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  • In preparation for this presentation, I kept getting sidetracked by political issues. It is hard to give this presentation without discussing politics. Will try to stick to education changes as much as possible and I must state that It is not my intent to denigrate anyone’s country or approach to education.Ever since I was first a member of AIAEE, I noticed that educators working with Indigenous people around the world were all experiencing similar issues in their education projects. Outside influences: National, Regional, Local Politics Demands/Expectations from University for promotion/tenure or annual evaluationLocal Influences Indigenous Community Government Trust issues – Were the wants, needs, wishes of the indigenous population ever considered when planning, developing or implementing educational program? Overlook culture, traditional knowledge Due to ignorance – i.e. well meaning, but misdirected projectMissions, individual educator with a desire to help a community, but too steeped in their own culture (most often Eurocentric culture) to value what already exists. Due to political/social agenda – Intentional denigration or obliteration of culture and value of traditional knowledgeEducators part of a plan to completely change a culture to emulate theirs or otherwise eliminate a population in order to exploit land, resources, strategic location of an area. Remove Children from families to boarding schools Do not allow native language, cultural practices Do not allow native clothing, hair style, tattooing
  • Was consideration given to: Specific local needs? - Were communities asked what they wanted or needed? Culture and Traditional knowledge? learning stylesOr was education withheld or designed with a motive contrary to the community’s way of life religion acculturation withheld in order to marginalize or suppress the community.
  • Literature review has grown
  • Colonialism vs ImperialismAs both colonialism and Imperialism means political and economic domination by one country over another, scholars often find it hard to differentiate the two.Colonialism is where one nation assumes control over the other and Imperialism refers to political or economic controlIn simple words, colonialism can be thought to be a practice and imperialism as the idea driving the practice.Colonialism and imperialism are often used interchangeably, but they are two different words having different meaning. As both colonialism and Imperialism means political and economic domination of the other, scholars often find it hard to differentiate the two.Though both the words underline suppression of the other, Colonialism is where one nation assumes control over the other and Imperialism refers to political or economic control, either formally or informally. In simple words, colonialism can be thought to be a practice and imperialism as the idea driving the practice.Colonialism is a term where a country conquers and rules over other regions. It means exploiting the resources of the conquered country for the benefit of the conqueror. Imperialism means creating an empire, expanding into the neighbouring regions and expanding its dominance far.Colonialism is termed as building and maintaining colonies in one territory by people from another territory. Colonialism can altogether alter the social structure, physical structure and economics of a region. It is quite normal that in the long run, the traits of the conqueror are inherited by the conquered.Colonialism is a term used to describe the settlement of places like India, Australia, North America, Algeria, New Zealand and Brazil, which were all controlled by the Europeans. Imperialism, on the other hand is described where a foreign government governs a territory without significant settlement. The scramble for Africa in the late 19th century and the American domination of Puerto Rico and the Philippines can be cited as examples of Imperialism. In Colonialism, one can see great movement of people to the new territory and living as permanent settlers. Though they lead the life as permanent settlers, they still maintain allegiance to their mother country. Imperialism is just exercising power over the conquered regions either through sovereignty or indirect mechanisms of control.Coming to the origin of the two, Imperialism has a longer history than Colonialism. While the history of colonialism dates back to 15th century, Imperialism has its origins dating back to the Romans.Colonialism has its origins when Europeans started to look outside their country, pursuing trade with other nations. Though colonialism can be attributed to the trade pursuits of a country, Imperialism is just not like that and it involves individual pursuits only.Coming to the etymology, colony comes from the Latin word colonus, which means farmers. Imperialism also comes from Latin word imperium, which means to command.Summary1.Colonialism is a term where a country conquers and rules over other regions. Imperialism means creating an empire, expanding into the neighbouring regions and expanding its dominance far.2.In Colonialism, one can see great movement of people to the new territory and living as permanent settlers. Imperialism is just exercising power over the conquered regions either through sovereignty or indirect mechanisms of control.Read more: Difference Between Colonialism and Imperialism | Difference Between | Colonialism vs Imperialismhttp://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-colonialism-and-imperialism/#ixzz1NoBfSjNQ
  • EDUCATION NOT EVEN CONSIDEREDGOALS – Financial gain from exploitation indigenous people and their of natural resources – gold, diamonds, timber, or the establishment of military strategic locations, or simply to add to their empire.It seems to me that colonizers all had a great arrogance & conviction in their right to conquer and rule. They didn’t consider the conquered populations to have any right to life, much less education. “White man’s burden” was a phrase coined by author Rudyard Kipling at the end of the 19th century. It referred to the idea that white races in Europe and the United States had a responsibility to educate and Christianize “uncivilized” and “primitive” peoples of the world. The term “burden” had the added implication that this was a Christian duty, thus lending a moral rationale to the phrase. 1900 Campaign poster for the Republican Party. "The American flag has not been planted in foreign soil to acquire more territory but for humanity's sake.", president William McKinley, July 12, 1900. It probably never occurred to the colonizing people that the indigenous people they were killing, displacing, or at best marginalizing were people who had a culture that was of value or that the conquered people themselves should be an equal partner. They truly believed themselves to be superiorThat could be one of the worst kinds of
  • It probably never occurred to the colonizing people that the indigenous people they were killing, displacing, or at best marginalizing were people who had a culture that was of value or that the conquered people themselves should be an equal partner. They truly believed themselves to be superiorThat could be one of the worst kinds of
  • The loss of language, pride, cultural identity and social order still affects educational efforts today.Put a face on the map instead of just political boundaries"Indigenous" means = Originally from: :Colonial Regimes and African and Asian Peoples. The Europeans drew heavily on past precedents forruling their millions of subjects. They exploited ethnic and cultural divisions; administrators made thedifferences more formal by dividing peoples into "tribes." Minorities, especially Christians, were favoredin colonial recruiting. A small number of Europeans, usually living in urban centers, directedadministrations. Indigenous officials - some of the highest ranks were Western educated - worked at locallevels.Western-language education in Java and India was state-supported; in Africa Christian missionaries often ran the schools. European racial prejudices blocked higher education for most Africans. Asians had more opportunities, but officials there feared the impact of such education and often denied graduatesappropriate positions. Such policies greatly stunted the growth of a Western-oriented middle class.
