Making your thesis legal and depositing it online (February 2017 update)

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Workshop presentation to students who will be completing their PhD, DrPh, MPhil theses to help them understand what they can and cannot include in their thesis.

Covers: Advantages of making theses available online
Your thesis
Where to find theses
Your copyright
Criticism and review exception in CPDA
Exercise 1
Clearing copyright
Understanding Creative Commons Licences
Exercise 2
Publishing your thesis
‘Research paper style’ theses
Retaining your copyright -Author Addendums
Redactions/embargoes
Sensitive data and Data Protection Act & Freedom of Information Act
Procedure/Format
Resources/Contact
Questions

Originally created and delivered by Andrew Gray @OrangeShovels but adapted and made worse/better by John Murtagh @LSHTMOpenAccess

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  • New born chick, new service
  • Years ago... to access research and of course theses you had to physically visit a library to read the thesis, you could not copy from it and could not remove from the library

    An example of this is at another institution where they conducted research on paper conservation, one of only 2 places in the UK and very few globally, received a phone call from a researcher in the U.S. who wanted to access one of their theses (found details in our library catalogue) but they could not copy or send it to the researcher so this person decided to visit the UK in the summer (6 months later) to read the thesis. They came in every day and copied out by hand the information they wanted – which as I’m sure you’ll agree was incredibly laborious and tbh the author would have been happy for this researcher to read their thesis (but we did not have any contact details for them) – the contained knowledge within the thesis that had a limited geographic area. Those completing a thesis would surely want it as widely read as possible?
  • So fast forward to the current year.
    We mainly access our research online, though various databases, internet etc
    Theses are now also online
    The DART-Europe E-theses Portal holds open access research theses across many research institutions.
    Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertations is an international organization promoting adoption, creation & use of electronic theses & dissertations (ETDs).
    And finally the British Library has had its Ethos service since 2009
  • Ethos holds approximately 400,000 records and around 160,000 FULL TEXT, either via download from the EThOS database or via links to the institution’s own repository.
    Records are held for all UK PhD-awarding institutions, but they do not (yet) old all records for all institutions.
    Their earliest thesis dates from 1812 – 131 universities in the UK participate and EThOS has records for most - but not all - of the doctoral theses awarded by these institutions.

    Of the remaining 240,000 records dating back to at least 1800, three quarters are available to be ordered for scanning through the EThOS digitisation-on-demand facility. 

    Every month around 3000 new records are added and an additional 2000 full text theses become accessible.
  • As of yesterday (13 October 2016) LSHTM Research Online we have 504 theses available full text dating back to 1950
    Older non digitised theses can be searched via ethos or the Library catalogue.
    Online we have 14 PhD (research paper style) theses and 21 Doctorates in Public Health (DrPH) but the vast majority are PhD (You can search by year, faculty, author and also supervisor (73 were deposited in 2015)
  • Our theses are harvested by Google and a host of other harvest and research aggregators including DART Europe. As a result NINE out of 25 of the most downloaded items across research online – are theses.
    Pro Quest are also harvesting our theses so theses will appear in their search results .
  • Now onto to copyright which is an area that everyone fears but as doctoral students copyright is on your side.
    There is no copyright in ideas, it has to be ‘fixed’ for it be copyrighted i.e. written down – a thesis will do!
    Simply because someone supervises you, provides advice on your writing, discusses ideas, suggests edits does not qualify them to claim copyright/joint copyright
    As the creator of the work you own the copyright unless you give it away! This will often happen if you write an article in a journal since publishers will often insist that you sign copyright over to them – we would even encourage you not to do this – use an addendum http://sparcopen.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/SPARC-Author-Rights-Brochure-2006.pdf where you publish AND keep the copyright. More on this later.
  • At the School, you own all of your work – student essays, coursework, assignments and thesis.
    As part of the E-Theses policy the School seeks a non-exclusive licence to enable the thesis to be made available via the School's online research repository LSHTM Research Online. Theses held in LSHTM Research Online will have the Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-ND which allows reuse of material as long as it is credited and not used for commercial purposes or there are derivatives directly from it. If candidates require a different licence they need to specify this choice to Registry when submitting their e-thesis.
  • So what is the CC-BY-NC-ND licence exactly?
    Well it is the most restrictive licence available for you to put on your work. It means end users must attribute you correctly, they can’t republish it and make a profit (for example a blog with advertising, they cannot make any changes to it. Each thesis gets a cover sheet outlining this. Licences will be covered a little later. But you can also find out about other licences go to our Copyright pages for students or creative commons.org
  • In your thesis there may well be 3rd party copyright material
    This is material created by others, whether that it is in print or online
    There are copyright ‘exceptions’ which allow use of copyrighted material in certain strict ways
    But you need to always credit the use of such material, in the same way that if you are using other peoples ideas/quotes you would cite them
    It applies to images, text, diagrams, tables, figures, photos, sound, video
  • There is a general exception in the CPDA (s. 30) that allows limited use of copyright works without the permission of the copyright owner. To quote: Copyrighted material is defensible if it is for the purposes of "criticism and review or reporting current events”.

