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Child Protection Communities of Practice


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Scottish Child Protection policy – 'It’s Everybody’s Job to See I’m All Right’ - says that we all have something that we can contribute. Traditionally, the call used to be for ‘experts’ to resolve or avoid the systemic problems and critical incidents that continue to afflict child protection and welfare. Latterly, thinking has begun to develop that suggests that we all have some experience that others might find useful. This complementary approach is underpinned by the widely-known ‘Community of Practice’ concept.

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Child Protection Communities of Practice

  1. 1. A Scottish Community of Practice for Child Protection Peter Ashe and Bridget Rothwell at the Scottish Learning Festival September 2007 © Crown Copyright
  2. 2. Some assumptions? Houston Community Nursery • Have an active role re CP at your SFEU institution? Great Western Pre- School • Perhaps asked to get a handle on SWIIS Foster Care Scotland how your institution ‘proofs’ its Argyll training policy and practice re CP? Kinnoull Primary School • Know about ‘Safe and Well’? The Founders Education Society Carleton Nursery Dundee City Council Social Work Department Dundee Science Centre Museum of Lead Mining Ruchill Primary School PGDE @ University of Glasgow John Wheatley College © Crown Copyright
  3. 3. Today’s Agenda • Background (well, OK, history) • ‘Safe and Well’ • A modest Prospectus – Evidence-base for practice – Training and support – Networks and support Our Learning Intentions! • For you: interest you enough to consider joining in; • For us: acquire some guidance on who to talk to next. © Crown Copyright
  4. 4. It’s everyone’s job… (2000) © Crown Copyright
  5. 5. Key Findings of ‘It’s everyone’s job’ • Child protection a ‘low priority’ • Lack of accountability right through the organisations to the most senior level • Under-funding and under-staffing • Repeated failures of basic professional practice © Crown Copyright
  6. 6. The Child Protection Reform Programme (CPRP) Summary history © Crown Copyright
  7. 7. Today’s CPRP Context Role implications for – School CP co-ordinator? – Head Teacher & managers? – Whole school staff? – Child Protection in Education Manager (CPEM)? © Crown Copyright
  8. 8. School CP Co-ordinator © Crown Copyright
  9. 9. “The qualities required of the CP Co-ordinator are: • Accessibility and readiness to listen • Empathy with children and young people • Clear thinking and ability to be objective • Good record keeping and report writing skills • Prepared to seek advice and draw on others’ experience • Familiar with the roles of other professionals who work with children and young people and who are concerned with child protection • Determination” © Crown Copyright
  10. 10. Some role implications E.g. “Information: • Help all staff to maintain an awareness of child protection issues and to know when and how to refer to the CP Co-ordinator • Ensure school-based information on care and welfare and child protection issues is up to date and easy to find • Provide advice”…re CP © Crown Copyright
  11. 11. Head Teacher and Senior Managers © Crown Copyright
  12. 12. Expectations include… “Policies and development planning: • …Undertake strategic development of relationships with partner agencies in order to reach compatible policies and procedures on care and welfare and child protection • Ensure that contracts with service providers and other services used by the school reflect appropriate consideration of care and welfare and child protection”… © Crown Copyright
  13. 13. More expectations… “Staff preparation and support: • Ensure training for all staff on child protection is given appropriate priority • Ensure recruitment and induction procedures give due regard to child protection • Ensure support and de-briefing for staff involved in child protection cases” © Crown Copyright
  14. 14. Whole school team © Crown Copyright
  15. 15. “Every school should ensure that all staff are: • aware of their role in helping to keep children and young people safe • and well trained in seeing signs that children and young people need support, are at risk, are suffering neglect or being abused • understand their responsibility to explain to children and young people that they must pass on information when they believe children and young people are at risk of harm • know who to contact when they have concerns or hear allegations • feel supported to contribute to the school’s role in taking action or supporting children and young people following identification of concerns • helped to ensure their work is properly carried out in ways that prevent harm to children and young people and maintain the safety and wellbeing of all involved” [and] Key staff providing personal support for children and young people • feel confident to ask for help themselves, to ensure capacity for supporting children and young people when required © Crown Copyright