  • When the concept of education for indigenous people was first considered by colonial leaders – it was considered dangerous. A SUPPRESSED OR MARGINALIZED GROUP OF PEOPLE (OFTEN A LARGER GROUP THAN THE GOVERNING POPULATION) MIGHT REVOLT. IRONICALY, MOST OF THE LEADERS OF INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS, LEADERS OF POST-INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENTS AND ECONOMIES, WERE PRODUCTS OF ONE OF THE FEW MISSION OR RARE GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.Acculturation: Education that was offered focused on eliminating the language, traditions and culture of indigenous people and replacing it with Eurocentric language and culture. Even if educated, indigenous people were not offered a place in society a chance for employment any semblance of equalityFirst educators were often sent by religious organizations. Again the goal was to replace existing cultures with ChristianityOver time, as educators began to consider more widespread rights to education – - passed resolutions - make lofty public statements Problem: These actions did not reach educators on the ground No resources were allocated in order to accomplish the stated goals of the resolutionsUNFORTUNATLY - ALL OF THESE ACTIONS ARE STILL OCCURRING TODAY IN SOME PARTS OF THE WORLD.I AM GOING TO FOCUS ON THE POSITIVE EXAMPLES OF PROGRESS.cuwhist.files.wordpress.com/.../legacy-of-imperialism-powerpoint-presentation.pptxRetrieved 5/27/11
  • . Education Concordia University-Wisconsin Department of Historyhttp://cuwhist.wordpress.com/non-western-world-hist-163/king-leopolds-ghost/Throughout human history, all societies have practiced a form of "public" education. Education is the method by which families and societies transfer beliefs, values, and skills between generations. Throughout human history, education has mainly been informal. That is, values and knowledge were learned in informal settings in the home, church, and through work and play. It is has only been in the past 200 years that public education has become more formalized, taking place in schools with an added emphasis on literacy and numeracy-reading, writing, and mathematics. Proponents of colonialism claimed that it was necessary to enlighten and civilize indigenous peoples and societies. Given this concern, you would think that colonial governments would have made a major effort to introduce schools. The truth is that most colonial governments did little to support schools. Most formal schooling in colonies was a result of the work of missionaries.Missionaries felt that education and schools were essential to their mission. Their primary concern was the conversion of people to Christianity. Missionaries believed that the ability of indigenous peoples to read the Bible in their own language was important to the conversion process. However, most mission societies were not wealthy, and they could not support the number of schools that they really wanted. Consequently, with limited government support, most indigenous children did not go to school during the colonial era. In fact at the end of colonial rule, no colony could boast that more than half of their children finished elementary school, and far fewer attended secondary school.However, in spite of lack of support for public education, schooling had a dramatic impact on children who were fortunate enough to attend school. Indeed, most of the leaders of independence movements, leaders of post-independent governments and economies, were products of one of the few mission or fewer government schools.
  • Colonial Extension: experimental stations were established in many Asian,African, and Latin American countries by the colonial powers. The focus ofattention, first, was on agricultural extension with more emphasis on exportcrops such as rubber, tea, cotton, and sugar. Technical advice was providedto plantation managers and large landowners. Assistance to small farmersand marginalized people who grcw subsistence crops and livestock was rare,except in times of crisis. Colonial powers also started education and familyhealth care extension through the establishment of schools and hospitals.Diverse top-down extension: After independence, commodity-based extension services emerged from the remnants of the colonial system, with production targets established as part of five-year development plans. In addition, various schemes were initiated to meet the needs of small farmers, with support from foreign donors.Unified top-down extension: During the 1970s and ‘80s, the Training and Visit system (T&V) was introduced by the World Bank. Existing organizations were merged into a single national service. Regular messages were delivered to groups of farmers, promoting the adoption of "Green Revolution" technologies.Diverse bottom-up extension: When World Bank funding came to an end, the T&V system collapsed in many countries, leaving behind a patchwork of programmes and projects funded from various other sources. The decline of central planning, combined with a growing concern for sustainability and equity, has resulted in participatory methods gradually replacing top-down approaches.
  • Guam's history of colonialism is the longest among the Pacific islandsBronze statue of Chief Gadao, Inarajan, GuamHighlighted Events During the "No Chamorro" Language Policy 1899: The U.S. took possession of Guam from Spain and the control was handed over to the Department of the Navy. 1900 to 1904: A series of executive orders were created and issued involving the language policy concern (U.S. Navy).1902: Schools closed due to lack of facilities and English teachers. 1919: The Naval government decided to uproot centuries of tradition by making a policy that Chamorro culture be a patriarchy. 1920s: The Chamorro language remained the predominant language at this time.1930s: Chamorros were heavily influenced by American lifestyles and began mixing English words with the Chamorro speech. 1934 to 1936: The government implemented evening classes for teachers in the English education but discontinued due to lack of interest.1937: B.J. Bordallo and F.B. Leon Guerrero journeyed to the U.S. to stand up for the Chamorro rights on behalf of Guam and its people. 1940s: Support was given to the English language during the political debate for U.S. citizenship. English was spoken by 75% of Guam's population over the age of 10.                                                  (1941-1944: WWII/Japanese Occupation)                                                  1950:  The signing of the Organic Act.1960s: The time of major enforcement of the English language in schools.1964: The Kumision I Fino' Chamorro, or Chamorro Language Commision was established. It was the recognized authority on the Chamorro language policy for the island of Guam.1974 to Present: Emergence of Chamorro language classes in elementary, middle, and high schools.
  • Guam was officially claimed by Spain in 1565; however, the island was not actually colonized until the 17th century.[5] On June 15, 1668, the galleon San Diego arrived at the shore of the island of Guam.[6]Jesuit missionaries led by Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores arrived on Guam to introduce Christianity and develop trade. The Spanish taught the Chamorros to cultivate maize (corn), raise cattle, and tan hides, as well as to adopt western-style clothing. They also introduced the Spanish language and culture. Once Christianity was established, the Catholic Church became the focal point for village activities and Guam became a regular port-of-call for the Spanish galleons that crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Philippines.[7]
  • As with other indigenous people around the world, the Chamorro people were not given any consideration in this decision.
  • historical perspective of extension in Ugandafew expatriate field officers
  • Many countries moving towards grassroots based extension.1998—2002: Crossroad and Possible Future Solutions Period:Evaluation of the agricultural extension projects showed that the unified agriculturalextension was unfocused, reached only 15% of the farmers and its messages andapproaches were neither effective nor provided value for money. Furthermore, thefunding and delivery of the services was neither efficient nor sustainable. Generally, theextension system was heavily centralised and characterised by too much bureaucracy. Anumber of options and approaches were considered in the reform of extension servicesystems in Uganda
  • the naval government established a public education system, which prohibited any sort of religious instruction and was also riddled with anti-Chamorro language policies, the Catholic Church’s role in Chamorro life was invigorated, particularly in relation to maintaining the Chamorro language. While Chamorros speaking their language found themselves under attack, the Catholic Church provided a sanctuary, much like in their homes or lanchos (ranches), where they could continue to speak Chamorro.
  • Belief of colonists: “Only Europeans can progress - Indigenous peoples are frozen in time”Indigenous knowledge was marginalized by educational institutions committed to Eurocentric thoughtExistence of policies designed to erase Indigenous culture, knowledge , & traditional practices
  • White Americans helddedicated but ethnocentric education beliefs that assumed that because tribal peoples did not educate their children within the four walls of a school building, they were uneducated. Yet education was highly institutionalized in traditional Indian societies. Family members, especially older people such as grandfathers and grandmothers, along with specialists in economic activities, warfare, art, and spiritual matters systematically educated boys and girls into responsible tribal adulthood.Unable to see such apparently unstructured activities as education, from colonial times until well into the twentieth century, European Americans set out to Christianize and "civilize" Indian peoples through the schooling of their children. The term Indian schools thus generally refers to establishments designed specifically for tribal boys and girls. "The Apostle of the Indians," seventeenth century Puritan missionary John Eliot, for example, established fourteen "praying towns" in New England. Schools were central to his mission. Initially quarantined from their supposedly deficient family backgrounds, pupils would first be saved themselves, and would then return as cultural brokers–mediators–to carry the Gospel and English culture back to their peoples.By around 1900 the vast majority of the 20,000 school-going Native Americans attended a government day school, on-reservation or off-reservation boarding school.
