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Kelly gaither


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Kelly gaither

  1. 1. Kelly Gaither, Ph.D.Director of VisualizationCONFERENCIA
  2. 2. Visualizing Yesterday, Today andTomorrow: CyberInfrastructure forNext Generation ScienceKelly Gaither, Ph.D.Director of VisualizationSenior Research ScientistTexas Advanced Computing CenterThe University of Texas at Austin
  3. 3. Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC)Powering Discoveries that Change the World• Mission: Enable discoveries that advancescience and society through the application ofadvanced computing technologies• Almost 12 years in the making, TACC hasgrown from a handful of employees to over 120full time staff with ~25 students
  4. 4. TACC Visualization Group• Train the next generation ofscientists to visually analyzedatasets of all sizes.• Provide resources/services tolocal and national usercommunity.• Research and developtools/techniques for the nextgeneration of problems facingthe user community.
  5. 5. TACC Visualization Group• 11 Full Time Staff,• 2 Undergraduate Students, 3 Graduate Student• Areas of Expertise: Scientific and InformationVisualization, Large Scale GPU Clusters, LargeScale Tiled Displays, User Interface Technologies
  6. 6. TACC Visualization Group• Scalable Visualization Technologies– Remote and collaborative visualization– Scalable architectures– Large data visualization• Visualization Interfaces and Applications– Scalable display architectures– Interaction mechanisms for large scale tiled displays– Emerging technologies including wearablecomputing
  7. 7. What is Visualization?• “To Envision information is to work at theintersection of image, word, number, art.”Edward R. Tufte, Envisioning Information• “Visualization is any technique for creating fromdata images, diagrams, or animations tocommunicate a message.”(
  8. 8. Computer Graphics versus Visualization
  9. 9. Computer Graphics versus Visualization
  10. 10. Where Does Technology Fit In?• We have always used technology to createpictures or visualizations of what we see in ourminds eye.• What changes over time is the technology weuse.
  11. 11. Visualization Over the Ages15000 – 10000 BC1137 AD1510StatisticalGraphics1750 - 180018121987The Birth ofScientificVisualization
  12. 12. The Birth of Visualization as a Field of Science• The emphasis on visualization as a field ofscience started in 1987 with a special issue ofComputer Graphics on Visualization inScientific Computing.• “Visualization is a method of computing. It transforms thesymbolic into the geometric, enabling researchers to observetheir simulations and computations. Visualization offers amethod for seeing the unseen. It enriches the process ofscientific discovery and fosters profound and unexpectedinsights. In many fields it is revolutionizing the way scientistsdo science.” Visualization in Scientific Computing, ACM SIGGRAPH 1987
  13. 13. What Was the Catalyst?• It’s no coincidence that the first US NationalScience Foundation funded supercomputingcenters began in 1985.• This began the tightly coupled relationshipbetween high performance computing(HPC), data and visualization.
  14. 14. What are Today’s TransformationalScience Problems?• What is Transformational Science?– In 2007, the US driven Augustine report*provided the recommendation to sustain andstrengthen the nation’s traditional commitmentto long-term basic research that has thepotential to be transformational to maintain theflow of ideas that fuel the economy, providesecurity, and enhance the quality of life.* Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for aBrighter Economic Future, National Academy Press, 2007.
  15. 15. Hurricane Prediction• Forecasters predict the weather using advanced computing technologies.Image: Greg P. Johnson, Romy Schneider, TACC
  16. 16. Vehicle Design• Vehicle designand subsequentcrash testing aresimulated on asupercomputerImage courtesy MississippiState UniversitySimulation and DesignCenter
  17. 17. Emergency Planning and Response• Models generated with advanced computing help plan emergencyresponse to flooding.Images Courtesy Greg P. Johnson, TACC and Gordon Wells, Center for Space Research
  18. 18. Nano-particle Drug Delivery VisualizationBen Urick, Jo Wozniak, Karla Vega, TACC; Erik Zumalt, FIC; Shaolie Hossain, TomHughes, ICES.
  19. 19. What Role is Visualization Playingin Understanding this Science?Why Are Pictures SoPowerful?How Critical is Visualizationto Science?