  16. 16. CP in Education Manager (CPEM) © Crown Copyright
  17. 17. Expectations include: • E.g. Support and advice – guide and advise staff and school CP Co-ordinators on aspects of their day-to-day work in which care and welfare and child protection issues need to be considered – have the capacity to discuss in detail with staff in schools and services any complex concerns which require consideration and senior involvement • E.g. Staff development – staff in key roles for child protection and personal support are enabled to network and share good practice – staff in key roles in child protection and personal support are enabled to learn from practice in Scotland and other countries – education authority staff have opportunities for multi- agency training and networking © Crown Copyright
  18. 18. Potential for shared language Possible kinds of abuse & neglect: Vulnerabilities & signs: – Physical injury caused by others – Domestic abuse – Physically punished by blows to the head, shaken, or – Drugs punished using an implement – Sexual abuse or organised abuse such as prostitution or – Alcohol ritual abuse – Mental illness – Failure to thrive, even though they have no specific medical – Difficult and non cooperative parents/carers condition – Cultural/ethnicity – Emotional abuse – Physical neglect – Disability - i.e. learning difficulties and complex needs and – Physical or emotional abuse such as a parent/carer physical pretending the child or young person has a medical or other – Neglect condition or causing the child or young person to have one – Faltering growth (a.k.a. failure to thrive) – Being emotionally or physically affected by parental drug or alcohol abuse – Sexual abuse – Racial abuse – Peer abusing/sibling abuse – Forced to accept cultural practices such as circumcision or – Learning disabled parents forced marriage – Fabricated or Induced Illness. (FII) (previously Factitious or When children’s and young people’s own behaviour puts Induced Illness) them at risk, or when their behaviour may be a response to – Poor parenting capacity and association with outcomes for the trauma of abuse or neglect, children – inappropriate use of computers – Young carers – ill-judged relationships – inappropriate social behaviour such as bullying – Emotional abuse – misuse of drugs or alcohol – Cases where things have gone wrong – sexually explicit language or behaviour – Over chastisement – eating disorders – self-harming – Internet related abuse – running away © Crown Copyright
  19. 19. Sometimes, conversations need to develop… …and cross boundaries © Crown Copyright
  20. 20. Good things beginning to happen • CPCs development, a national network – Lead officers – Training leads • Joint Inspections • Safe and Well guidance beginning to percolate into educational settings • Serious Case Review guidance & practice • SCCPN start-up • Training Framework start-up © Crown Copyright
  21. 21. Prospectus for Practice Network Support Multi- Agency Resource Scottish Child Service Care and Protection National Network Training Framework © Crown Copyright
  22. 22. Scottish Child Care and Protection Network (SCCPN) Objectives: • disseminate policy and practice messages from existing national and international evidence • facilitate a coordinated approach to the evaluation of practice and policy developments • establish research partnerships to undertake new research to an international standard. Identification of research priorities RESEARCH Coordination of research Research utilisation Harmonisation of methodology NETWORK HUB EVALUATION Coordination across Scotland Coordination of outcome measures Collation of literature DISSEMINATION Application to Scottish Context Dissemination of practice messages © Crown Copyright
  23. 23. Half a sec, how to view knowledge and learning? • Knowledge as: – Assets • Chunked down into constituent parts – But also relationships (Communities of Practice) • Sources as well as recipients of knowledge • Learning: – The value of stories – The stickiness of messages Cross, J. (2007) © Crown Copyright
  24. 24. Model for working collaboratively Knowledge creation Knowledge Researchers dissemination & Knowledge and diffusion Practitioners validation Knowledge adoption © Crown Copyright
  25. 25. National Training Strategy Original Remit for CPSTG (child protection strategic training group) – Delivery of a multidisciplinary training framework – building on the work already developed by the SWSI (Social Work Services Inspectorate) Child Protection Training Group – Develop a national inter-disciplinary suite of training materials on child protection to underpin this [And later – Rec 27 Western Isles report – multi agency national resource] © Crown Copyright
