Nissan Research Project: Phase IIIThe Final Report: African American Millennials Due: December 12, 2011 Elena Carroll Lauren Geniviva Sarah Markowitz Alana Rosenberg
SECTION I – phase 1Introduction and Research ObjectivesOur Topic ExplainedHow does being a member of their minority group affect African American Millenials’ brandselection when buying cars? Ethnic identification could be a major construct in the prediction ofethnic minorities’ behavior, attitudes, and consumption practices. So we will be exploring theimpact of ethnic identity on consumer attitudes when purchasing cars.The social identity of ethnic minorities involves two elements:(1) Race, which refers to phenotypical differences between groups such as skin color and(2) Ethnicity, which incorporates the cultural intergroup differences in attitudes, beliefs, andnorms.Research ObjectivesWe will conduct qualitative research to search for insights as to why certain car brands arefavored by African Americans.With the insights collected through qualitative research we hope to build a better understandingof how to position Nissan in a way that appeals to the African American Millennialdemographic.Statement of ProblemsNissan launched its new marketing platform in August 2010. With the theme being innovation,the new marketing initiative is called “Innovation for All”. In all of the marketing efforts, Nissancontinues to convey the innovation theme to its audience. Nissan is also committed to diversityand multicultural segments are a huge component of Nissan sales success. Each Nissan vehiclehas a high composition of multicultural consumers, which is an extremely important part of thesevehicles reaching sales goals. In general, multicultural share exceeds the total market as of 2010.In response to the recent economic downturn, Nissan reduced spending towards AfricanAmerican targeted marketing efforts. Due to this response, Nissan’s competitors have had bigsales gains. Most importantly, less and less African Americans have been buying Nissan cars.Nissan lost the large sales volume lead it had over its competitors (Nissan Case Study). The otherimportant issue is that the target, African American Millennials 18-24, probably will not bebuying a new car for at least another decade. In addition, a majority of them do not have themoney to buy a new car.Significance • Research will help to determine what can capture the attention of this multicultural demographic to increase sales and emphasize the aspect of diversity in the Nissan brand again. • It is important to find out the overall perception African Americans have of the
automobile industry because this insight will help to position the brand in a way they will appreciate and want to purchase a Nissan. • Research on African Americans’ current opinion of different brands will help to see what their expectations are in a car, as well as an advertising campaign. o This can show whether or not Nissan already provides what they are looking for in a car. • Looking into African American culture is significant because by understanding their culture, it will help to figure out how a product will enhance and fit into their lifestyle.SECTION II – phase 1Literature ReviewSize of the Industry • African American Population: 12.6% of total United States Population, 38,901938 • Number Black Owned Firms: 1,923,904 • Number persons aged 18-24: 30,672,000 • Nissan Car Industry (Sept 2011) o YTD Sales: 774,079 o YTD % Market Share: 8.1% • Car Industry: YTD 2011 Sales: 4,733,646 (WSJ, 2011).African American Purchase BehaviorMarketplace discriminationA study regarding Black shoppers’ purchase behavior found that African Americans reportedfeeling “marketplace discrimination” in their daily lives. This is usually experienced with storepersonnel (Crockett, 2003). This type of discrimination creates a frustrating and stressfulpurchase experience for African-American shoppers. Another article explains that experienceswith race-driven decisions could result in unwelcome and segregating situations. It is seen as apersistent social problem that’s often over looked and businesses needs to be aware of how toattract and retain customers, even if they are of a different race (Davidson, 2009). Discriminationis still a major part of their lives and as a result it is very important to them that they feel likethey are being respected and that their business is appreciated. An annual multicultural marketingstudy found that 91% of African Americans feel that discrimination is a part of most AfricanAmericans’ day-to-day lives. The same study also found that nearly half of the African Americanrespondents have been made to feel unwelcome in a store. As a result of this, African Americansoften support brands that consistently show its support and appreciation of African Americancontributions (10 Things, 2008). Black men and women go out of their way to fight their historyof oppression and often act as if they are members of a higher social class as a result of how theyhave been treated in the past (Crockett, 2003).