  • Picture worth a 1000 words…..Assimilation or Cultural Massacre?Hair cutPunished (sometimes severely) for speaking native tongueTraditional cultural practices and ceremonies bannedPractice of Traditional Tribal religions denied – There were a series of nineteenth-century efforts by the United States government to assimilateNative American children from 140 tribes into the majority culture. The goal of total assimilation can be summed up in the school's slogan: "To civilize the Indian, get him into civilization. To keep him civilized, let him stay.“
  • Successful for whom??
  • Title VII programs  The program develops cultural awareness opportunities for students, teachers and families with its main goals designed to: Improve literacy skills and overall grades of Native students, grades K-12Increase the knowledge and awareness of cultural values, traditions and contemporary issues relevant to Native studentsEncourage and support post-secondary education for all studentsInstill student pride in their Native American heritage  Encourage parent involvement in program and school activitiesTitle VII Indian Education is a federal project designed to provide eligible Indian, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native students with tutoring, cultural enrichment, and other services designed to meet the "culturally related academic needs" The Federal Government will continue to work with local educational agencies, Indian tribes and organizations, postsecondary institutions, and other entities toward the goal of ensuring that programs that serve Indian children are of the highest quality and provide for not only the basic elementary and secondary educational needs, but also the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of these children.There have been three major legislative actions that restructured the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) with regard to educating American Indians since the Snyder Act of 1921. First, the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 introduced the teaching of Indian history and culture in BIA schools (until then it had been Federal policy to acculturate and assimilate Indian people by eradicating their tribal cultures through a boarding school system). Second, the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 (P.L. 93-638) gave authority to federally recognized tribes to contract with the BIA for the operation of Bureau-funded schools and to determine education programs suitable for their children. The Education Amendments Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-561) and further technical amendments (P.L. 98-511, 99-99, and 100-297) provided funds directly to tribally operated schools, empowered Indian school boards, permitted local hiring of teachers and staff, and established a direct line of authority between the Education Director and the AS-IA. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-110) brought additional requirements to the schools by holding them accountable for improving their students’ academic performance with the U.S. Department of Education supplemental program funds they receive through the Bureau.
  • (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus)Spanish and Portuegese colonists did not come to build, farm or ranch, and in fact farming was considered a very lowly profession among the colonists. These men therefore harshly exploited native labor, often without thinking about the long-term. Natives were considered disposable commodities
  • Under Spanish Rule, Conquistadores and officials were granted “encomiendas,” which basically gave them tracts of land and everyone on it. In theory, the encomenderos were supposed to look after and protect the people that were in their care, but in reality it was often nothing more than legalized slavery. From 1808 to 1811, there were various juntas. Chilean creolesobjected to the American representation in the Cortés. In 1810-1811, aradical faction demanded all kinds of changes such as secularcemeteries, a constitution, and the extension of public education. JoséMiguel de Carrera called in 1811 for representative government with noclass basis. This was radical.In 1813, radical Chileans offered a new plan for publicprimary education. Immediately, there were people advocatingmeasures which conservatives considered radical. These way outmeasures (such a free public education) encouraged factionalism.One way to understand the socialsystem is to call it the aristocratic dispensation, that is, the belief andpractice that the elites could do anything they desired. Everyone elsewas to defer to their wishes. Those who managed to get into the upperclass from even lowly origins immediately aped the other elites.There was social immobility. One almost always stayed in theclass to which one was born and did not expect to change. Life waswhat it was. There was apathy and indifference among almost all peoplebecause they were excluded from making decision-making.The destruction of whole cultures – in every sense – left the majority of the population lost and struggling to find their identities, a struggle which continues to this day. The power structures put in place by the Spanish and Portuguese still exist: witness the fact that Peru, a nation with a large indigenous population, just recently elected the first native president in their long history. This marginalization of native people and culture is ending, and as it does many in the region are trying to find their roots.
  • Because the Spanish did not recognize native codices and other forms of record keeping as legitimate, the history of the region was considered open for research and interpretation. What we know about pre-Columbian civilization comes to us in a jumbled mess of contradictions and riddles. Some writers seized the opportunity to paint earlier native leaders and cultures as bloody and tyrannical. This in turn allowed them to describe the Spanish conquest as a liberation of sorts. With their history compromised, it is difficult for today’s Latin Americans to get a grasp on their past. Lack of Education translates to poverty:In Bolivia and Guatemala, for example, more than half of the total population is poor, but almost three-quarters of the indigenous population are poor.  Poverty among indigenous people in Ecuador is about 87 percent and reaches 96 percent in the rural highlands. In Mexico, the incidence of extreme poverty in 2002 was 4.5 times higher in predominantly indigenous than in non- indigenous municipalities, up from a ratio of 3.7 times a decade earlier. Of all poor households in Peru, 43 percent are indigenous.
  • World Bank Study 1994 – 2004: In order to achieve better poverty reduction outcomes for indigenous people in the region, the report recommends improving human capital by focusing on four specific areas, one of which is:Provide more and better education through bilingual/bicultural education programs in order to decrease the gap in years of schooling and improve the quality of education.between40 and 50 million live in Latin America. There are indigenous people in every country,perhaps with the only exception of Uruguay. In Bolivia and Guatemala they are numericalmajorities: 62% of the total population and nearly 50%, respectively (Sichra and López,2002).Over 700 different indigenous languages are spoken in the region (Grinevald, 2006), somewith a small number of speakers and others with millions, such as Quechua and Aymara.Since the 1970s increasingly powerful indigenous organizations and leaders and theresurgence of ethnicity -- recognized as “the return of the Indian” (Albó, 1991) -- havepushed governments into reconsidering their positions with respect to indigenouspopulations. During the 1980s and 1990s most countries underwent constitutional reformsacknowledging the multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual nature of their societies aswell as the right of indigenous peoples to education in their mother tongue or L1 (Moya,1998), and in certain situations with this right implemented under community managementand control (e.g. Colombia) (Bolaños et al, 2004).It is difficult to separate education and literacyfrom the struggle for rights and self-determination. The political mobilization of indigenousorganizations leads to educational reforms and intercultural bilingual approaches (e.g.Bolivia, Ecuador). And, in turn, bilingual education has contributed to increased politicalawareness and organizational processes among indigenous people.Across Latin America the terms intercultural bilingual education, bilingual interculturaleducation and ethno-education are used interchangeably.A factor influencing thismove was the new orientation, which resulted from the meeting held in Barbados in 1977between Latin American anthropologists, linguists and indigenous leaders andintellectuals, marking a turn from top-down state indigenism to a more grass-roots andcritical approach. In some countries, this approach led to the active participation ofindigenous organizations in program decision-making.