    So you can include a copyrighted work if you are directly critiquing and reviewing the work, you need to discuss and assess the importance of the item you use e.g. a diagram – you must be sparing, evaluate whether you really need to use 5 diagrams when only one of them is relevant to what you are discussing.
    Always acknowledge the source – which means an acknowledgment which identifies the work by title or other description.
  • Do not include full articles or chapters in any appendices – if they are originally there they will need to be redacted and the relevant citation put in its place

    We have a take-down policy where if a copyright holder makes a complaint of copyright infringement we will remove the item within 2 days and investigate the claim
  • Here are two examples of criticism and review.

    The first is an image take from an online publications. It is cited.
    The second figure has been taken from a book and is cited minimally.
  • If the work has not been clearly made available not just to others but to the public in general, the exception does not apply – for example private letters. However you may still be using copyrighted material that is not allowed under the exception, such as large amounts of material. If you are it simply means that you need to clear it before you can use it – if you were to ‘publish’ your thesis as a book or part of it as an article your publisher would require you to clear that material.
    In such cases you would need to contact the copyright holder – in many cases this would be the publisher
    You would then need to state what you want to use, where and why you want to use it – this can particularly apply to those who are conducting a phd by publication
    We have a couple of email templates (which are now online) which you can use to contact the copyright holder – details at the end.
  • This template clearly states what you want to use it for and where the material will be displayed, in most cases your request will be granted but be aware that it can take time to clear material
  • This is an example of including copyright material – but with a copyright statement – permission has been sought and given.
  • TinEye is a reverse image search engine. You can submit an image to TinEye to find out where it came from, how it is being used, if modified versions of the image exist, or to find higher resolution versions. TinEye is the first image search engine on the web to use image identification technology rather than keywords, metadata or watermarks.
  • But you don’t always need to obtain permission if the material – if it has a Creative Commons licence – which many research articles now have.
  • Here is a useful poster of CC licences and what each one does.
  • If your paper has a creative commons licence you won’t have to do this.

    However, we have a template you can use in this situation.
  • What you should of course be doing is retaining your copyright and right to re-use your own paper in any way you please.

