Autism DefinedLooking into what autism truly is according toIDEA
ObjectivesRWBAT:• Define Autism Spectrum Disorder and its sub-categories including: Asperger Disorder, Autistic Disorder and Pervasive Development Disorder• Identify the major characteristics associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder• Explain how professionals identify and diagnose Autistic Disorder, Asperger Disorder, and PPD- NOS• Summarize the various educational supports that special education teachers employ to help children on the Autism spectrum academically, behaviorally, and socially• Apply teaching strategies to meet the specific educational needs of a student with Autism.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)• (i) Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a childs educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.• (ii) Autism does not apply if a childs educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in paragraph (c)(4) of this section• (iii) A child who manifests the characteristics of autism after age three could be identified as having autism if the criteria in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section are satisfied. (idea.ed.gov)• 1990-when autism was added to IDEA as a specific disability
Terms, Usage, Acronyms• Autism-term used by IDEA and state issued special education laws• Autism spectrum Disorder-term used by the textbook to reveal the variations of this disorder by indicating that there are multiple forms of itClassified Type:• Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)-children are „characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development‟ (300): -reciprocal social interaction skills -communication skills -presence of repetitive, stereotyped behavior -interests and activitiesReferenced by the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders (DSM-IV-TR)
ASD-acronym of used by field professionals1) Autistic Disorder-individuals who have communication andsocial impairments, as well as repetitive, stereotypic, and limitedinterests and activities before three years of age; coupled with amild or serious intellectual disorder2) Asperger Syndrome-included in autism spectrum disorders;deficiency in social interaction; children speak with fluency by agefive, but may have abnormal language with the unorthodox mixingof pronoun usage3) Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified(PDD-NOS)-subcategory of PDD; recognized as atypical autism;severe impairment in social reciprocation association in verbal ornonverbal communication skills with stereotyped behavior, but isnot quite identified as PDD (i.e. child not experiencingcharacteristics of ASD until grade school age)
Difference Between Autism and Asperger‟s Syndromehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UCuk_NQMwOM
Characteristics of AutismAccording to the DSM-IV-TR, the characteristics associated with AutismSpectrum Disorders can broadly be categorized by an:• Impairment in social interactions• Impairment in communication• Restricted or stereotyped patterns of behaviors, interests and activitiesThe “spectrum”• There are many differences among individuals on the Autism Spectrum. Each individual has a different combination of characteristics that fall under the categories listed above. It is the combination of characteristics and the degree to which these characteristics affect learning and functional living that determine the individual‟s placement on the Autism Spectrum. (American Psychiatric Association, 2001)
Characteristics of AutismSocial Interaction• May have poor or atypical eye contact• May fail to respond or have a delayed response to his or her name• May not seem aware of others‟ feelings• May not like to be held or cuddled• May prefer to play alone• May appear naiveCommunication• Atypical language development• May lose previously acquired ability to say words or sentences (over-reliance on rote memory)• May lack voice tone or inflection (monotone- prosody)• May repeat or echo words or phrases said to them, or repeat words or phrases in place of normal language (echolalia)• May have difficulty starting or maintaining conversations (communicative intent)• May have difficulty understanding and responding to gestures• Difficulty knowing the acceptable distance to maintain between people during conversation (proxemics)Behavior• May engage in repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand flapping (self-stimulatory behaviors)• Self-injurious behaviors (e.g. biting, head banging)• May have difficulty transferring information to new setting, individuals and conditions (generalization difficulties)• May prefer specific routines, orders or rituals• May “over react” or “not be affected” by the way things smell, taste, look, feel or sound (sensory issues)• May be fascinated by parts of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a car, rather than playing with the “whole” car• May have a persistent intense preoccupation with a single item, idea or person (Burrell Autism Center, 2011) (Friend, 2011)
Cognitive/Academic Characteristics• Important to consider in terms of how students with Autism process informationOverreliance on rote memory • Memorization based on superficial knowledge as opposed to understanding • Impaired memory retrieval.- Students can memorize large chunks of information, but will have difficulty accessing it without specific prompting • Example: DevonProblems with theory of the mind • Difficulty understanding that others have their own thoughts, feelings and perspectives • Lack of social or emotional reciprocity • May appear to lack empathy • Example: RobertProblem-solving challenges • Difficulty applying problem-solving strategies to novel situations or circumstances • May prefer specific routines, orders or rituals • Difficulty with abstract concepts • Advanced vocabulary and the ability to articulate a problem-solving strategy may mask skill level. • Example: GenevaMotivation • Generally interested in only a small number of activities and rewards • Preferences can change rapidly and often without warning (Friend, 2011)
Characteristics along the spectrumAutistic Disorder • Two of the defined impairments in social interaction • One of the defined impairments in communication • One of the defined restricted patterns of behaviors, interests and activities • Delays or abnormal functioning be observed prior to the age of 3 years, in at least one of the following areas: (1) social interaction, (2) language as used in social communication, or (3) symbolic or imaginative play. • The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett‟s Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.Asperger’s Disorder• Two of the defined impairments in social interaction• One of the defined restricted patterns of behaviors, interests and activities The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.• No clinically significant delay in language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).• No clinically significant delay in cognitive functioning (other than social interaction)• Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or Schizophrenia.Pervasive Developmental Disorder- Not Otherwise Specified• One of the defined impairments in social interaction, communication OR restrictive patterns of behaviors, interests and activities• Criteria are not met for a specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder (e.g. Rett‟s Disorder andChildhood Disintegrative Disorder) Schizophrenia or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.
ReferencesAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2000). Pervasive developmental disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Fourth edition---text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 69-70.Burrell Autism Center.(2011). What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders? Retrieved from: http://www.burrellautismcenter.com/resources/whatisautism.aspxFriend, M. P. (2011). Special education: Contemporary perspectives for school professionals (3rd Edition). New Jersey: Pearson.