Foreign CarsIn a study regarding African American consumer and domestic and foreign made automobiles,African Americans throughout the study ranked Japanese cars as more innovative, better, higherin quality and better for upper class. However, they also viewed those who owned one asunconcerned with the U.S. economy. African Americans showed more involvement in theirpurchase decisions and more of a pride in their own car. When targeting African Americans,some good ways to segment their population within the African-American population is gender,age and income (McMaines, 2002).SafetyAfrican Americans find safety to be a large factor in their purchase decisions when purchasingcars. Americans use safety belts 70% of the time and the number is increasing. NHTSAAdministrator Jeffrey Runge explains the numbers are due to hard work by traffic safety partnersin AA community (Safety, 2003).NissanNissan is a company that understands that the African-American market is influential enough tonot be overlooked. “True” is the first multi-cultural company hired by Nissan to directly targetAfrican Americans. It ran for all target markets but has an emphasis toward African-Americans(Ede, 2000). It is clear that Nissan is a brand that cares about this minority group, unlike Honda,who is seen as a discriminatory brand toward African-Americans. It was found that African-American borrowers consistently paid higher “finance markup charges” than white customerswhen they financed their cars at dealerships through American Honda Finance Corporation(Mokhiber, 2004). Nissan, on the other hand does very well with the African American market.A 2005 Study found that African Americans favored Nissan because they focused on two keyaspects of their culture: pride and individuality. The study found that African Americans that arepotential new vehicle buyers show a distinctive emotional profile that deals with “super values”which are security, freedom, esteem, and balance. (Elias, 2011)CultureWhile the African-American market is not homogeneous, African Americans do share a “blackexperience” and strong cultural bonds that give them a perspective quite different from the Non-Hispanic White population. For a brand to develop true connections with this segment they mustunderstand that African Americans strong personal culture makes them respond to marketingefforts differently from Non-Hispanic White consumers. A Consumer Profile of AfricanAmericans conducted by The Futures Company found that there are 4 major value trends thatexist as cultural bonds among the African American market. A major trend is identity expression,which is a result of an attempt to overcome stereotypes and discrimination. Personalempowerment and celebration of life are also themes that dominate African American culture.Lastly, a strong sense of community is a very important facet of their lifestyles and outlook onlife in general. (Consumer Profile, 2009)
Buying PowerAfrican Americans represent the largest minority group in the United States that is continuing togrow more rapidly than the rest of the population. As a whole, they have a projected buyingpower of around $1.1 billion that is expected to continue to increase. Through analyzing U.S.Census data, researchers have found that a key reason for the economic growth is a result of anincreasing number of African Americans who are starting and expanding their own businesses.The desire to start their own businesses reflects the groups desire to control their own destiny andhold more power as a result of their history of oppression. This group is not one that should beignored by marketers. However, this group is very unique in several ways. Purchasing decisionsare more strongly affected by certain cultural influences. An important finding in this study wasthat African Americans seek out brands that provide emotional rewards and personal perks.African Americans find it very important to connect with brands that demonstrate theyunderstand them and support causes that the demographic also supports.In order for a brand to build a connection with the African American consumer segment thebrand must first understand their values, personal culture, relationships, and behaviors (10Things, 2008).SECTION III – phase 2Research Questions for Qualitative Study 1. What is the brand equity of Nissan in the African American demographic? And what are the sources of this brand equity? A basic premise of brand equity is that the power of a brand lies in the minds of consumers and what they have experienced and learned about the brand over time. What aspects of the car and the way the car is positioned in the marketplace are appealing to our target market? What are the key identifiers that African Americans respond to when it comes to cars? 2. How does being a member of a minority affect African American purchase patterns of cars? We are interested in seeing what aspects of African American culture have an effect on purchasing a car. What do they want in life? What role does their car play in their daily lives? What aspects of advertising and the presentation of products appeal most to our target? Who do African Americans turn to when seeking information about cars? Are there certain brands and models that African Americans believe their peers mainly buy? We hope to develop a consumer profile of lifestyle and psychographic characteristics.Method of Qualitative StudySamples • Convenience sample
