RECONSIDERING THETROPICSEDUARDO G.NEVESWAC 7, JORDAN, JANUARY 18TH 2013Laboratório de Arqueologia dos TrópicosMuseu de Arq...
FAST FACTS ABOUT THE AMAZON* 6,200,000 km2 of drainage covered by differentkinds of forests,* Discharge of around 18% of t...
Brazilian shieldGuiana shieldAmazon troughAndesSub-andeanforelandPrecambrianPrecambrianTerciary & QuaternaryMioceneThe geo...
LOWER RIO NEGRO,CENTRAL AMAZON
THE LOWER AMAZON AT URUCURITUBA
HIGH BETA DIVERSITY LARGE NUMBER OF SPECIES BYAREA, LOW NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS BYSPECIES BY AREA, LARGE BIODIVERSITY.
HIGH BETA DIVERSITY
CULTURAL AND BIOLOGICA DIVERSITY INTHE AMAZON BASIN• ca. 8.500.000 sq. km (larger than thecontinental US),• Includes 9 dif...
Native language families spoken in westernAmazonia (Eriksen 2011)
Native language families spoken in south-centralAmazonia (Eriksen 2011)
SOUTH AMERICA AS A “LABORATORY”EXCEPT POLYNESIA AND ANTARCTICA, THE LASTCONTINET OCCUPIED BY H. SAPIENS,INITIAL OCCUPATION...
THE “STANDARD MODEL”SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVE ON AMAZIAN INDIANSDEVELOPPED IN THE EARY 1800s THANKS TOTHE INFLUENCE OF VON HU...
E. DA CUNHA’S TRIP TO THE PURUS RIVER(1908)“Nature is magnificent but incomplete. It is anstupenduous construction lacking...
Double moated square geogliph – Purus basin, SWAmazon (photo M. Paiva)
Deforestation wave in Acre state, SW Amazon(photo M. Paiva)
LOCATION OF GEOGLYPH SITES IN THEPURUS BASIN (SCHAAN 2010)
The “standard model” for the cultural history ofancient South America (Rouse 1992)
Caral, monumental architecture at ca. 3,500 BC inthe Central Peruvian Coast (photo E. Neves).
“The Counterfeit Paradise”
TROPICAL FOREST PATTERN: ITINERANT, SLASH-AND-BURN MANIOC FARMING
Archaeological site covered by mature forest,Aripuanã river, southern Amazon(photos Claide Moraes)
CURRENT LOCATION OF INDIGENOUSLANDS IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON(INSITUTO SOCIOAMBIENTAL 2009)
Ceramic sherds on the surface of archaeologicalsites adjacent to the Amazon floodplain(photos M. Castro and E. Neves).
Anori, Solimões river,courtesy Márjorie Lima
Paricatuba, confluence of the Negro and Solimões,photo Maurício de Paiva
Polychrome antropomorph urn,S. Sebastião do Uatumã (courtesy W. C. Oliveira)
GUARITA URNS FROMTHE CENTRAL AMAZON
HISTORICAL ECOLOGY REVALUATION OF EARLY CHRONICLER’S REPORTING,IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES AD,LARGE POPULA...
HOW VISIBLE IS THE FOOTPRINT OFANCIENT AMAZONIANS? BRIEF REVIEW OF CASE STUDIES: 1) DATA FOR EARLY OCCUPATION, 2) DATA ...