    This addendum outlines to the publisher the author retains the (i) the rights to reproduce, to distribute, to publicly perform, and to publicly display the Article in any medium for noncommercial purposes; (ii) the right to prepare derivative works from the Article; and (iii) the right to authorize others to make any non-commercial use of the Article so long as Author receives credit as author and the journal in which the Article has been published is cited as the source of first publication of the Article.
  • There may be specific information you will need to redact/remove so that the thesis can be online
    Personal data should either be anonymised or redacted
    Any material obtained under promise of confidentiality should also be redacted
    If you have been unable to clear copyright material
    Where you are submitting a redacted version for online distribution, you need to also submit the ‘unredacted’ version for archival purposes
  • While we believe that having your thesis online immediately once you have been awarded your degree is of great advantage to you in disseminating your research and ideas and advantage to others within your discipline there may be occasions where an embargo is justified – this must be agreed with your supervisor and an embargo of up to 24 months will be given, any such request must be supported by evidence/reasons and there are of course always ‘exceptional circumstances’ outside of the list of agreed reasons can occur.
    You can also request an embargo at a later date
    As the thesis is put online you will receive an email informing you of this so that if circumstances have changed you can then request an embargo and we will start the official procedure for this to be put in place but it will be immediately embargoed of one month on your request pending the completion of the necessary forms
  • Publication is pending, e.g. your article has been accepted
    Questions about what do publishers think if you have a thesis already online will it this prevent later publication, this varies from publisher to publisher, theses are recognised as ‘unpublished’ works, often you will need to rewrite certain amounts of your thesis for publication as an article or book, so they may contain considerable differences – ask your publisher
    If the thesis contains patents then it can be embargoed so that yourself or commercial partner can obtain the ‘relevant’ reward
    If thesis is done on behalf of a commercial company, funded by a commercial company and/or contains commercially sensitive or legally sensitive material then it can be embargoed – do check with the commercial sponsor about this, they may allow it online - If you are funded by one of the research councils e.g MRC, ESRC, Wellcome they will expect you to make your thesis immediately publically available, if there is a reason not to then you must clear that with them
    Material obtained under confidentiality, where simple ‘redaction’ will not suffice
    Personal data that cannot be redacted e.g. that if the removing such material would mean that the thesis would not be coherent then you can request this embargo
    If the thesis contains a substantial amount of uncleared copyright material that does not meet criticism and review exceptions and the redaction of such material would render the thesis incoherent/incomplete then the thesis will be embargoed – I doubt this would happen in many examples within the disciplines here at the school
  • In the Policy FAQ it states that if your thesis is subsequently accepted for publication after deposit - an embargo request can be made – not before.
     
    However this only applies to the whole thesis. Placing online is not the same as publishing. As your doctoral thesis as a whole is not the same thing as a journal article and because even chapters from it are not the same thing as an article (because of the extensive rewriting and adaptation required) we advise that an embargo of your doctoral thesis or indeed elements from it are unnecessary – and only when it has been accepted to be published.

    Journal publishers also understand that most doctoral theses are now required to be deposited online by most Higher Education intuitions and have not barred submissions – indeed it is not in their interests to discourage early-career researchers in this way.


    Pending publication is not the same at submitted or ‘thinking’ about publication.
     
    It is therefore unlikely you will be at risk of publishers refusing to accept a submission by a journal placing your thesis online.

  • Your thesis is currently subject to the Freedom of Information Act, as the School is a public authority as defined in the Act. This means that unless your thesis meets the statutory criteria for exemption under this, or other Act of Parliament and is therefore embargoed (sensitive material, personal data), we must supply a copy of your thesis to anyone who requests it. For advice see Freedom of Information at the School.
  • You will be completing the relevant submission form 4 months before you’re actual submission, at this point you can indicate if you require an embargo/restriction on access to your thesis
    You will submit 2 electronic copies
    1 at the examination stage and another post viva ( the post viva version will be placed within LSHTM Research Online) the earlier version will be stored elsewhere electronically
    This does not include having to submit ‘redacted’ versions
    You will hand these in either via cd to registry or email
  • Usual formats for theses, in the main a pdf if not rtf, doc, docx ( we will convert to a pdf format) if any of your appendices are in other formats e.g excel then please highlight this
    Naming convention as follows…

    If you are submitting a redacted version you need to also indicate that in the naming of the file
  • Help with copyright provided by the Library is available from the Library pages http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/library/guidance/copyright/
  • Here’s the list of current resources on the School page
    Available from the research degree student pages
    Lots of information on copyright and open access from

    These slides are on the Research Degree pages.
  • Here’s the list of current resources on the School page
    Available from the research degree student pages
    Then information on copyright and open access

    These slides are on the Research Degree pages.
  • Contact us if you need help
  • Image credits – all free to use from flickr
  • Making your thesis legal and depositing it online (February 2017 update)

