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  1. 1. Why is Homework a Dirty Word?<br />Lauren Nourse <br />Graduate School of Education & Health Science , Touro University – California<br />Introduction<br />The necessity of homework is a hotly debated topic. <br />Some teachers firmly believe in the value of homework. Others do not. <br />Some research supported the idea that homework reinforces and helps to cement curriculum introduced in the classroom (Cooper, Robinson, and Patall 2006.)Other research suggested that that students are overwhelmed with too many hours of homework and that most homework is a waste of time and leads to major stress within families (Kravlovec & Buell, 2000, 2003 and Kohn, 2006).<br />In an effort to combine the needs of the teacher to have students do some work at home to keep the classroom curriculum moving forward, and the desire of the student to be using some form of technology for most of their after school hours, the research set out to investigate the possibility of adapting routine weekly science homework to the web.<br />Traditional?? OR The New Bandwagon??<br />?<br />Paper and Pencil OR Computer<br />Conclusion<br />Research supports the notion of homework for a variety of reasons: integrates separately learned skills and concepts, dispels the notion that learning occurs only in school, supplement in-school academic activities, reinforces school learning, promotes greater self direction and self discipline, and more (Bempechet, 2004 and Hong et al., 2007). <br />Yet students are finding more justifications for not completing this work. Can using computers and the internet bring these Digital Natives to regain an interest in completing their homework? <br />In spite of the huge growth in access to the internet through home computers and hand-held devices, this research indicates that students at this middle school are not ready to embrace the technology for routine school use.Homework continues to remain “ a dirty word.”<br />Analysis<br />Analysis of the results of the Chapter 1 versus Chapter 2 research showed a deterioration of homework turn in rates when an on-line option was offered to the students. Additionally, student scores on the final exam for the research period (Chapter 2) were lower than for the pre-research period (Chapter 1). <br />The data indicate that the homework turn in rates were not increased when students were offered option for methods of completion. <br />However, those that chose to use the online component for homework completion had a higher rate of homework turn-in (88% compared to 77%) and averaged higher test scores (70.7% compared to 59.8%). Homework’s effect on achievement proved negligible. Overall, student scores on the Chapter 2 final compared to their Chapter 1 final decreased from an average grade of 78 % to 63 %. This differential was consistent for those that opted to complete their homework online <br />Since those who turned in homework online had higher completion rates than those using paper and pencil and also scored higher on the chapter final exam, there is indication that completing homework online did lead to improved test scores. <br />Diagnosing<br />Students do not complete homework assignments<br />Action Plan<br />Students need to be given optional methods to turn in completed homework<br />5 Phases of Research Plan<br />Specific Learning<br />Results?<br />Results show that the method for doing homework had no impact on student’s desire to do the homework.<br />Taking Action<br />An on-line alternate will be offered to allow students to complete and submit homework on-line<br />Evaluating<br />Did providing an option to traditional pen- and paper homework improve homework turn in rates?<br />Results<br />LiteratureCited<br />Bednnett, S, & Kalish, N. (2006). The Case against homework: how homework is hurting our children and what can we do about it. New York: Crown Publishers.<br />Bempechat, J. (2004). The Motivational benefits of homework: a social-cognitive perspective. Theory into Practice, 43(3), 189-196.<br />Bonham, S, Deardorff, D, & Beichner, R. (2003). A Comparison of student performance using web and paper-based homework in college-level physics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(10), 1050-1071.<br />Cooper, H, Robinson, J, & Patall, E. (2006). Does Homework improve academic achievement? a synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62.<br />Kohn, A. (2006). The Homework myth; why our kids get too much of a bad thing. Philadelphia, PA: De Capo Press.<br />Kralovec, E. & Buell, J. (2000). The end of homework: How homework disrupts families,<br />overburdens children, and limits learning. Boston: Beacon Press<br />Marzano, R, & Pickering , D. (2007). The Case for and against homework. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 74-79.<br />Mendicino, M, Razzaq, L, & Heffernan, N. (2009). A Comparison of traditional homework to computer-supported homework. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(3), 331-358 <br />Simplicio, J.S.C. (2005). Homework in the 21st century: The antiquated and ineffectual implementation of a time honored educational strategy. Education. 126(1), 138-142<br />Analysis of data shows that whole class homework completion rates unexpectedly decreased over the period of the study.<br />Materials and Methods<br />Step 1: Investigate homework turn in rates prior to start of treatment (Chapter 1)<br />Step 2: Analyze test scores for unit preceding treatment (Chapter 1)<br />Step 3: Administer student study preference survey<br />Step 4: Get student commitment on method of completing homework<br />Step 5: Evaluate homework turn in rates during course of treatment (Chapter 2)<br />Step 6: Analyze test scores for unit post treatment (Chapter 2)<br />Step 7: Compare turn in rates and test scores of students who turned in homework online and those who chose the familiar paper and pencil format. <br />The chart below compares student compliance between the two focus chapters. <br />Acknowledgments<br />This researcher would like to thank professor Pamela Redmond for her patience and support. I would also like to thank my fellow cohort members for their grace and humor throughout the project. In addition, completion would not have occurred without the tremendous support of my family, Dan, Marilyn and Elaine. <br />Even though the results of the study do not support the hypothesis that the opportunity to complete homework online would increase student homework completion rates, 72 % of respondents indicated that they would do homework more often and more completely if they could complete and turn it in online. Offering options for school work that include digital technologies may help to bridge the gap between the Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants. Using online homework was a comfortable first step for both teachers and students. <br />Forfurtherinformation<br />For more information please contact <br /><br />