LATE PLEISTOCENE/EARLY HOLOCENE SITES INSOUTH AMERICA (DILLEHAY 2008)
PEDRA PINTADA CAVE, LOWER AMAZON, ROCK ARTDATING BACK TO CA. CAL 9,000 BCE (photo E. Neves)
Pedra Pintada Cave, lower Amazonca. 9,200 BCE (Photo E. Neves)
Excavations at Dona Stella Site – CAL 6,500BCE
EARLY POTTERY FROM MONTE CASTELOSHELLMOUND, SOUTHWESTERN AMAZON,PHOTOS BY EURICO T. MILLER
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IDENTIFIED BY THE CENTRALAMAZON PROJECT (1995-2010)
General map of Açutuba site (ca. 900 ha.) (Neves 08)
Hatahara site –early terra preta contexts at 6th century AD (photo Val Moraes)
ANTHROPIC DARK SOILS OR “TERRAS PRETAS”
ARTIFICIAL MOUNDS OF THE CENTRAL AMAZON
DIGITAL TOPOGRAPHY OF LAGUINHO SITESHOWING ARTIFICIAL MOUNDS
CURRENT LAND USES AT LAGUINHO SITE
GUARITA PHASE VESSEL, CENTRAL AMAZON,EARLY SECOND MILLENIUM AD (McEWAN ET AL. 2001)
PRIVATE COLLECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICALARTEFACTS, CENTRAL AMAZON (PHOTO M. PAIVA)
POLYCROME ANTHROPOMORPHIC URN, CENTRAL AMAZON,EARLY SECOND MILLENIUM AD (PHOTO M. PAIVA)
Llanos de Mojos, Bolivian Amazon,maps and pictures by Heiko Prümmers (2007) and Carla Jaimes (2008)
Topographic Map of Loma Salvatierra, BolivianAmazon (Prümmers 2007)
Excavation at Loma Salvatierra, (Prümmers 2007)
Loma Salvatierra, Bolivian Amazon,stratigraphic profile of mound (Jaimes 2008)
Distrubution of ancient settlements connected by roadsin the Upper Xingu, southern Amazon(Heckenberger et al. 2008)
RECONSTITUTION OF “GARDEN CITY” IN THE UPPER XINGÚ(HECKENBERGER 2010)
Areas with archaeological sites and mounds in Marajóisland, mouth of the Amazon (source IPEN)
Artificial mound at Marajó island (Rostain 2010)
STRATIGRAPHIC CUT OF PECAQUARA MOUND,MARAJÓ ISLAND (PHOTO MY M. HECKENBERGER)
Distribution ofmounds in theCamutins area,Marajó island(Schaan 2008)
Hypothetical reconstitution of mound occupation atMarajó island (from National Geographic Brasil)
MARAJÓ ISLAND STATUETTE(NORDENSKIOLD 1930)
EXHIBITION OF MARAJÓ ISLAND URNS(photo E. Neves)
Archaeological sites at the mouth of the Amazon(Cabral & Saldanha 2012)
SAMPLE OF URNS FROM THE NORTH SHORE OF THEMOUTH OF THE AMAZON (Rostain 2010)Por Stephen Rostain
MEGALITHIC STRUCTURES – NORTH SHORE OF THEMOUTH OF THE AMAZON (CABRAL & SALDANHA 2010)
30 metros
Raised fields in the French Guiana Coast (Rostain 2010)
Aerial view of artificial mounds at the French Guianacoast (Rostain 2010)
Raised fields and Mounds in the Kourou section,French Guiana Coast (Rostain 2010)
SUMMING UP:THERE WERE INDEED MANY PEOPLE IN THE AMAZONBEFORE EUROPEAN COLONIZATION,ANCIENT AMAZONIANS HAD DIFFERENT LIFEST...
How have archaeologists conceptualizedagriculture in pre-colonial Amazonia?Ethnographic projection of the “tropicalforest ...
Slash and burn manioc farming, upland highlymobile model (tropical forest pattern)
SO FAR, HOWEVER, THERE ISSURPRISINGLY VERY FEWPALEOBOTHANIC EVIDENCE FORWIDESPREAD CULTIVATION OFMANIOC IN THE AMAZON, ALT...
IN THE SAME WAY,AGRICULTURALSYSTEMS WEREPROBABLY LESSMOBILE IN THEPAST, AT LEASTBECAUSE OF THEUSE OF STONEAXES.
THEREFORE PRE-COLONIAL AGRO-FORESTRY SYSTEMS WERE MOREINTENSE, OPPORTUNISTIC ANDMAYBE STABLE.
PALMS AS PROXIES FOR MANAGEMENT.THE ONLY FULLY DOMESTICATED PALMIN THE AMAZON IS THE PEACH PALM(Bactris gasipaes),SEVERALL...