    1. 1. Making your thesis legal & depositing it online http://www.slideshare.net/lshtm/making-your-thesis- legal Updated 09 February 2017
    2. 2. Overview • Advantages of making theses available online • Your thesis • Where to find theses • Your copyright • Criticism and review exception in CPDA • Exercise 1 • Clearing copyright • Understanding Creative Commons Licences • Exercise 2 • ‘Research paper style’ theses • Retaining your copyright -Author Addendums • Redactions/embargoes • Sensitive data and Data Protection Act & Freedom of Information Act • Procedure/Format • Resources/Contact • Questions
    3. 3. In the old days • Physically visit • No copying • Could not remove from library • Access & dissemination of knowledge limited
    4. 4. 2016 • Research is now online • Theses are online • Held in university research repositories • Europe: DART-Europe E- theses Portal • Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertations • British Library’s EThOS service
    5. 5. EThOS • 131 UK institutions • 400,000 records • 160,000c FULL TEXT • Records dating back to at least the year 1800. • Records are held for all UK PhD-awarding institutions • 3,000 new records are added a month & additional 2,000 full text theses become accessible. http://ethos.bl.uk/
    6. 6. Theses at the School • 504 digital theses (October 2016) • Dating back to 1950 • Found via EThoS or LSHTM RO • E-thesis Policy (Oct 2013) • PhD (research paper style) • Doctorates in Public Health (DrPH) • Search by year, faculty, author and supervisor http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/
    7. 7. They’re popular… http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/cgi/stats/report
    8. 8. Where to find theses http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/library/resources/theses/
    9. 9. Copyright • No copyright in ideas • Needs to be ‘fixed’ e.g. written down • Supervision, advice, edits do not qualify as copyright • You own the copyright - unless you give it away
    10. 10. Your Copyright • You the student own all of your work – essays, assignments, coursework & thesis. • Theses held in LSHTM Research Online will have the Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-ND • Also assigned a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to help citation
    11. 11. CC-BY-NC-ND • Must attribute your work • Cannot republish it and profit • Cannot make any changes to it • No reposting to a blog or website • No translations • Cover sheet on each thesis outlining this
    12. 12. 3rd party copyright material • Always credit, cite when you use other people’s material or ideas • Images, text, diagrams, tables, figures, photos, sound, video
    13. 13. Criticism and review (1/2) • General allowance for purposes of criticism, review or quotation is allowed for any type of copyright work. • A minimum amount of material must only be used (usually a short quote) – “fair dealing” • Sufficient acknowledgment of the source will be required.
    14. 14. Criticism and Review (2/2) • Do not use more than is necessary to make your argument. • Do not upload full articles or chapters • We have a “Take down” policy if this is contravened.
    15. 15. Examples
    16. 16. Exercise 1 • Examples of copyright
    17. 17. Clearing copyright material • Not all copyright material is covered by “criticism and review” exception (non public material for exmaple • If thesis was to be ‘published’ as journal article or book • Thesis made available online • Whole articles e.g. appendices • Contact copyright holder – publisher • State what you want to use, where and why
    18. 18. Email template: use copyright material Dear Sir/Madam [Name if known], I am currently studying for a research degree at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. I am contacting you to seek permission to include the following material within the electronic version of my PhD thesis: [Provide full details of the material you intend to include] If you are not the rights holder for this material I would be grateful if you would advise me who to contact. The thesis will be made available within LSHTM Research Online http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/ our institutional repository The repository is non-commercial and openly available to all. Yours Sincerely http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/currentstudents/researchdegreestudents/ rdstudentinformation/email_template___copyright_request.pdf
    19. 19. Example of clearance
    20. 20. Image clearance For some real TinEye search examples, check out the Cool Searches page. For an overview of how to use TinEye, check out their brief tutorial.
    21. 21. Creative Commons licences • Allows you to reuse copyright material • Outlines reuse conditions • CC-BY (Attribution) is most liberal • You can include the entire paper but cite it properly • Full list of licences available below • CC licences to not replace copyright – sit alongside https://creativecommons.org/licenses/