  20. 20. What Role Does the Human BrainPlay in Successful Visualizations?• “Visualization is so effective and useful because it utilizes oneof the channels to our brain that have the highest bandwidths:our eyes. But even this channel can be used more or lessefficiently.” [Kosara, 2002]
  21. 21. What Role Does the Human BrainPlay in Successful Visualizations?• Our vision encompasses:– seeing color– detecting motion– identifying shapes– gauging distance, speed and size– seeing objects in three dimensions– filling in blind spots– automatically correcting distorted information– erasing extraneous information that cloud our view.• Visual cortex makes up 30% of cerebral cortex (77% by volumeof human brain) Trends in Neurosciences, 18:471-474, 1995• Touch makes up 8% of cerebral cortex• Hearing makes up 3% of cerebral cortexDiscover Magazine, June 1993: “The Vision Thing: Mainly in the Brain”
  22. 22. Using Visualizations for KnowledgeDiscovery• As data scales, it becomes increasinglyapparent that visualization or visual analysisbecomes key to knowledge discovery• Managing this bottleneck requires us tohave an understanding of:– Remote and collaborative visualization (datamanipulation)– High resolution displays (data synthesis)
  23. 23. Longhorn (Remote and CollaborativeVisualization)• 256 Dell Dual Socket, Quad Core Intel NehalemNodes– 240 with 48 GB shared memory/node (6 GB/core)– 16 with 144 GB shared memory/node (18 GB/core)– 73 GB Local Disk– 2 Nvidia GPUs/Node (FX 5800 – 4GB RAM)• ~14.5 TB aggregate memory• QDR InfiniBand Interconnect• Direct Connection to Ranger’s Lustre Parallel FileSystem• 10G Connection to 210 TB Local Lustre Parallel FileSystem• Jobs launched through SGE256 Nodes, 2048 Cores, 512 GPUs, 14.5 TB MemoryKelly Gaither (PI), Valerio Pascucci, Chuck Hansen, DavidEbert, John Clyne (Co-PI), Hank Childs
  24. 24. Longhorn Usage Modalities:• Remote/Interactive Visualization– Highest priority jobs– Remote/Interactive capabilities facilitated through VNC– Run on 3 hour queue limit boundary• GPGPU jobs– Run on a lower priority than the remote/interactive jobs– Run on a 12 hour queue limit boundary• CPU jobs with higher memory requirements– Run on lowest priority when neither remote/interactive nor GPGPUjobs are waiting in the queue– Run on a 12 hour queue limit boundary
  25. 25. Software Available on Longhorn• Programming APIs: OpenGL, vtk (Not natively parallel)– OpenGL – low level primitives, useful for programming at arelatively low level with respect to graphics– VTK (Visualization Toolkit) – open source software system for 3Dcomputer graphics, image processing, and visualization– IDL• Visualization Turnkey Systems– VisIt – free open source parallel visualization and graphicalanalysis tool– ParaView – free open source general purpose parallel visualizationsystem– VAPOR – free flow visualization package developed out of NCAR– EnSight – commercial turnkey parallel visualization packagetargeted at CFD visualization– Amira – commercial turnkey visualization package targeted atvisualizing scanned medical data (CAT scan, MRI, etc..)
  26. 26. Longhorn Visualization
  27. 27. What Was the Enabling Technology?
  28. 28. Commodity Graphics PerformanceImage CourtesyKlausMueller, StonyBrook University
  29. 29. TACC’s Visualization Laboratory (HighResolution Display Environments)• Multi-user space withreserve-able resources• Seamlessenvironments fromlaptops to large-scaledisplays• Provides large pixelcount displays and acollaboration room• Reconfigurable, flexibleenvironment that canbe used in a variety ofways
  30. 30. Stallion• 16x5(15x5) tiled display of Dell 30-inch flat panel monitors• 328M(308M) pixelresolution, 5.12:1(4.7:1) aspectratio• 320(100) processing cores withover 80GB(36GB) of graphicsmemory and 1.2TB(108GB) ofsystem memory• 30 TB shared file system
  31. 31. Bronco• Sony 4K Projector• 8M pixel resolution, 16:9 aspectratio
  32. 32. Collaboration Room (Saddle)• Dell Precision 690 workstation• Dell 5100 DLP projector, 10 ft. x7.5 ft. display
  33. 33. LassoMulti-Touch Tiled Display• 3x2 tiled display(1920x1600) – 12MPixels• PQ Labs multi-touch overlay, 32 point5mm touch precision• 11 mm bezels on the displays
  34. 34. Bringing Discovery to a Lab Environment• Since November 2008, the Vislab has seenover 20,000 people come through the door.• Primary Usage Disciplines –Physics, Astronomy, Geosciences, BiologicalSciences, PetroleumEngineering, ComputationalEngineering, Digital Arts andHumanities, Architecture, Building InformationModeling, Computer Science, Education
  35. 35. TACC Vislab DemographicsVislab resource allocation peractivity typeVislab usage per science discipline
  36. 36. What Was the Enabling Technology?