Eutherpe oleracea grove at the back of house, CentralAmazon (photo E. Neves)
Eutherpe oleracea stand, mouth of the Amazon(photo M. Paiva)
Mauritia fleuxosa stand, upper Amazon,Peru (photo by Nigel Smith)
IIT IS IMPORTANT TO ESTABLISH ADISTINCTION BETWEENDOMESTICATION AND AGRICULTURE,DOMESTICATION IS VERY OLD IN THEAMAZON BUT...
BECAUSE DOMESTICATION IS A CO-EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS (RINDOS 84),MAYBE THERE WERE FEW SELECTIVEPRESSURES FOR AGRICULTURE TO ...
WIDESPREAD, “TRADITIONAL”MANIOC TROPICAL FOREST PATTERNMAY RESULT FROM EUROPEANCOLONIZATION
Soybean expansion frontier in Southern Amazon
SUMMING UP: WHAT LOOK LIKE “TRADITIONALPATTERNS” CAN BE QUITE RECENT, FARMING IS AN IDEOLOGICALIMPOSITION, THE VALUE OF...
“TROPICAL” IS NOT A NATURAL CONCEPTHISTORICALLY IDENTIFIABLE AS WITH THECASE OF TROPICAL DISEASES:MALARIA,YELLOW FEVER,DEN...
PRESSURES ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, THE ENVIRONMENTAND THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE(INSTITUTO SOCIOAMBIENTAL 2009)
SANTO ANTONIO RAPIDS, 2008(PHOTO E. NEVES)
PLACE WHERE SANTO ANTONIO RAPIDS USED TOBE, MADEIRA RIVER, SW AMAZON(PHOTO SANTO ANTONIO ENERGIA)
GOLD MINING POTENTIAL IN THE UPPER TAPAJÓS BASINWHERE 7 HIDROELECTRIC DAMS ARE PLANNEDhttp://lab.org.uk/day-of-terror
 Screen Shot 2013-04-13 at 21.05.58
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica
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Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica

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Apresentação do arqueólogo Eduardo Góes Neves que é professor no Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE) da USP, onde ensina na Graduação e Pós-Graduação, e no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Antropologia Social da Universidade Federal do Amazonas (PPGAS/UFAM).

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Ocupação humana na Amazônia sob a ótica arqueológica

  1. 1. RECONSIDERING THETROPICSEDUARDO G.NEVESWAC 7, JORDAN, JANUARY 18TH 2013Laboratório de Arqueologia dos TrópicosMuseu de Arqueologia e EtnologiaUniversidade de São Paulo
  2. 2. FAST FACTS ABOUT THE AMAZON* 6,200,000 km2 of drainage covered by differentkinds of forests,* Discharge of around 18% of the total flow offresh water to the world oceans,* Average water discharge of more than 200,000m3s-1,* Sedimentary load oscillating between 1 and 2billions of tons per year to 614 Mt year-1 atÓbidos, close to the mouth (Meade, 1994;Filizola and Guyot, 2009).
  3. 3. Brazilian shieldGuiana shieldAmazon troughAndesSub-andeanforelandPrecambrianPrecambrianTerciary & QuaternaryMioceneThe geological setting of the Amazon Basin(earth observtory.nasa.gov)
  4. 4. LOWER RIO NEGRO,CENTRAL AMAZON
  5. 5. THE LOWER AMAZON AT URUCURITUBA
  6. 6. HIGH BETA DIVERSITY LARGE NUMBER OF SPECIES BYAREA, LOW NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS BYSPECIES BY AREA, LARGE BIODIVERSITY.
  7. 7. HIGH BETA DIVERSITY
  8. 8. CULTURAL AND BIOLOGICA DIVERSITY INTHE AMAZON BASIN• ca. 8.500.000 sq. km (larger than thecontinental US),• Includes 9 different countries,• Area of high biodiversity but also of largecultural diversity among indigenouspopulations,• Cultural diversity in the present inferred by thelarge numbers of languages and languagefamilies,• Language diversity emerged in the Holocenewithout any major physical barriers.