  • http://sitemaker.umich.edu/varanasidecember2005/centre_for_postcolonial_educationThe Centre for Postcolonial Education, located at N 1/70 Nagwa, Varanasi, is a Humanities and Social Sciences research center that is presently headed by Dr Nita Kumar. Children, Youth, and their Education in a Globalizing IndiaUniversity of MichiganRetrieved. 5/27/11The agenda of the Centre For Postcolonial Education consists of:Research: research projects, publications, conferences, seminars, and workshopsMaintaining and developing our library and archivesVocational training and the education of adultsEducation of childrenDevelopment of resources for childrenCommunity outreach work All the Centre's projects, present and projected, are conceived and conducted multilaterally and interactively. In other words, the people who are targeted are involved at every step in the development of the project, and are themselves the facilitators. This is at the heart of the philosophy and the strategy of the Centre's community activities.
  • Canada:Eurocentric thought asserts that only Europeans can progresss and that Indigenous peoples are frozen in time, guided by knowledge systems that reinforce the past and do not look towards the future – ignoring advances by the rest of the worldThese strategies have caused Indigenous peolples to be viewed as backward and as passive recipients of European knowledge. Indigenous knowledge became invisible to EurocentricIndigenous kjnowledge was not captured and stored in a systematic way by Eurocentric educational systems. Indeed, in some cases there has been a concerted push to erase it.The marginalization of Indigenous knowledge in educational institutions commited to Eurocentric knowledge and the losses to Aboriginal languages and heritages through monderinzation and urbanization of Aboriginal people have all contributed to the dimimished capacity of Indigenous knowledge, with the result that it is now in damage of becoming extinct.
  • The Spanish and American colonization of the Philippines institutionalized the distinction among peoples in the country into mainstream Christian/Muslim and peripheral tribal/minority/ indigenous populations. Through laws, the tribal/ minority/indigenous communities were deprived of the right to their ancestral domains. Through so-called “development” activities, they were dispossessed of the land they till for their livelihood. Their marginalization, dispossession and other forms of injustices continued long after colonial rule had gone
  • The European Settlement colonies had two rough divisions:The "White Dominions," such as North America, Canada and Australia where a growing number of Europeans and their descendants impacted the lives of indigenous people.were inhabited mostly by Europeans and their descendants;indigenous peoples were few. "White Dominions" where large European populations lived among even more numerous indigenous peoples.The "White Dominions" such as North America, Canada and Australia were inhabited mostly by Europeans and their descendants;indigenous peoples were few. Most territories in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific “tropical dependencies,” They moved toward self-government and parliamentary rule in the 19thcentury. The second variation, “contested settler colonies,” grouped territories where large Europeanpopulations lived among even more numerous indigenous peoples. They included South Africa, Algeria,New Zealand, Kenya, and Hawaii. The European and indigenous peoples continuously clashed overcontrol of local resources and questions of social or cultural difference.
  • Read more at Suite101: Cultural Values Versus Imperialism in Education: In 1968, 3 African Professors Proved the Pen Mightier Than the Swordhttp://www.suite101.com/content/cultural-values-versus-imperialism-in-education-a197792#ixzz13QKsg6lH
  • Find where this goes: cuwhist.files.wordpress.com/.../legacy-of-imperialism-powerpoint-presentation.pptxRetrieved 5/27/11Farmer-to-Farmer 1987 in Nicaragua by National Farmers & Ranchers Union: Low external-input agricultureDiagnosis, Investigation & Participation (DIP) 1994 by multidisciplinary team linked to Autonomous University in Yucatan, MexicoFarmer Experimentation: 1991 by Regional Program for Reinforcement of Agronomic Research on Basic Grains in Central America.South AmericaFarmer Participatory Research (FPR) emerged in response to limitations of top-down R&Dapproaches. In Latin America, the principles and concepts of FPR are rooted in earlier participatoryresearch experiences in fields such as education, sociology and health, usually played out within acommunity-development context. Contributions of Paulo Freire and Orlando FalsBorda are discussedbriefly. To analyse these experiences, a typology based on decision-making locus inresearch, farmers’ and scientists’ roles, and the style of research conducted was used. Threeapproaches were distinguished: scientist-led, farmer-led and interactive research. Four cases areanalysed: (1) Farmer-to-Farmer program, Nicaragua, founded in 1987 by the National Farmers andRanchers Union (UNAG) based on volunteer farmer-promoters. The focus is on low external-inputagriculture. (2) Diagnosis, Investigation and Participation (DIP), formed in 1994 by a multidisciplinaryteam with linkages to the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Faculty at theAutonomous University in Yucatan, Mexico. Their objective is to improve the quality of life ofindigenous communities at the forest-agriculture interface through participatory innovation basedon local resources. (3) Farmer Experimentation, initiated by PRIAG (Regional Program forReinforcement of Agronomic Research on Basic Grains) in Central America, in 1991. Theobjective is to increase the self-reliance of small- and medium-scale producers in generating anddisseminating technology. (4) Local agricultural research committees (CIALs), first launched byCIAT in Colombia in 1990, to strengthen rural communities’ capacity as decision-makers andinnovators of agricultural solutions and to exert demand on the formal R&D system. The discussionfocuses on similarities and differences in the processes, principles, roles and relationships underlyingthese experiences and key lessons learned.
  • “White man’s burden” was a phrase coined by author Rudyard Kipling at the end of the 19th century. It referred to the idea that white races in Europe and the United States had a responsibility to educate and Christianize “uncivilized” and “primitive” peoples of the world. The term “burden” had the added implication that this was a Christian duty, thus lending a moral rationale to the phrase. The “white man’s burden” became one of the primary justifications for British and American overseas imperialism during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During this time, the British sphere of colonial influence spanned the globe, with India, South Africa, and Australia among Britain’s many colonies. The geographical span of the British Empire–with some part of the empire always seeing daylight–led to the statement that “the sun never sets on the British Empire.” Compared to Britain, the United States was a relative latecomer and minor player in the imperialist endeavor. Nonetheless, by the early twentieth century, the United States could claim a modest number of overseas colonies, including Hawaii, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. As their common appeal to the “white man’s burden” suggests, the imperialist endeavors in Britain and the United States shared similar notions about race. Imperialists characterized colonized peoples in Africa, Asia, the South Pacific, and the Caribbean as incapable of self-government. Only once these peoples had been guided towards British and American models of government and democracy would they be ready for independence. In such ways, imperialists depicted their endeavors as morally righteous.
  • Support local ownership of projects Support to bilingual and cross-cultural educationEnhancement of indigenous identity and self-esteemResolution on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (1998), 4 Considers the diversity of cultures, religions, social and economic organisations of the 250 million Indigenous Peoples, living in over 70 countries world-wide, and representing 4% of the world's population;5. Recognises the inherent dignity and the unique contribution of Indigenous Peoples to the development and plurality of society;6. Acknowledges that the distinct cultures and languages of Indigenous Peoples enrich the cultural heritage of humankind and deserve protection as vehicles of culture and identity;
  • “De-colonizing the mind” still appears as an urgent task to conservative as well as radical postcolonial intellectuals obsessed with unfinished national projects, and conservatives globally (including the US) contemplate with anxiety if not outright hostility any effort to introduce greater social and ethnic complexity to the writing of national histories, which they feel might weaken the nation ideologically. In the People’s Republic of China itself, patriotic education is very much the order of the day, and the postsocialist regime finds in the reaffirmation of civilizational values a source of legitimation as a substitute for the waning faith in socialism.