  37. 37. Commodity Projectors and Displays30” LCD
  38. 38. Vislab Challenges• Complexity – Software, Transferring Materialsto the Displays• Interaction – Mouse/Keyboard, Joystick, GameControllers, Touch, Gesture• Usability – Systems, Software• Environment – Individual Display Architecturesvs Space as a Whole
  39. 39. DisplayCluster• A cross-platform software environment for interactivelydriving tiled displays• Features:– Media display (Images (up to gigapixels in size, movies/ animations– Pixel streaming (Real-time desktop streaming forcollaboration / remote vis)– Scriptable via Python interface– Multi-user interaction (iPhone / iPad / Androiddevices, Joysticks, Kinect (in development))– Implementation(MPI, OpenGL, Qt, FFMPEG, Boost, TUIO, OpenNI, …)• Short demonstration:
  40. 40. Most Pixels Ever: Cluster Edition• Create interactive multimedia and data visualizations that spanmultiple displays, at very high resolutions• Enables extremely high resolution Processing sketches• Licensed and available for download on GitHub:•
  41. 41. Multi-touch Display and Skeletal Tracking• Development of device-agnostic multi-touchprotocols for interaction fromall devices(phone, table, touchscreen, kinect)• Evaluation of multi-touchdevice technologies: opticalinfrared detection, imageprocessing detection• Skeletal tracking for fullbody gesture control
  42. 42. pVis is a wearable visualization computer featuring a cloud-based visualization pipeline.• proof-of-concept for wearable, low-power, richly interactive visualization interfacesPICO-VISSubmitted toSIGGRAPHEmergingTechnologies
  43. 43. Dynamic, Immersive Visualization EnvironmentThrough the Integration of Multiple Spatially AwareVisualization Systems• Motivation:– Think about thespace as awhole, rather than acollection ofindividual displays– Take inspiration fromthe biologicalecosystem
  44. 44. Lessons Learned Over the Past12 Years• Close collaborations with the sciencepartners are key.• Minimize data transfers if possible.• Scale resources effectively based on usecases.• Easy accessibility to and interaction withtechnologies encourages participation fromdiverse communities.
  45. 45. Thoughts for the Future• High performance computing environmentsare becoming high performance scienceenvironments that provide computing andanalytics• We are beginning the work to think about thespace as a whole rather than looking atvisualization laboratories as a collection ofindividual displays• The Vislab of the future will be a space that reactsto users as they enter and will be dynamicallyreconfigurable
  46. 46. Thank YouQuestions?
  47. 47. Thoughts for the Future• High performance computing environmentsare becoming high performance scienceenvironments that provide computing andanalytics• We are beginning the work to think about thespace as a whole rather than looking atvisualization laboratories as a collection ofindividual displays• The Vislab of the future will be a space that reactsto users as they enter and will be dynamicallyreconfigurable
  48. 48. Sample Use Cases – Biological Sciences• Research Motivation:understand the structure of theneuropil in the neocortex tobetter understand neuralprocesses.• People: Chandra Bajaj et. al. UTAustin• Methodology: Use Stallion’s328 Mpixel surface to viewneuropil structure.
  49. 49. Sample Use Cases - Geosciences• Motivation: understand glacierrecession and fracturing of polarice sheets for planning of futureexpeditions in Greenland.• People: Ginny Catania et. al. UTAustin• Methodology: Translate workflowfrom ArcGIS/ENVI to highresolution environments. Usecollaborative real-time explorationof gigapixel-scale satellite imagery.
  50. 50. Sample Use Cases – Architecture/BIM• Motivation: developing new toolsfor building modeling andconstruction using large multi-touch display surfaces• People: Fernanda Leite, LiWang, UT Austin• Methodology: develop new CADinteraction methods using gestureand collaborative multi-touch toincrease productivity inconstruction and engineeringdesign.
  51. 51. Sample Use Cases - Ecology• Motivation: visualize and explore thechanging vegetation and climate ofthe arctic Tundra• People: Craig Tweedie, UT El Paso• Methodology: use advanced tools forhigh-resolution displays (TACC’sMassive Pixel Environment – MPE)for real-time interactive visualizationof point cloud datasets generatedusing plane-based LIDAR.
  52. 52. Sample Use Cases - Humanities• Motivation: use advanced visualizationresources as a tool for the arts andhumanities• People: TACC Vislab, UT Austin DigitalHumanities• Methodology: create software to allow non-trained users the ability to take advantage ofdistributed systems and graphics technology.Develop Massive Pixel Environment(MPE)and DisplayCluster.Faces of MarsText UniverseMoving Pixels
  53. 53. Sample Use Cases – Virtual Worlds• Motivation: digitally reconstructingthe past, and live life throughanother’s eyes• People: Janine Barchas, UT Austin• Methodology: create an immersivemodel of the iconic British art exhibit(The Reynolds Retrospective), whichwas a turning point in the history ofmodern exhibit practices.
  54. 54. • Prototype with 4 pico projectors, front-projected• Uses the Dell M110 1280x800 pico projector• low price / pixel for projection ($400 / MP )• Short throw distance (1-10 ft)• High pixel density• Lightweight (4"x4"x1"), half a pound.• Collaboration with Aditi Majumder at UCIrvine, combining multi-projector edgeblending with TACCs DisplayClustersoftware• Picos are getting cheaper, brighter andhigher-resolutionPICO Wall ProjectAaron Knoll, Aditi Majumder