  26. 26. Training Framework overall structure Levels Rich Case examples Specialist 4 & advanced Investigation & assessment Prevention & 3 recovery Foundation 2 Awareness Raising 1 © Crown Copyright
  27. 27. Topics within Level 1 © Crown Copyright
  28. 28. First, make contact with the initial Community • First, get them (local Show & tell sessions trainers) together – Perth workshops • “Just bring a little bit (not • Broach the idea the Whole Thing) that – Explain the basic concepts you’re happy to talk – A wee bit on re-usable about” (i.e. widgets) learning • Checklist: “…make sure – Show & tell sessions to mention…” • (‘bring & buy’) - used a simple checklist to help • Give people time to talk trainers describe a session they’d be happy to share • Show & tell • Exchange resources and contacts © Crown Copyright
  29. 29. Next, widgetise things • Why? To lower the bar to entry (facilitate sharing) • All sorts of training exercises – Also vignettes and case studies – Handouts – Etc. • Needed to make implicit explicit – Describe the material • Where it sat within the curriculum • What needed to go before it & what could come after • What it might link with – Provide the session content – Brief the potential re-user • What you need to bring on the day, etc. © Crown Copyright
  30. 30. Then, publish & share © Crown Copyright
  31. 31. Materials and new approaches Café Conversations about Child Protection: – People bring their experience with them, and share it – Democratic, LA-wide process – right across departments and staff-groups – Can involve up to around 100 a time (but does need a lot of table hosts for this scale) – Further materials: • The Shared Space materials • A conversation about Café Conversations © Crown Copyright
  32. 32. What next for the Training Framework 2007/08 Intentions: • Publish more materials • Network contact and development – Operational networks (CPC training leads etc.) – Strategic/structural networks (VSWDG etc.) • Rehearsal for admin. support for training strategy resource (within Shared Space) • Proposal for the way ahead 2008-09 © Crown Copyright
  33. 33. On reflection re network context: policy view? NB. Ste reot Spoke – the grateful recipient y pe w arni ng Hub – the fount of Knowledge Spoke – the grateful recipient Spoke – the grateful recipient © Crown Copyright
  34. 34. Rather smugly, we thought it would be like this Overlapping, shared memberships © Crown Copyright
  35. 35. …in fact it’s probably more like this © Crown Copyright
  36. 36. The Western Isles Report • Tells the story of three children and their neglect and abuse over a period of many years • Between 1990 and 2000 professionals recorded 220 health concerns, and allegations or incidents of sexual physical and emotional abuse and neglect • In this inspection we found that information was shared but was not acted upon. • The overwhelming emphasis was on helping the parents…..(who were) unable to change sufficiently within timescales important to the child (and) decisions needed to be made to separate them from their children © Crown Copyright
  37. 37. Rec 27, multi-agency National resource and a networked approach to CP practice The Scottish Executive should establish a multi-agency national resource for those working with complex child protection issues. This should offer consultancy and co- working for staff in relevant agencies. It should set up a managed care network, based on the model of managed clinical networks, and establish a register of recognised experts who could be called upon if required. It should set up a database of relevant research and contribute expertise to qualifying training and continued professional development for staff working in relevant agencies. The Scottish Executive should, in conjunction with this resource, develop a national register of staff suitably qualified in joint investigative interviewing © Crown Copyright
  38. 38. Rec 27, multi-agency National resource and a networked approach to CP practice The Scottish Executive should establish a multi-agency national resource for those working with complex child protection issues. This should offer consultancy and co- working for staff in relevant agencies. It should set up a managed care network, based on the model of managed clinical networks, and establish a register of recognised experts who could be called upon if required. It should set up a database of relevant research and contribute expertise to qualifying training and continued professional development for staff working in relevant agencies. The Scottish Executive should, in conjunction with this resource, develop a national register of staff suitably qualified in joint investigative interviewing © Crown Copyright