  • http://www.ei-ie.org/websections/content_detail/3277found on 5/22/2011EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL WEB PAGEIntroductionEI participates in the activities of the United Nations' bodies organised for the issue of indigenous peoples. Examples are the Working Group on Indigenous Populations and the Permanent Forum of Indigenous Issues. EI attends the Forum's annual sessions since its creation in 2002.PolicyEducation International supports the UN initiative in the declaration of the first (1995-2004) and second (2005-2014) Decade of Indigenous Peoples. EI also supports the ILO Convention 169 "Indigenous and Tribal Peoples" (1989).The EI World Congress passed various resolutions concerning indigenous education. The resolutions acknowledge that the distinct cultures and languages of indigenous peoples enrich the cultural heritage of humankind and deserve protection as vehicles of culture and identity. As such, EI recognises the role that teachers, education support personnel and their organizations in the education system have in ensuring the promotion and preservation of cultural identity of indigenous peoples:
  • Resolution on Indigenous Education (1995), Resolution on Indigenous EducationThe Education International First World Congress meeting in Harare (Zimbabwe) from 19 to 23 July 1995:Recommends that:1. A report on the state of indigenous education internationally be presented to the 1998 EI World Congress, highlighting key common issues and proposals for progress;2. Education International hold three regional forums for indigenous education before the next EI World Congress;3. Education International adopt as policy that indigenous peoples will represent EI in forums dealing with indigenous peoplesâ�� issues;4. That all EI committees include in their work programmes a strategy for making progress on indigenous peoplesâ�� issues;5. Education International establish a forum for indigenous peoples.  Resolution on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (1998), Resolution on the Rights of Indigenous PeoplesThe Second World Congress of Education International, meeting in Washington D.C., U.S.A., from 25 to 29 July 1998:1. Recalls the terms of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the ILO Convention (No.169), and the many international instruments on the prevention of discrimination;2. Notes that 1995 was the beginning of the decade of Indigenous Peoples;3. Recognises
  • Eventually, researchers and educators working with indigenous populations began to realize that failures of their programs could be attributed to the lack of participation by local communities and the omission of traditional knowledge and cultural expression in program planning and implementation. The failure of extension programs within indigenous communities suggested that agriculture extension services were no longer adequate to meet the needs of rural and indigenous farmers. By the 1990s a new participatory research and education approach began to be implemented in several countries around the world. This method actively includes indigenous community members in; the identification of program needs, development and implementation of research or education programs, and evaluation of outcomes. In the past 20 years, use of participatory methods has become increasingly prevalent in extension efforts. The primary idea is that “community ownership and empowerment are crucial in supporting and effecting change” (Beilin 2001).
  • Dismantling the Divide between Indigenous and Scientific KnowledgebyArunAgrawal 1995Department of Political ScienceTropical Conservation and Development ProgramUniversity of Florida3324 TurlingtonGainesville FL 32611.Agrawal: by advocating that indigenous knowledge be stored in international and national archives, neo-indigenistas are also helpingundermine the control that the poor exercise over their knowledge.
  • Extension In Sub-Saharan Africa: Overview & Assessment of Past and Current Models, and Future Prospects. Kristin E. Davis. International Food Policy Research Institute. 2008
  • In 1917 the U.S. Naval Administration, under Governor Roy C. Smith, issued an order designating English as the official language, and banned the use of Chamorro except for official interpretations. In 1922 the naval administration instituted more drastic measures to eradicate the use of Chamorro within the school system, collecting and burning many of the Chamorro-English dictionaries that remained from the Spanish period.In 1919, the naval government decided it sufficiently important enough that they uproot centuries of tradition by making it official policy that Chamorro culture be a patriarchy. According to Chamorro scholar Laura Souder, “Matrilineage was outlawed…Chamorros were forced to abide by patriarchal notions of descent.”For thousands of years, lineage and land ownership had been passed down through the mother, but now the father would be considered the head of the household and the head of any family. Without any political protections or any access to the power of the governing of their island, some almost ludicrous policies were enacted.Perhaps most infamous among these were two of the many naval ordinances imposed by Governor Gilmer. The first outlawed whistling in Hagåtña, an offense for which at least one known Chamorro, Gaily Kaminga was imprisoned. The second, required that each able-bodied Chamorro male bring in five dead rats a month to the government or else face a stiff fine.
  • 1920s: The Chamorro language remained the predominant language at this time.1930s: Chamorros were heavily influenced by American lifestyles and began mixing English words with the Chamorro speech. 1934 to 1936: The government implemented evening classes for teachers in the English education but discontinued due to lack of interest.1937: B.J. Bordallo and F.B. Leon Guerrero journeyed to the U.S. to stand up for the Chamorro rights on behalf of Guam and its people.
  • Colonial schooling taught basic skills and French language fluency to most children, while particularly strong students were selected to receive training for civil servant roles at the secondary level. Post-independence education in the First Republic (1960-1975) under President PhilibertTsiranana retained a strong French influence with textbooks and teachers of French origin. The post-colonial backlash that brought about the Second Republic (1975-1992) saw schools serve as vehicles for citizen indoctrination into Admiral Didier Ratsiraka's socialist ideology. Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 prompted a wave of democratization across Africa, launching the democratic Third Republic (1992-2010). Renewed international cooperation resulted in significant foreign aid for the education sector, which adopted numerous reforms promoted by United Nations organizations and other partners in the international development sector.Education was prioritized under President Marc Ravalomanana (2001-2009), who sought to improve both access and quality of formal and non-formal education. A massive campaign of school renovation, expansion and construction has been coupled with the recruitment and training of tens of thousands more teachers. This initiative was supported with funds from intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank and UNESCO, and bilateral grants from many countries, including France, the United States and Japan. A key pedagogical objective of these reforms included a shift from a traditional, didactic teaching style to a student-centered form of instruction based around frequent group work. As of 2009, Madagascar was on target to achieve the Education For All objective of universal enrollment at the primary level. Student achievement, teacher quality, widespread shortage of materials and access to secondary and tertiary schooling continue to be challenges, as are poverty-related obstacles such as high repetition and attrition rates and poor student health. The 2009 political crisis in Madagascar resulted in cessation of all but emergency aid to the country, further exacerbating poverty-related challenges and threatening to undo much recent progress in the education sector.
