POETRY A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY POET SPEAKER The poet is the author The speaker of the of the poem. poem is the “narrator” of the poem.
POETRY FORMFORM - the A word is deadappearance of the When it is said,words on the page Some say.LINE - a group ofwords together on oneline of the poem I say it just Begins to liveSTANZA - a group of That day.lines arranged together
KINDS OF STANZASCouplet = a two line stanzaTriplet (Tercet) = a three line stanzaQuatrain = a four line stanzaQuintet = a five line stanzaSestet (Sextet) = a six line stanzaSeptet = a seven line stanzaOctave = an eight line stanza
RHYTHM The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.
METER A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern. When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They they repeat the pattern throughout the poem.
METER cont. FOOT - unit of meter. TYPES OF FEET A foot can have two or The types of feet are three syllables. determined by the Usually consists of arrangement of one stressed and one stressed and or more unstressed unstressed syllables. syllables. (cont.)
METER cont.Kinds of Metrical Lines monometer = one foot on a line dimeter = two feet on a line trimeter = three feet on a line tetrameter = four feet on a line pentameter = five feet on a line hexameter = six feet on a line heptameter = seven feet on a line octometer = eight feet on a line
FREE VERSE POETRY Unlike metered poetry, Free verse poetry is free verse poetry does very conversational - NOT have any sounds like someone repeating patterns of talking with you. stressed and unstressed syllables. A more modern type Does NOT have of poetry. rhyme.
BLANK VERSE POETRY from Julius Ceasar Cowards die many times beforeWritten in lines of their deaths;iambic pentameter, but The valiant never taste of death but once.does NOT use end Of all the wonders that I yet haverhyme. heard, It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.
RHYMEWords sound alike LAMPbecause they share the STAMPsame ending voweland consonant sounds. Share the short “a” vowel sound Share the combined(A word always “mp” consonant soundrhymes with itself.)
END RHYMEA word at the end of one line rhymes with aword at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.
INTERNAL RHYMEA word inside a line rhymes with anotherword on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe
NEAR RHYMEa.k.a imperfect ROSErhyme, close rhyme LOSEThe words share Different vowelEITHER the same sounds (long “o” andvowel or consonant “oo” sound)sound BUT NOT Share the sameBOTH consonant sound
RHYME SCHEMEA rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usuallyend rhyme, but not always).Use the letters of the alphabet to represent soundsto be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See nextslide for an example.)
SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, a Though smaller than the pachyderm. a His customary dwelling place b Is deep within the human race. b His childish pride he often pleases c By giving people strange diseases. c Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? a You probably contain a germ. a
ONOMATOPOEIA Words that imitate the sound they arenaming BUZZOR sounds that imitate another sound “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain . . .”
ALLITERATION Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
CONSONANCESimilar to alliteration EXCEPT . . .The repeated consonant sounds can beanywhere in the words “silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . . “
ASSONANCERepeated VOWEL sounds in a line or linesof poetry.(Often creates near rhyme.) Lake Fate Base Fade (All share the long “a” sound.)
ASSONANCE cont.Examples of ASSONANCE: “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.” - John Masefield“Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.” - William Shakespeare
REFRAINA sound, word, phrase “Quoth the raven,or line repeated ‘Nevermore.’”regularly in a poem.
LYRIC A short poem Usually written in first person point of view Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene Do not tell a story and are often musical (Many of the poems we read will be lyrics.)
HAIKUA Japanese poemwritten in three lines An old silent pond . . . A frog jumps into the pond. Five Syllables Splash! Silence again. Seven Syllables Five Syllables
CINQUAIN A five line poem How frailcontaining 22 syllables Above the bulk Two Syllables Of crashing water hangs Four Syllables Autumnal, evanescent, wan Six Syllables The moon. Eight Syllables Two Syllables
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNETA fourteen line poem with Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. a specific rhyme Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, scheme. And summer’s lease hath all too short a date. Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometimes declines, The poem is written in By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed. three quatrains and ends But thy eternal summer shall not fade with a couplet. Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st; Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, The rhyme scheme is So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. abab cdcd efef gg
NARRATIVE POEMSA poem that tells a Examples of Narrativestory. PoemsGenerally longer thanthe lyric styles of “The Raven”poetry b/c the poet “The Highwayman”needs to establishcharacters and a plot. “Casey at the Bat” “The Walrus and the Carpenter”
CONCRETE POEMS PoetryIn concrete poems, the Is likewords are arranged to Flames, Which arecreate a picture that Swift and elusiverelates to the content Dodging realization Sparks, like words on theof the poem. Paper, leap and dance in the Flickering firelight. The fiery Tongues, formless and shifting Shapes, tease the imiagination. Yet for those who see, Through their mind’s Eye, they burn Up the page.
SIMILE A comparison of two things using “like, as than,” or “resembles.” “She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”
METAPHORA direct comparison of two unlike things“All the world’s a stage, and we are merelyplayers.” - William Shakespeare
EXTENDED METAPHORA metaphor that goes several lines orpossible the entire length of a work.
IMPLIED METAPHORThe comparison is hinted at but not clearlystated.“The poison sacs of the town began tomanufacture venom, and the town swelledand puffed with the pressure of it.” - from The Pearl - by John Steinbeck
HyperboleExaggeration often used for emphasis.
LitotesUnderstatement - basically the opposite ofhyperbole. Often it is ironic.Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy”
IdiomAn expression where the literal meaning ofthe words is not the meaning of theexpression. It means something other thanwhat it actually says.Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.
PERSONIFICATION An animal from “Ninki” given human- by Shirley Jackson like qualities “Ninki was by this time irritated or an object beyond belief by the general air of given life-like incompetence exhibited in the qualities. kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.
SYMBOLISMWhen a person, place,thing, or event that has = Innocencemeaning in itself alsorepresents, or standsfor, something else. = America = Peace
AllusionAllusion comes from A tunnel walled and overlaidthe verb “allude” With dazzling crystal: wewhich means “to refer had readto” Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous cave,An allusion is a And to our own his name wereference to something gave.famous. From “Snowbound” John Greenleaf Whittier
IMAGERYLanguage that appeals to the senses.Most images are visual, but they can alsoappeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste,or smell. then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather . . . from “Those Winter Sundays”