    22. 22. Understanding CC licences Adapted from poster on Creative Commons Australia Website at http://creativecommons.org.au/know-your-rights
    23. 23. Creative Commons licence CC-BY
    24. 24. Exercise 2 • Creative Commons licences
    25. 25. Research paper style theses Obtaining permission to reuse your own published paper
    26. 26. Email template Dear Sir/Madam [Name if known], I would like to request permission to include the following article(s) that I published and authored with you: [include full citation of articles] in the digital copy of my thesis which will be made publically available through LSHTM Research Online http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/ . This is our institutional repository and is non commercial and openly available to all. Yours sincerely http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/currentstudents/researchdegreestudent s/rdstudentinformation/email_template___copyright_request.pdf
    27. 27. Author Addendum • Author Rights: Using the SPARC Author Addendum to secure your rights as the author of a journal article • http://www.sparc.arl.org/resources/autho rs/addendum • Add this to the end of a publishing agreement – usually signed by corresponding author and yourselves. • Retains self-archiving rights of your paper.
    28. 28. Redaction • Personal/sensitive data • Material obtained under promise of confidentiality • Uncleared copyrighted material • Need to also submit an ‘unredacted’ electronic version • 2 versions therefore
    29. 29. Embargos! • Up to 24 months • Agreed with your supervisor • Exceptional circumstances • Evidence needed to support request • Can be requested at later date • Further extension can be requested • Email notification once online • Abstract and metadata will be visible online
    30. 30. Reasons for embargo • Publication is pending • Contains patents • Contains commercially/legally sensitive information • Material obtained under promise of confidentiality • Personal/sensitive data • Uncleared copyrighted material • Accepted for publication
    31. 31. …for publication Accepted by Mark Morgan https://flic.kr/p/ovhykM CC-BY
    32. 32. I have just submitted my single monograph thesis to a publisher; will having it online affect its chances of being accepted? Theses have been classified as ‘unpublished’ works and most publishers take this view. However a few publishers (only OUP that we are aware of) view theses online as being published. You should check with the particular publisher for their position on this. If it will affect your chance of publication you can request an embargo of up to 24 months on your thesis being made available online.
    33. 33. Caveats: • Publishers *do* allow you to make your thesis available online • Whole theses are *very* different to individual published journal articles • “Pending publication” is not the same as submitted to a journal or ‘thinking’ about submitting to a journal • It’s been accepted and is pending publication…. I hope to submit some or all of my single monograph thesis to a publisher at some time in the future; should I request an embargo at the point that I complete my examination forms? The School’s policy is to make theses available online wherever possible. If your thesis has not yet been accepted for publication then your digital copy will be made available online. If your thesis is subsequently accepted for publication and the publisher will not allow an online version to be made accessible by the School, you can then request an embargo on the grounds of “pending publication”
    34. 34. Research Paper style theses ONLY One of the articles in my thesis has just been submitted to a publisher should I still make this available in my online thesis? Individual chapters can be embargoed if necessary … HOWEVER – do this first: 1. If the paper is to be Open Access & has a Creative Commons licence – you can make available in thesis 2. Refer to SHERPA RoMEO site http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/index.php for journal policy on self-archiving final draft version online Sherpa – many allow it!
    35. 35. Research Paper style theses ONLY 3. Finally – you can request permission in Access Restriction form – but be clear about publishing status/progress so supervisor can approve decision to embargo. 4. Ask copyright@lshtm.ac.uk if unsure!
    36. 36. Video Guide to using SHERPA RoMEO (4:26) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wi2VEYxfF8I
    37. 37. The Freedom of Information Act and your thesis • subject to the Freedom of Information Act • we must supply a copy of your thesis to anyone who requests it. • Exemptions included • For advice see Freedom of Information website at the School.
    38. 38. Procedure • Sign thesis submission form 4 months before • Complete embargo/restriction of access form • Examination stage electronic submission • Post viva stage electronic submission • CD or email rdexaminations@lshtm.ac.uk • Creative Commons license CC- BY-NC-ND