  • Lmasters evolution presentation

    1. 1. The Evolution of Extension <br />Research & Education Methods <br />From Colonialism to Participatory<br />Linda Masters, Sabrina Tuttle<br />University of Arizona – USA<br />Presented at the 2011 AIAEE<br />Conference; Windhoek, Namibia<br />Free Powerpoint Templates<br />
    2. 2. Purpose and Objectives<br />The purpose and objectives of this paper were to examine the evolution of indigenous research and educational programs and review the extent to which these programs considered the needs of the subject communities - as defined by those communities.<br />
    3. 3. Methods<br />Literature review:<br />21 journal publications, <br />excerpts from 3 books and <br />proceedings from 2 conferences<br />One-on-one interviews with 5 Federally Recognized Tribal Extension Agents in North America <br /><ul><li>Personal Interview with an Ag Educator from the 1950’s era of British sponsored Extension education in Africa.</li></li></ul><li>Colonialism or Imperialism?<br />Colonialism is a term where a country conquers and rules over other region’s, exploiting the resources of the conquered country for the benefit of the conqueror. Building and maintaining colonies in one territory by people from another territory. Colonialism can altogether alter the social structure, physical structure and economics of a region. It is quite normal that in the long run, the traits of the conqueror are inherited by the conquered.<br />Term used to describe the settlement of places like India, Australia, North America, Algeria, New Zealand and Brazil, which were all controlled by the Europeans<br />Imperialism means creating an empire, expanding into the neighboring regions and expanding its dominance. - A foreign government governs a territory without significant settlement. The scramble for Africa in the late 19th century and the American domination of Puerto Rico and the Philippines can be cited as examples of Imperialism.<br />Colonialism can be thought to be a practice and imperialism as the idea driving the practice<br />
    4. 4. Agrawal (2008) description of evolving education<br />Indigenous education has evolved in the decades since worldwide colonialism from focusing on exploitation <br />to <br />economic growth, <br />to growth with equity, <br />to basic needs, <br />to participatory development<br />to sustainable development<br />
    5. 5. Era of Colonialism<br />No Regard for Indigenous Populations or their culture<br /><ul><li>Education wasn’t even considered for indigenous peoples
    6. 6. Exploitation: How can we usethese people or resources for our benefit?
    7. 7. How do we remove these people if they are in the way of our developments?
    8. 8. Use of phrases such as: “White man’s burden” to educate and Christianize “uncivilized” and “primitive” peoples of the world.</li></li></ul><li>Era of Colonialism<br />No Regard for Indigenous Populations or their culture<br />It probably never occurred to the colonizing people that the indigenous people they were killing, displacing, or at best marginalizing were people who had a culture that was of value or that the conquered people themselves should be an equal partner. They truly believed themselves to be superior<br />
    9. 9. Era of Colonialism<br />No Regard for Indigenous Populations or their culture<br />Extension Experiment Stations were developed in Africa in <br />
    10. 10. Colonialism: Impacts on Indigenous Peoples<br /><ul><li>Entire communities suppressed/marginalized
    11. 11. Not allowed to speak their language
    12. 12. Forced to accept a new social & cultural order
    13. 13. Loss of Sovereignty or right to self determination
    14. 14. Loss of traditional lands, cultural sites</li></li></ul><li>Barriers to Education<br /><ul><li>Education may have been withheld because of the fear that education would provide a means for the conquered people to revolt.
    15. 15. Biased ‘Education’ might be offered in order to acculturate or religiously convert people
    16. 16. Disconnect between educators and government/political powers: </li></ul>Resources not allocated for education or the betterment of indigenous communities<br />
    17. 17. idea is the concept of 'ways to help people to help<br />themselves' in order to improve their level of living by aided self help through<br />education. This concept is popularly expressed globally by the term 'Extension<br />Education'<br />most colonial governments did little to support schools. Most formal schooling in colonies was a result of the work of missionaries.<br />However, in spite of lack of support for public education, schooling had a dramatic impact on children who were fortunate enough to attend school. Indeed, most of the leaders of independence movements, leaders of post-independent governments and economies, were products of one of the few mission or fewer government schools.<br />
    18. 18. During Colonial times, Extension through experimental stations was introduced in many Asian, African and Latin America countries by the ruling colonial power.<br />The focus of<br />attention, first, was on agricultural extension with more emphasis on export<br />crops such as rubber, tea, cotton, and sugar. Technical advice was provided<br />to plantation managers and large landowners. Assistance to small farmers<br />and marginalized people who grcw subsistence crops and livestock was rare,<br />except in times of crisis. Colonial powers also started education and family<br />health care extension through the establishment of schools and hospitals.<br />
    19. 19. Using Guam as <br />Education Evolution Model <br />Guam's history of colonialism is the longest among the Pacific islands<br />It is believed that Guam was first discovered by sea-faring people who migrated from Southeast Asia around 4000 BC. <br />They have linguistic and cultural similarities to Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.<br />
    20. 20.
    21. 21. 1668: <br />Spanish galleons brought Jesuit missionaries to Guam. They introduced Christianity and taught Chamorros to:<br />cultivate maize<br />raise cattle<br />tan hides<br />adopt western-style clothing<br />
    22. 22. GUAM - 1899: <br />The U.S. took possession of Guam from Spain and the control was handed over to the Department of the Navyas part of the settlement of the Spanish/American War.<br />Missionary educators were deported<br />
    23. 23. Almost all of Africa was colonized by various countries of Europe, the areas they occupied were determined in the Berlin Conference in the late 1800s.<br />The continent was divided between European imperialists in an attempt to reap the benefits of its natural resources, without any regard for “the linguistic, cultural or political state of affairs on the continent”. <br />
    24. 24. Uganda Extension<br />1898—1907: Early Colonial Period: importation of cash crop planting materials: coffee, cotton, rubber, and tobacco Establishment of research stations to carry out agriculture and forestry research<br />1920—1956: Extension Service through Chiefs: Chiefs assisted by a few field officers and African instructors<br />1956—1963: Extension through Progressive Farmers:<br />Expectation: improved performance of progressive farmers would have a demonstration and multiplier effect<br />1964---1972: Extension Methods Phase: “helping farmers to help themselves” through tours & field days<br />1970 – 1980 – Political Turmoil<br />
    25. 25. Uganda Extension<br />1981—1991: Recovery Period: duplication, conflict, confusion  World Bank policies resulted in the beginning of recognition of indigenous knowledge through participatory approaches.<br />1992 – 1997: Agriculture Extension Reforms:<br />NGOs era, decentralization, privatization, reduction in farmer access to extension – step back<br />1998 – 2002: Crossroad & Possible Solutions:<br />Extension approaches not effective, efficient, sustainable:<br />Ministry-based extension downsized. The National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) was created to empower farmers, especially women, to demand and control agricultural advisory services in the country.<br />
    26. 26. Guam: <br />1900 to 1904:<br />The American public education <br />system banned the use of the <br />language<br />1902 - Schools closed due to lack of facilities and English teachers<br />In 1922 the naval administration collected and burned many of the Chamorro-English dictionaries that remained from the Spanish period.<br />
    27. 27. North America<br /><ul><li>Students were severely punished for speaking their native language
    28. 28. Aboriginal languages and heritage were lost and continue to disappear</li></li></ul><li>Legacy of language restrictions in education efforts<br />The linguistic dilemma facing African countries can be very simply stated: should African countries (themselves colonial creations) continue using the languages and systems of education inherited from colonialism or jettison these as undesirable colonial legacies in preference for indigenous languages and systems of education ?<br />
