The Great African Rift ValleyDone By: Tan Yu Xiang 3O3 Lucas Tang 3O3 Jordan Leong 3O3 Weng Khin 3O3 Chan Chia Ler 3P3 Kah Xuan 3P3
Content• Introduction• Social Impacts• Environmental Impacts• Economic Impacts• Political Impacts• Earthquakes
• A steep-sided valley formed by the downward displacement of a block of the Earth’s surface between nearly parallel faults or fault system
Rift Valleys• Houses the largest freshwater lakes in the world• Lake Baikal in Siberia (the world’s deepest lake and has 20% of the liquid freshwater on Earth)• Lake Tanganyika in Albertine Rift, west of East African Rift• Lake Superia in North America
Great African Rift Valley• Located in Eastern Africa• Formed from a divergent plate boundary between the African Plate and the Arabian Plate• Split at some point into Western and Eastern Rift• Mountains: Ruwenzori Range, Mount Kenya and Mount Margherita• Major Lakes: Lake Nyssa, Lake Turkana, Lake Tanganyika• About 30 volcanoes located on the Valley• Formed 35 million years ago• 3600 miles in length• Extends from the south of Jordan to Biera (6400 km)
Social Impacts• Created cultural events such as Rabai, Swahili and Lamu Cultural Festivals• In the Rift Valley Province, there are festivals like Baringo and Dorobo Cultural festivals• The Great Rift Valley is filled with wildlife and makes it a good tourist attraction. Thus, the area may get affected by these tourists.
Environmental Impacts• Resulted in inadequate water production (important as Over 90% of the rural population living in Ethiopia have no access to potable water)• Resulted in weak institutional capacity to operate and maintain the water supply and sanitation facilities• Rapidly growing population led to an increased claim on natural resources• The agricultural area has increased considerably, while changing agricultural practices have increased further the pressure on the natural resources.
Environmental Impacts• Irrigation, fertilizers and agrochemicals have been introduced in the last years.• Water abstraction is often being done without the basic understanding of the complex hydrological and hydrogeological system and the fragile nature of the rift ecosystem• Lakes with high concentration of salt, causing fish to thrive there and attracting many birds. For example, Lake Turkana (below)
Political Impacts• Rift Valley has one of the highest population densities in Africa due to the abundance of volcanoes• Portrayed as a disaster zone as the temporal borders of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi are around the valley’s surface• Dynamic and verdant geography led to unsustainable human demographics and land scarcity• Rebel groups fought for land
Earthquakes• February 2008: Two strong earthquakes occured in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. At least 40 people were killed and 400 injured. The larger earthquake had a magnitude of six.• December 2005: A strong earthquake hit East Africa. The earthquake of magnitude 6.8 was centered under Lake Tanganyika, and the impact was felt as far as 975 kilometers from the epicenter• January 2011: A 4.8 magnitude earthquake hit a region of the Great Rift Valley near Lake Albert in Uganda• June 2012: A swarm of earthquakes hit the Eritrea region near Ethiopia along the Great Rift Valley at a depth of 10 km. The stongest was of magnitude 5.7.
Weng Khin’s ReflectionsI found this project very interesting andmeaningful as I learned more about the GreatAfrican Rift as well as the benefits it brings tothe people and animals living around it. Thisproject also allow me to know more about myfriends. All in all, I enjoyed doing this projectand I hope there would be more of suchprojects
Jordan’s ReflectionsI felt that this project was very purposeful as it gives usspecific case studies that enable us to understand theconcepts we learnt in class and see them in action inreal life. It is really an eye opener as before the project,I had no idea what was the African Rift Valley and aftercompleting the project, I was able to link theseparation of continental plates learnt in class andunderstand how it looks like in real life. It has alsomany impacts on the environment that I learnt in theprocess too. I hope to be able to do more of suchprojects to widen my general knowledge and at thesame time facilitate my learning journey of Geography
Kah Xuan’s ReflectionsBefore the project, I did not even know what the GreatAfrican Rift Valley was. However, after the researches,since I was in charge of researching on theenvironmental impact I learnt that the formation ofsuch rift valleys can actually have environmentalimpact apart from a changes landform around that are.One important thing I have learnt is that humanactivities play a part in the environmental impactsaround the landform. Such impacts may have bothpositive and negative impact. Positive impacts may bethe increase in agricultural area while negative impactsmay be the inability to sustain sanitation facilitaties
Yu Xiang’s Reflections After doing this project, I learned a lot about The GreatAfrican Rift Valley. From before, when I knew nothingabout Great African Rift Valley before, to now, where Ilearned about how it is formed and what sorts ofimpact it has. I also learned about other stuffs such as,the geographical landforms around The Great AfricanRift Valley. Some of the impacts, such as politicalimpact and social impact, I did not even know thatthere were such impacts caused by this landform thatresulted from the divergence of 2 plates. In conclusion,I learned a lot from this project and I enjoyed thisproject.
Lucas’ ReflectionsBefore the project, I did not know about theGreat African Rift Valley, but now, I understandthat this valley isn’t an ordinary valley, but has agreat significance behind it. Due to the valley andthe landforms surrounding it, people fought overland and resulted in much bloodshed. It neveroccurred to me that the rift valley could haveresulted in the loss of lives in the past. As the riftvalley runs through several cities and countries,no country can actually claim that the GreatAfrican Rift Valley is theirs, causing furtherconflict between countries
Chia Ler’s Reflections I feel that this ACE project is a wonderful way of learningcase studies and gaining new knowledge. This way oflearning is much more interesting than merely reading offnotes given in class as we are more engaged by the hugeamounts of videos and pictures throughout the learningjourney. I have also gained valuable experience through theproject, such as communication skills, researchskills, teamwork and many others. At first I though that thisproject would be a simple task by it turned out to be quitechallenging. This is because a lot of time was spent onsearching for suitable pictures, occurrences andexplanations and explanations and the job was not doneyet. The repackaging of information gathered wasnecessary to make it easier to digest. This was a very timeconsuming and challenging project but I have benefited andenjoyed it greatly, and it was definitely worthwhile doingthis project