Mixed bag of "Enterprise" functionality out of the box (automation/management consoles/clustering) irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  17. 17. Virtualize or Containerize? Who were Popek and Goldberg? Open Source Published a famous paper in 1974 called "Formal Requirements for Bridge Virtualizable Third Generation Architectures". The fundamentals are Summer still relevant today. 2009 Equivalence A program running under the VMM should exhibit a behavior essentially identical to that demonstrated when running on an equivalent machine directly. Resource control The VMM must be in complete control of the virtualized resources. Efficiency A statistically dominant fraction of machine instructions must be executed without VMM intervention. irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  18. 18. Virtualize or Containerize? Convergent Evolution Open Source Bridge Summer 2009 (Or something...) irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  19. 19. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Source Bridge Summer 2009 What's best for you? It depends on who you are. irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  20. 20. Virtualize or Containerize? How the heck do we describe ourselves? Open Source Bridge Summer • buyers? 2009 • sellers? • administrators? • administrator and user?!?! • providers? • users? • developers? • just need to run a dang app? irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  21. 21. Virtualize or Containerize? The big buckets Open Source Bridge • Selling infrastructure or applications on top of Summer infrastructure to people outside your organization 2009 • Providing infrastructure, or applications on top of an infrastructure, within your organization/company • Your own customer o a dev/groups of devs managing your own production/dev/QA server o using an app that needs infrastructure irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  22. 22. Virtualize or Containerize? Rollcall Open Source Bridge • Selling infrastructure or applications on top of Summer infrastructure to people outside your organization 2009 • Providing infrastructure, or applications on top of an infrastructure, within your organization/company • Your own customer o a dev/groups of devs managing your own production/dev/QA server o using an app that needs infrastructure Need help? Let's help you choose... irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  23. 23. Virtualize or Containerize? Let's help you choose Open Source Bridge You care about:  "Enterprise" functionality, Summer 2009 support, clustering, pretty dashboards. Virtualize! irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  24. 24. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Let's help you choose Source Bridge You care about:  Running many, many different x86 Summer OSes.  And a wide array of virtual appliances. 2009 Virtualize! irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  25. 25. Virtualize or Containerize? Let's help you choose Open Source Bridge You're an Infrastructure provider, and you need to run Summer many, many instances of Linux as efficiently as 2009 possible.  You understand that fitting more guests on a host is free money. Containerize! irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  26. 26. Virtualize or Containerize? Let's help you choose Open Source Bridge You're a startup or indie developer on Linux, and you need Summer to stretch every dollar.  However, you want to easily add 2009 Staging/Dev environments, regression test on a wide variety of distributions, etc.  People keep telling you to "Get a VM for that project."  What do you do? Containerize! irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  27. 27. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Source Bridge Act II Summer 2009 The Trouble with Clouds So, you're a consumer of infrastructure...  irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  28. 28. Virtualize or Containerize? The market for lemons Open Much of what you just heard doesn't matter if you are a buyer of Source Infrastructure services (IaaS, Cloud Computing, etc.) Bridge Summer The variance in technical solutions for each technology is so great 2009 that any cloud can have massive CPU, Memory, Disk or Network limitations.  Building a well-performing virtualization hosting environment (Cloud) can be very tricky. Because there is a lack of standardized measurement, Cloud providers compete primarily on Price, and sometimes on features.  This could result in a downward trend of service quality as new entrants provide cheaper and cheapened solutions. See famous paper "The Market for Lemons" by economist George Akerlof. irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  29. 29. Virtualize or Containerize? How it's hurting consumers Open Shopping for IaaS providers makes no sense, the comparison criteria has Source nothing to do with the Quality of the Infrastructure Bridge • User Interface • API Summer • Pricing and Features 2009 • Oh yeah, and user reviews (subjective, often individual's "horror stories") What's worse  • IaaS services are not optimized for popular application stacks.   • The marketing makes buyers think that they can get away with out having a real system administrator to perform setup, tuning, etc • This is a step backward from the older models. • Many people really just want to run Wordpress, Drupal, Rails, Django, or other LAMP based applications in a scalable fashion. • IaaS consumers with busy sites are finding themselves disappointed by the performance of the solution. irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  30. 30. Virtualize or Containerize? Wouldn't it be cool if... There were independent measurements and ratings for IaaS Open providers: Source • Compare CPU, Memory, Disk, and network performance Bridge • Compare real-world task response times Summer • Test complete application stacks by testing real application 2009 performances for popular tools like Django, Ruby, Drupal and WordPress A critical mass of communities talking about cloud stuff with these new criteria in mind: • Wikis • Discussion forums • How-to articles Encourage vendors to be more transparent and describe their offerings in a more meaningful way. irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  31. 31. Virtualize or Containerize? Further Resources Open Source Bridge • Wikipedia "Virtualization" article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization Summer • VMware whitepaper:  Understanding Paravirtualization http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/VMware_paravirtualization.pdf 2009 • Intel whitepaper:  Hybrid Virtualization http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/VMware_paravirtualization.pdf • Troubleshooting hosted Xen story:   http://wiki.xen.prgmr.com/xenophilia/2009/06/see-this-is-why-i-dont-assume.html • Popek and Goldberg Virtualization Requirements  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popek_and_Goldberg_virtualization_requirements irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides
  32. 32. Virtualize or Containerize? Open Get in touch Source Bridge Andy (Andrea) Summer     Sysadmin in Portland, OR 2009     Cries when make fails.     twitter/identica:  thesethings     Blog: http://www.thesethingsmattertome.com/ Irving Popovetsky     Systems, Security and OSS consultant from Portland, OR     Unabashed OSS nerd for nearly 15 years     twitter/identica: irvingpop     Blog:  http://www.cloudest.com/blog/ irc / twitter/ identica: irvingpop, thesethings web: cloudest.com/slides

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