  9. 9. Native language families spoken in westernAmazonia (Eriksen 2011)
  10. 10. Native language families spoken in south-centralAmazonia (Eriksen 2011)
  11. 11. SOUTH AMERICA AS A “LABORATORY”EXCEPT POLYNESIA AND ANTARCTICA, THE LASTCONTINET OCCUPIED BY H. SAPIENS,INITIAL OCCUPATION IN THE LATE PLEISTOCENE BYLIKELY BIOLOGICALLY RELATED AND SMALL FOUNDINGGROUPS,RAPID SPREAD AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OFDIFFERENT LIFE STYLES.
  12. 12. THE “STANDARD MODEL”SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVE ON AMAZIAN INDIANSDEVELOPPED IN THE EARY 1800s THANKS TOTHE INFLUENCE OF VON HUMBOLDT ANDOTHER, MOSTLY GERMAN, SCIENTISTS OF THETIME,CONTRAST BETWEEN THE LARGE LANGUAGEDIVERSITY AND “BARBARIAN” LIFE STYLES,F. A. VARNHAGEN (GENERAL HISTORY OFBRAZIL, 1854): “FOR THESE PEOPLE, THERE ISNO HISTORY, ONLY ETHNOGRAPHY”.
  13. 13. E. DA CUNHA’S TRIP TO THE PURUS RIVER(1908)“Nature is magnificent but incomplete. It is anstupenduous construction lacking interiordecoration. One understands well the reasonwhy: the Amazon is maybe the youngest partof the earth ... It has everything and it lackseverything, because it misses such chain ofphenomena developped under a rigorousrythm from which result, clearly, the truths ofart and science.”
  14. 14. Double moated square geogliph – Purus basin, SWAmazon (photo M. Paiva)
  15. 15. Deforestation wave in Acre state, SW Amazon(photo M. Paiva)
  16. 16. LOCATION OF GEOGLYPH SITES IN THEPURUS BASIN (SCHAAN 2010)
  17. 17. The “standard model” for the cultural history ofancient South America (Rouse 1992)
  18. 18. Caral, monumental architecture at ca. 3,500 BC inthe Central Peruvian Coast (photo E. Neves).
  19. 19. “The Counterfeit Paradise”
  20. 20. TROPICAL FOREST PATTERN: ITINERANT, SLASH-AND-BURN MANIOC FARMING
  21. 21. Archaeological site covered by mature forest,Aripuanã river, southern Amazon(photos Claide Moraes)
  22. 22. CURRENT LOCATION OF INDIGENOUSLANDS IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON(INSITUTO SOCIOAMBIENTAL 2009)
  23. 23. Ceramic sherds on the surface of archaeologicalsites adjacent to the Amazon floodplain(photos M. Castro and E. Neves).
  24. 24. Anori, Solimões river,courtesy Márjorie Lima
  25. 25. Paricatuba, confluence of the Negro and Solimões,photo Maurício de Paiva
  26. 26. Polychrome antropomorph urn,S. Sebastião do Uatumã (courtesy W. C. Oliveira)
  27. 27. GUARITA URNS FROMTHE CENTRAL AMAZON
  28. 28. HISTORICAL ECOLOGY REVALUATION OF EARLY CHRONICLER’S REPORTING,IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES AD,LARGE POPULATION AGREGATES ALONG THEAMAZON, PRESENCE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN AREASCURRENT COVERED BY MATURE OR “PRISTINE”FORESTS, AMAZON FOREST WITH A CULTURAL HISTORY ASWELL AS WITH A NATURAL HISTORY.
  29. 29. HOW VISIBLE IS THE FOOTPRINT OFANCIENT AMAZONIANS? BRIEF REVIEW OF CASE STUDIES: 1) DATA FOR EARLY OCCUPATION, 2) DATA FOR EARLY CERAMIC PRODUCTION, 3) FORMATION OF ANTHROPIC SOILS, 4) EXAMPLES FROM THE UPPER AMAZON,CENTRAL AMAZON, SOUTHERN AMAZON,MOUTH OF THE AMAZON AND FRENCHGUIANA.