  39. 39. Rec27 and the Business Need Requirement summary Activity in CP Dealt with? • Facilitated sharing of expertise Ad hoc, CPCs? Jt Inspections More to do skills experience and knowledge (sharing to extend as far as consultancy and co- working). These to be arranged/ supported by Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs) • Relevant research evaluation & SCCPN Softer aspects of KT? dissemination • development & maintenance of the National Strategy More to do, especially in terms of use national suite of training materials • contribution of expertise to No No? qualifying training & CPD • registers of staff suitably qualified No No? in specific skills e.g. JIIs • reduced duplication in the e.g. stance of CPC Working Groups Could do with help development of procedures etc. © Crown Copyright
  40. 40. Experts - Experience • No-one wants to be ‘an expert’ – Modesty – Dangerous position to be in • What about ‘expertise’? – Still risky – Anyway, “who says you are?” • We all know something that someone else might find useful… …If they ask nicely © Crown Copyright
  41. 41. (Usual) ‘interest’ = “I’ll take” (our) ‘experience’ = “I could offer…if you asked” © Crown Copyright
  42. 42. ‘soft infrastructure’ for consultancy and co-working Draft Model Structure for a CP C&CW Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Constituent parts: Some form of identification of the context e.g. investigation; case work; debriefing of a practitioner; informal second opinion; twinned team; etc. etc. This would probably be expanded upon within the ‘brief’ set out in section 4 below. Identification of roles (or characteristics) of both parties (provider and recipient of C&CW): – e.g. a provider - ‘Expert Advisor’ (EA), and a recipient - ‘Senior Investigating Officer’(SIO) (might equally be the ‘Caseholder’, or ‘Lead Professional’(LP)) – Also, the outline role of the Expert Advisor. – What the outer limits of the roles are, and/or what roles are co-adjacent. – e.g. an Expert Advisor is not the same as an ‘Expert Witness’ (EW) (although an EA may become or translate into an EW at some point in the process) – What would ‘accredit’ someone to hold a given role: – e.g. an up to date and accurate CV, giving adequate coverage of relevant expertise – or the fact of being formally allocated the case responsibility, etc. The responsibilities of both parties: – e.g. a list of the EA’s responsibilities, or the LP’s responsibilities Also the obligations of both parties: – e.g. the EA should enable the LP’s organisation to meet their disclosure obligations. Some form of Terms of Reference: – standard lists of headings. – different levels of detail under any given heading, appropriate to the nature of the C&CW episode envisaged/underway. Some form of ‘contractual agreement’: – the formality, legal enforceability, and detail of this should be appropriate to the nature of the C&CW episode envisaged/underway. – Some standard headings would be used, though. – Logistical aspects like recording, communication between the parties, escalation thresholds for any issues that can be predicted (known unknowns rather than unknown unknowns) etc. QA, monitoring. Should we seek some form of alert and/or reporting to relevant QA arrangements that the C&CW is underway? Other Aspects: – There will be bound to be some. © Crown Copyright
  43. 43. How it might work (a.k.a. science fiction) Expertise? Everyone has some experience…which someone else could find useful © Crown Copyright
  44. 44. Power laws and information spread on networks 94 67 63 54 Child Protection Committee Chairs • CPCCs Task Group on Consultation & Involvement • CPCCs Task Group on Public Information • CPCCs Task Group on Self Evaluation 6 and Inspection 2 Joint Investigative Interviewing Clinic 1 RLO Production Team Safe Care Forum SCCPN Adamic, Lukose, Puniyani, Huberman, PRE 2001 West of Scotland CPCs Network • WoS CPC Trainers West of Scotland MCN for Child Protection © Crown Copyright
  45. 45. Joining in? © Crown Copyright
  46. 46. Fin… © Crown Copyright
  47. 47. Year 1 (2003/2004) • Produced Children’s Charter – Children should get the help they need when they need it. • Produced Framework for Standards • Reviewed the roles of Child Protection Committees and agreed a new model • Agreed the development of a joint inspection programme by a new unit within HMIE – The Services for Children Unit © Crown Copyright
  48. 48. Year 1 (2003/2004) • Letters of Assurance (1) • Implementation of the Protection of Children (Scotland) Act 2003 • Disqualified from Working With Children List © Crown Copyright
  49. 49. Year 2 (2004/2005) • Raising Public Awareness Information leaflet What to do if you are worried about a child Media Campaign in Grampian Pilot 24 hour child protection telephone line Internet Safety Campaigns © Crown Copyright
  50. 50. Year 2 (2004/2005) • Further work on embedding the Framework and Charter • Child Protection Committee Guidance © Crown Copyright
  51. 51. Year 3 (2005/2006) • Significant Incident Review Guidance – – Letters of Assurance (2) • Child Protection Strategic Training Group • Review/evaluation of Programme © Crown Copyright