    29. 29. Eurocentric belief: Natives lacked school buildings and other signs of ‘white-man’s education system; therefore, Tribal youth were un-educated.<br />Actually education was often highly structured where family members and other elders who had specialized knowledge (e.g. economic activities, art, warfare, and spirituality) systematically educated their children in the course of daily life, through ceremonies, and through allegorical stories. <br />Our response was to take children away from their parents and place them into Christian boarding schools. These children were sometimes kept away from their “deficient” family settings until they were converted to <br />Christianity and able to carry this new religious message home.<br />By around 1900 the vast majority of the 20,000 school-going Native Americans attended a government day school, on-reservation or off-reservation boarding schools.<br />
    30. 30. Assimilation Goals of Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools<br />
    31. 31. What constitutes successful education programs???<br />
    32. 32. Native Americans today<br />Title VII Indian Education<br />“To provide the kinds of programs needed to address the educational needs of native learners, school districts need to explore systemic ways of effectively meeting the linguistic and cultural needs of Native American learners.” Nice rhetoric. What is reality?<br />Big variety across the nation. In the west, children on reservations may live in remote rural areas with poor access to education.<br />
    33. 33. South American Colonialism<br />Colonialism era last approximately 300 years during which time a huge %<br />of the native populations were wiped out due to disease or over-work as<br />as slaves working on haciendas, in gold & silver mines, at sugar mills, or <br />The natives had no natural defenses against these new diseases, which killed them far more efficiently than the conquistadors ever could.<br />Under Colonial rule, native religion and culture were severely repressed. Whole libraries of native codices were burned by zealous priests<br />
    34. 34. During colonialism, there were occasional efforts to educate Upper-class mestizo men and some women in monastery schools. The goal was to have convent-trained women and monastery-trained men marry and live by Christian ideals and ideas.<br />One of the radical ideas of increasing number juntas- which evolved into a wave of independence movements- in the early 1800s was free access to public education. <br />The destruction of whole cultures – in every sense – left the majority of the population lost and struggling to find their identities, a struggle which continues to this day. <br />This marginalization of native people and culture is ending, and as it does many in the region are trying to find their roots.<br />
    35. 35. Indigenous people only make up about 10% of today’s South American population. The generally have fewer years of education, and education outcomes are substantially worse.<br />May be indicative of poorer education quality. <br />For those interested, it sometimes may be difficult to get a true grasp of their cultural heritage.<br />Cultural artifacts and codices were destroyed and pre-Columbian civilization history has been re-written by conquistadors and colonizers who sometimes portrayed native leaders and cultures as bloody and tyrannical. This justified their conquest as being a liberation.<br />These loses<br />
    36. 36. South American Colonialism<br />Under Colonial rule, native religion and culture were severely repressed. Whole libraries of native codices were burned by zealous priests<br />
    37. 37.
    38. 38. Globalization can be defined as ‘the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by the events occurring many miles away and vice versa’.<br />In the realm of education, globalization has its own impact, which raises significant questions such as- who has access to what levels of education and with what outcomes? What types of jobs will be available for whom? What is the ‘mainstream’ and how do we integrate rural youth into this ‘mainstream’? Has the mainstream been accepted as the English-speaking white-collared jobs that are enabling a growing middle class in India?<br />INDIA – globilizaiton – became the “service” country <br />
    39. 39.
    40. 40. The Philippines & South Pacific Islands<br />The Spanish and American colonization of the Philippinesset up “Development Activities”<br />through laws that<br /><ul><li>Formalized distinction between Christian/Muslim mainstream and indigenous populations</li></ul>Tribal/ minority/indigenous communities were deprived of the right to their ancestral domains.<br />Marginalization, dispossession and other forms of injustices continued long after colonial rule had gone.<br />
    41. 41.
    42. 42. Almost all of Africa was colonized by various countries of Europe, the areas they occupied were determined in the Berlin Conference in the late 1800s.<br />No African Leaders were present at the Berlin Conference<br />European countries simply divided the continent into whatever pieces they wanted<br />
    43. 43. Kenya may have gained dependence from British rule in 1963, but like most postcolonial countries, the effects of colonization remained intact. How is an independent country able to establish and maintain its own identity when language, education, religion, and economic and political structures are left tarnished by the caprices of former oppressors? It was then mandatory that educational institutions referred to the department of "Literature" as "English" as a means to ensure national pride in the formerly colonized Kenya by the colonizers, Britain. The imperialistic agenda set forth by the British continued through literature and language and this agenda was upheld by government and educational officials in Kenya for reasons which are questionable.<br />Their insistence that the English Department should be titled African Literature to supersede the reigning label of "English" was more than a proposed change of name, but of values.<br />
    44. 44. South America<br />In response to the failure of Top-down Research projects, communities began to look at participatory methods which led them to “Farmer Participatory Research” (FPR) which usually takes place with a community development context. Based on the roles played by participants (farmers, researchers, scientists) and the style of research being conducted, 3 approaches were identified:<br />Scientist-led<br />Farmer- led<br />Interactive research<br />
    45. 45. “White man’s burden” was a phrase coined by author Rudyard Kipling at the end of the 19th century. It referred to the idea that white races in Europe and the United States had a responsibility to educate and Christianize “uncivilized” and “primitive” peoples of the world. The term “burden” had the added implication that this was a Christian duty, thus lending a moral rationale to the phrase. The “white man’s burden” became one of the primary justifications for British and American overseas imperialism during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. <br />Imperialists characterized colonized peoples in Africa, Asia, the South Pacific, and the Caribbean as incapable of self-government. Only once these peoples had been guided towards British and American models of government and democracy would they be ready for independence. In such ways, imperialists depicted their endeavors as morally righteous.<br />
    46. 46. As indigenous peoples become aware that their rights are being ignored, they are increasingly frustrated. Today, many of the world’s conflict zones are inhabited by indigenous communities. Areas where ethnic minority groups are subjected to extreme forms of civil rights violations have become flashpoints of insurgency. The geographical overlap between areas of on-going conflicts and areas where indigenous peoples live suggests that ending their marginalization would promote the stability that the poor need to take advantage of development opportunities. <br />
    47. 47. These views have informed a number of traditions: <br />a paternalistic form of welfarism; <br />assimilation, which seeks to institutionalise colonial mimicry; <br />cultural relativism, which promotes cultural sensitivity and tolerance; and radicalism, which seeks to invert colonial power relations. <br />For many indigenous peoples, culture and traditions are exceedingly important. If poverty is to be eradicated in their communities, indigenous cultures, value systems, knowledge and aspirations must form the basis of all actions. Indigenous peoples’ value systems are often based on a close relationship with natural resources, for both subsistence and spiritual needs. Consequently, indigenous peoples play a crucial role in the stewardship of the Earth’s natural resources and biodiversity. <br />Indigenous peoples, in particular women, have rich and varied local systems of traditional knowledge. These systems include vast knowledge about ecosystem management, technologies, medicinal plants and local crops<br />
    48. 48. IFAD has experience in initiating culturally sensitive approaches, in revitalizing traditional knowledge systems and in blending them with modern technology in a broad range of areas, including:<br />• soil and water conservation<br />• crop and livestock husbandry<br />• participatory research<br />• traditional medical practices<br />Resolution on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (1998), <br />Support local ownership of projects <br />Support to bilingual and cross-cultural education<br />Enhancement of indigenous identity and self-esteem<br />