  30. 30. LATE PLEISTOCENE/EARLY HOLOCENE SITES INSOUTH AMERICA (DILLEHAY 2008)
  31. 31. PEDRA PINTADA CAVE, LOWER AMAZON, ROCK ARTDATING BACK TO CA. CAL 9,000 BCE (photo E. Neves)
  32. 32. Pedra Pintada Cave, lower Amazonca. 9,200 BCE (Photo E. Neves)
  33. 33. Excavations at Dona Stella Site – CAL 6,500BCE
  34. 34. EARLY POTTERY FROM MONTE CASTELOSHELLMOUND, SOUTHWESTERN AMAZON,PHOTOS BY EURICO T. MILLER
  35. 35. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IDENTIFIED BY THE CENTRALAMAZON PROJECT (1995-2010)
  36. 36. General map of Açutuba site (ca. 900 ha.) (Neves 08)
  37. 37. Hatahara site –early terra preta contexts at 6th century AD (photo Val Moraes)
  38. 38. ANTHROPIC DARK SOILS OR “TERRAS PRETAS”
  39. 39. ARTIFICIAL MOUNDS OF THE CENTRAL AMAZON
  40. 40. DIGITAL TOPOGRAPHY OF LAGUINHO SITESHOWING ARTIFICIAL MOUNDS
  41. 41. CURRENT LAND USES AT LAGUINHO SITE
  42. 42. GUARITA PHASE VESSEL, CENTRAL AMAZON,EARLY SECOND MILLENIUM AD (McEWAN ET AL. 2001)
  43. 43. PRIVATE COLLECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICALARTEFACTS, CENTRAL AMAZON (PHOTO M. PAIVA)
  44. 44. POLYCROME ANTHROPOMORPHIC URN, CENTRAL AMAZON,EARLY SECOND MILLENIUM AD (PHOTO M. PAIVA)
  45. 45. Llanos de Mojos, Bolivian Amazon,maps and pictures by Heiko Prümmers (2007) and Carla Jaimes (2008)
  46. 46. Topographic Map of Loma Salvatierra, BolivianAmazon (Prümmers 2007)
  47. 47. Excavation at Loma Salvatierra, (Prümmers 2007)
  48. 48. Loma Salvatierra, Bolivian Amazon,stratigraphic profile of mound (Jaimes 2008)
  49. 49. Distrubution of ancient settlements connected by roadsin the Upper Xingu, southern Amazon(Heckenberger et al. 2008)
  50. 50. RECONSTITUTION OF “GARDEN CITY” IN THE UPPER XINGÚ(HECKENBERGER 2010)
  51. 51. Areas with archaeological sites and mounds in Marajóisland, mouth of the Amazon (source IPEN)
  52. 52. Artificial mound at Marajó island (Rostain 2010)
  53. 53. STRATIGRAPHIC CUT OF PECAQUARA MOUND,MARAJÓ ISLAND (PHOTO MY M. HECKENBERGER)
  54. 54. Distribution ofmounds in theCamutins area,Marajó island(Schaan 2008)
  55. 55. Hypothetical reconstitution of mound occupation atMarajó island (from National Geographic Brasil)
  56. 56. MARAJÓ ISLAND STATUETTE(NORDENSKIOLD 1930)
  57. 57. EXHIBITION OF MARAJÓ ISLAND URNS(photo E. Neves)
  58. 58. Archaeological sites at the mouth of the Amazon(Cabral & Saldanha 2012)
  59. 59. SAMPLE OF URNS FROM THE NORTH SHORE OF THEMOUTH OF THE AMAZON (Rostain 2010)Por Stephen Rostain
  60. 60. MEGALITHIC STRUCTURES – NORTH SHORE OF THEMOUTH OF THE AMAZON (CABRAL & SALDANHA 2010)
  61. 61. 30 metros
  62. 62. Raised fields in the French Guiana Coast (Rostain 2010)
  63. 63. Aerial view of artificial mounds at the French Guianacoast (Rostain 2010)
  64. 64. Raised fields and Mounds in the Kourou section,French Guiana Coast (Rostain 2010)
  65. 65. SUMMING UP:THERE WERE INDEED MANY PEOPLE IN THE AMAZONBEFORE EUROPEAN COLONIZATION,ANCIENT AMAZONIANS HAD DIFFERENT LIFESTYLES(CULTURAL DIVERSITY), AND CREATED CULTURALLANDSCAPES,DESPITE “MONUMENTAL EVIDENCE, THERE WERE NOSTATE-LIKE FORMATIONS,AMAZONIAN ARCHAEOLOGY CAN MAKE AN IMPORTANTTHEORETICAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE DISCIPLINE.