    39. 39. Format of your thesis • Pdf, rtf, doc, docx • Thesis naming convention Year_Faculty_Name of Award_Surname_Initial e.g. 2013_ITD_PhD_Gray_A • Appendices naming convention Year_Faculty _Name of Award _ _Surname_Initial_ Appendices e.g. 2013_ITD_PhD_ Gray_A_ AppendixA_ • If redacted indicate in file name e.g Redacted_2013_ITD_PhD_Gray_A_
    40. 40. In Summary • Increases access to research • Can use ‘criticism and review’ exception for copyrighted materials • Use email templates to seek clearance for 'Research Paper Style Thesis' material and other uncleared material • Redact uncleared material for online copy • Embargo of up to 24months - decided with your supervisor • Post viva version goes online • Both redacted and un- redacted versions to be submitted • Emailed once online if later need an embargo • PDF format ideally • CC-BY-NC-ND license • Queries - contact us
    41. 41. Copyright guidance http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/library/guidance/copyright/
    42. 42. Web Resources 1 • LSHTM E-thesis Policy FAQs http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/currentstudents/researchdegreestu dents/rdstudentinformation/e_thesis_faq.html • LSHTM Copyright Guidance http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/library/guidance/copyright/ • Open Access Publishing at LSHMT http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/library/specialist_services/open_access/ • SHERPA RoMEO http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/index.php
    43. 43. Resources 2 • PhD forms http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/currentstudents/researchdegreestudents/rdstu dentinformation/phdexamentry/index.html • DrPH forms http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/currentstudents/researchdegreestudents/rdstu dentinformation/drphexamentry/index.html • Intellectual Property Rights Policy at LSHTM http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/library/guidance/copyright/school_intellectual_prope rty_policy_2005_.pdf • Policy and email templates http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/currentstudents/researchdegreestudents/rdstu dentinformation/email_template___copyright_request.pdf • Embargo/Restriction of access form http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/currentstudents/researchdegreestudents/rdstu dentinformation/phdexamentry/restriction_of_access_form.pdf
    44. 44. Resources 2 • Freedom of Information at LSHTM http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/policies/foi/ • The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) http://search.ndltd.org/ • Author Rights: Using the SPARC Author Addendum to secure your rights as the author of a journal article http://www.sparc.arl.org/resources/authors/addendu m
    45. 45. Contact Library and Archives Service copyright@lshtm.ac.uk Copyright Guidance http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/library/guidance/copyright/
    46. 46. Image credits • http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationaalarchief/5679579533 No known copyright restrictions • http://www.flickr.com/photos/statelibraryofnsw/5748710857/ No known copyright restrictions - State Library of New South Wales • http://www.flickr.com/photos/62935829@N02/5750581683/ Some rights reserved by internet and tacos • http://www.flickr.com/photos/red_jelly/298644360/ Some rights reserved by its*me*red • http://www.flickr.com/photos/26628378@N03/4368467112/ Some rights reserved by Pryere • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lastyearsgirl_/2581843770/ Some rights reserved by lism • http://www.flickr.com/photos/rooreynolds/1555706680/ Some rights reserved by Roo Reynolds • http://www.flickr.com/photos/95284782@N06/8880500036/ Some rights reserved by marsmet548 • http://www.flickr.com/photos/teegardin/6094261308/ Some rights reserved by kenteegardin • http://www.flickr.com/photos/samsamcardiff/7326744462/ Some rights reserved by Sam, W • https://www.flickr.com/photos/78718342@N00/398014474 (CC-BY-SA) by Hugo Fernandes • https://flic.kr/p/rECbV2 (CC-BY) Gotcredit.com via Flickr. • http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationaalarchief/3018264591/ No known copyright restrictions – Nationaal Archief • http://www.flickr.com/photos/hockadilly/5744624394/ Some rights reserved by hockadilly • http://www.flickr.com/photos/sdasmarchives/6996865150/ No known copyright restrictions – Museum of Photographic Art • http://www.flickr.com/photos/mopa1/7096851375/ No known copyright restrictions – Museum of Photographic Art • http://www.flickr.com/photos/21572939@N03/2090542246/ Some rights reserved by A. Diez Herrero • http://www.flickr.com/photos/australian-war-memorial/3527157206/ No known copyright restrictions – Australian War Memorial Collection
    47. 47. Questions

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