    49. 49. 19th-century Kingdom of Madagascar when the support of successive kings and queens produced the most developed public school system in precolonial Sub-Saharan Africa. However, formal schools were largely limited to the central highlands around the capital of Antananarivo and were frequented by children of the noble class (andriana). Among other segments of the island's population, traditional education predominated through the early 20th century. This informal transmission of communal knowledge, skills and norms was oriented toward preparing children to take their place in a social hierarchy dominated by community elders and particularly the ancestors (razana), who were believed to oversee and influence events on earth.<br />
    50. 50. China<br />Education in the hands of missionaries seemed designed to complete the job begun by gunboats. For nationalists in China as elsewhere, with their ideological investment in state-directed education as the most effective instrument of creating a homogeneous culture and loyal citizens, foreign involvement in education meant ideological subjugation and, consequently, compromise of national sovereignty.<br />
    51. 51. history of colonialism disappearing into a new teleology of globalization,<br />If Africa's debt were cancelled it could almost double its spending on education. <br />colonialism and 'colonial mentalities'  others have effectively worked in the opposite direction. The particular power of non-formal education (and things like community schooling) in this respect isn't just the content of the programme, but also the extent to which it draws into state and non-governmental bodies various institutions and practices that were previously separate from them; and perhaps resistant to the state and schooling.<br />
    52. 52. http://www.ei-ie.org/websections/content_detail/3277<br />found on 5/22/2011<br />EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL WEB PAGE<br />Introduction<br />EI participates in the activities of the United Nations' bodies organised for the issue of indigenous peoples. Examples are the Working Group on Indigenous Populations and the Permanent Forum of Indigenous Issues. EI attends the Forum's annual sessions since its creation in 2002.<br />Policy<br />Education International supports the UN initiative in the declaration of the first (1995-2004) and second (2005-2014) Decade of Indigenous Peoples. EI also supports the ILO Convention 169 "Indigenous and Tribal Peoples" (1989).<br />The EI World Congress passed various resolutions concerning indigenous education. The resolutions acknowledge that the distinct cultures and languages of indigenous peoples enrich the cultural heritage of humankind and deserve protection as vehicles of culture and identity. As such, EI recognises the role that teachers, education support personnel and their organizations in the education system have in ensuring the promotion and preservation of cultural identity of indigenous peoples:<br />
    53. 53. Resolution on Indigenous Education (1995), <br />Resolution on Indigenous Education<br />The Education International First World Congress meeting in Harare (Zimbabwe) from 19 to 23 July 1995:<br />Recommends that:<br />
    54. 54. Our paper…..<br />Even into the 21th century, extension transfer-of-knowledge was based on the belief that: “scientists know best, new technology is better than old, technology is needed, innovators will transfer information to laggards and many people are not information seekers” (Chamala 1999). Eventually, researchers and educators working with indigenous populations began to realize that failures of their programs could be attributed to the lack of participation by local communities and the omission of traditional knowledge and cultural expression in program planning and implementation. <br />
    55. 55. By the 1990s a new participatory research and education approach began to be implemented in several countries around the world. This method actively includes indigenous community members in; the identification of program needs, development and implementation of research or education programs, and evaluation of outcomes. In the past 20 years, use of participatory methods has become increasingly prevalent in extension efforts. The primary idea is that “community ownership and empowerment are crucial in supporting and effecting change” (Beilin 2001).<br />
    56. 56. (Agrawal 2008). <br />Indigenous education and economic development has evolved in the decades since worldwide colonialism from focusing on exploitation to economic growth, to growth with equity, to basic needs, to participatory development and to sustainable development<br />In the decades since the second world war the rhetoric of development<br />has lumbered through several stages - from its focus on economic growth, to<br />growth with equity, to basic needs, to participatory development, to<br />sustainable development<br />promote participatory approaches based on “what people know” and building on “what people have.”<br />Professionals must un-learn assumptions that “modern” must replace “traditional.” Outsiders (e.g. researchers, educators) must be willing to learn from local people.<br />
    57. 57. . New postcolonialities require a rethinking of epistemological assumptions and the formulation of new legitimating conditions for Indigenous education, work that remains a challenge for us all in the millenium ahead.<br /> <br />
    58. 58. In Sub Saharan Africa: <br />The phrase, “Agricultural Advisory Services” instead of Extension may be used to avoid the association with Top-down approaches that ignore traditional knowledge. This results due to the shift from technology transfer to to facilitation; beyond training to learning.<br />
    59. 59. Fiji<br />It is anticipated that experiences gained from the Drawa model area will help to institutionalize viable community-based sustainable forest management regimes for native forests in Fiji and contribute towards the mainstreaming of participatory rural land use planning in Fiji.<br />
    60. 60. 1899: <br />The U.S. took possession of Guam from Spain and the control was handed over to the Department of the Navy. <br />1900 to 1904: <br /> A series of executive orders were created and issued banning the use of Chamorro language<br />1902: <br />Schools closed due to lack of facilities and English teachers<br />1919: <br />The Naval government decided to uproot centuries of tradition by making a policy that Chamorro culture be a patriarchy. <br />
    61. 61. 1920s: <br />The Chamorro language remained the predominant language but by the 1930s, Chamorros were heavily influenced by American lifestyles and began mixing English words with the Chamorro speech. <br />1930’s Governing Americans argued that “Chamorroswere nothing, other than an obstruction, an obstacle that stubbornly prevented the progress that America was working to bring to the island. <br />Therefore, as the navy positioned itself as a civilizing teacher to Chamorros, it crammed its spheres of influences with “lessons” on American greatness and Chamorro inferiority.<br />
    62. 62.
    63. 63.
    64. 64.
    65. 65.
    66. 66. Manifest Destiny<br />".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."<br />
    67. 67.
    68. 68. Agricultural extension for women farmers in Africa<br />Author info | Abstract | Publisher info | Download info | Related research | Statistics<br />Author Info<br />Saito, Katrine A.<br />Weidemann, C. Jean<br />Abstract<br />Women are responsible for at least 70 percent of food staple production in Africa. They are also important in other agricultural activities, including food processing and marketing, cash cropping and animal husbandry. Women's involvement is significant not only in terms of their labor input, but also in terms of their decision-making authority. This paper proposes a series of operational guidelines on how to provide agricultural extension services in a cost-effective way to women farmers. All small-scale farmers, regardless of gender, face constraints, but the focus here is on women farmers in order to foster a better understanding of the particular gender-related barriers confronting women and the strategies needed to overcome them. Attention is concentrated on sub-Saharan Africa in view of the crucial role of women in agriculture throughout the sub-continent. This paper addresses the question of why women need help -- the role women have in agriculture and the particular constraints they face in terms of access to resources and information. It examines the information needed to modify extension systems to better reach women farmers, to modify the focus of research to address women's activities and to monitor and evaluate programs. The paper also deals with the transmission of the extension message to women farmers and the formulation of the message to be delivered, and the linkage between extension and agricultural research and technology.<br />

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