  66. 66. How have archaeologists conceptualizedagriculture in pre-colonial Amazonia?Ethnographic projection of the “tropicalforest pattern” into the past,Projection of a “mississipian-inspired”model of intensification and corn-cultivationin floodplains.
  67. 67. Slash and burn manioc farming, upland highlymobile model (tropical forest pattern)
  68. 68. SO FAR, HOWEVER, THERE ISSURPRISINGLY VERY FEWPALEOBOTHANIC EVIDENCE FORWIDESPREAD CULTIVATION OFMANIOC IN THE AMAZON, ALTHOUGHIT WAS ALREADY MANAGED IN THERIO PORCE AREA OF COLOMBIA BYCA. 6.000 BC.
  69. 69. IN THE SAME WAY,AGRICULTURALSYSTEMS WEREPROBABLY LESSMOBILE IN THEPAST, AT LEASTBECAUSE OF THEUSE OF STONEAXES.
  70. 70. THEREFORE PRE-COLONIAL AGRO-FORESTRY SYSTEMS WERE MOREINTENSE, OPPORTUNISTIC ANDMAYBE STABLE.
  71. 71. PALMS AS PROXIES FOR MANAGEMENT.THE ONLY FULLY DOMESTICATED PALMIN THE AMAZON IS THE PEACH PALM(Bactris gasipaes),SEVERALL OTHER PALMS AREECONOMICALLY AND CULTURALLYIMPORTANT BUT NOT DOMESTICATED.
  72. 72. Eutherpe oleracea grove at the back of house, CentralAmazon (photo E. Neves)
  73. 73. Eutherpe oleracea stand, mouth of the Amazon(photo M. Paiva)
  74. 74. Mauritia fleuxosa stand, upper Amazon,Peru (photo by Nigel Smith)
  75. 75. IIT IS IMPORTANT TO ESTABLISH ADISTINCTION BETWEENDOMESTICATION AND AGRICULTURE,DOMESTICATION IS VERY OLD IN THEAMAZON BUT IT IS A PROCESS THATDOES NOT NECESSARILY LEADS TOAGRICULTURE.
  76. 76. BECAUSE DOMESTICATION IS A CO-EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS (RINDOS 84),MAYBE THERE WERE FEW SELECTIVEPRESSURES FOR AGRICULTURE TO EMERGE,TIME TO ABANDON THE WORD “INCIPIENT”,RESOURCES WERE ABUNDANT AND WIDELYDISTRIBUTED.
  77. 77. WIDESPREAD, “TRADITIONAL”MANIOC TROPICAL FOREST PATTERNMAY RESULT FROM EUROPEANCOLONIZATION
  78. 78. Soybean expansion frontier in Southern Amazon
  79. 79. SUMMING UP: WHAT LOOK LIKE “TRADITIONALPATTERNS” CAN BE QUITE RECENT, FARMING IS AN IDEOLOGICALIMPOSITION, THE VALUE OF BEING “LAZY”.
  80. 80. “TROPICAL” IS NOT A NATURAL CONCEPTHISTORICALLY IDENTIFIABLE AS WITH THECASE OF TROPICAL DISEASES:MALARIA,YELLOW FEVER,DENGUE,MAYBE AIDS IN THE FUTURE.
  81. 81. PRESSURES ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, THE ENVIRONMENTAND THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE(INSTITUTO SOCIOAMBIENTAL 2009)
  82. 82. SANTO ANTONIO RAPIDS, 2008(PHOTO E. NEVES)
  83. 83. PLACE WHERE SANTO ANTONIO RAPIDS USED TOBE, MADEIRA RIVER, SW AMAZON(PHOTO SANTO ANTONIO ENERGIA)
  84. 84. GOLD MINING POTENTIAL IN THE UPPER TAPAJÓS BASINWHERE 7 HIDROELECTRIC DAMS ARE PLANNEDhttp://lab.org.uk/day-of-terror
  85. 85.  Screen Shot 2013-04-13 at 21.05.58

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