• Number of participants o Focus Group 1: 3 participants Charles: 21 years old, male, from Syracuse, New York, owns his own car Dan: 22 years old, male, from Syracuse, New York, has owned 2 cars Ben: 23 years old, male, from the Bronx, New York, uses family’s car o Focus Group 2: 4 participants Jeremy: 21 years old, male, from Brooklyn, New York, no car Morgan: 20 years old, female, from Washington DC, owns car at home Kenny: 19 years old, male, from Montclair, New Jersey, uses family’s car Jordan: 20 years old, male, from Houston, Texas, owns a car at home o Individual interviews: 2 participants Ariana: 21 years old, female, from Las Vegas, Nevada, no car Arielle: 21 years old, female, born in Holland, from Montreal, Canada, no car Explanations of Materials to be testedOur goal with conducting focus groups and individual interviews was to determine how AfricanAmerican Millenials feel about the car industry and Nissan as a brand, and the cultural aspectsthat influence this as a result of being a minority. We conducted this qualitative research in acomfortable setting, either in a one-on-one atmosphere or in a small focus group of no more than6 participants.Location • Focus groups: living room at 204 Comstock, Apartment #2 • Interviews: quiet room with no distractions inside of Theta sorority houseAtmosphere • Focus Group 1: o Nighttime, relaxed, participants were tired from long day of classes o Pizza and refreshments were available to participants • Focus Group 2: o Daytime, relaxed, participants were comfortable and friendly o Pizza and refreshments were available to participantsTimeline • First focus group: o Tuesday, October 25, 2011 at 6:30 PM • Second focus group: o Friday, October 28, 2011 at 2:00 PM • Interviews: o Monday, October 31, 2011 at 6:00 PM o Tuesday, November 1, 2011 at 4:30 PMAnalysisGrounded Theory: Rather than beginning with a hypothesis, the first step we took was collecting
data through a variety of methods including secondary research, focus groups, and interviews.From the data collected, we made lists of key points that we found. The key points were thengrouped into larger themes. With these themes we created a perceptual map to visualize andanalyze the data. From this perceptual map we will move on to create concepts and insightsimportant to the rest of the research.Findings of Qualitative StudyResults • Nissan Themes: o Nissan is thought to be out of price range “Are they expensive? I don’t think I would want to pay that much” o Not a car that they would ever want “They are not cars that appeal to younger kids” o Slips under the radar “Most of my peers drive big expensive cars or something small and efficient, there is no in-between. I don’t see Nissans that much.” o Can only picture a Nissan vaguely, but most didn’t know what they look like “When I think of Nissan I think of red, fast, and their break light pattern. You can recognize a car very easily by their lights” o Look luxurious before realize is a Nissan “Nissans are more luxury but not sporty” “If you took the Nissan logo off of the car I would have thought it was a Lexus, the Nissan logo makes it less appealing” o Thought of Nissan as a luxurious brand “Nissans are more luxury, not sporty” o Racing, flashy cars “I associate speeding with Nissans” • Cars Themes: o Big on safety “ I always get mad at my friends if they don’t put their seatbelts on” “Safety, I feel like, should be very important” o Space is important “I need a car that fits all my things if I need to move something” “ I like my car to be big enough to drive around with friends” o Very practical thinkers “Having a reliable car is key” “I want my ideal car to be luxurious yet sporty, but for now I just need a car to get me places” o Want to be comfortable “I am always driving and hanging out with my friends so I want a car that fits all of us comfortably” “I definitely would only buy a 4-door car” o Cares about style “The interior of cars tells a lot about you so I like to keep mine very clean” o Mileage is important
“Saving money on gas is important also”• Answers to research questions: o What is the brand equity of Nissan in this African American demographic? Nissan in the minds of this demographic is either bland, almost nonexistent, or on the verge of having a negative connotation. Although they are viewed as “luxurious” cars they are not a top choice in their minds when considering purchasing a car. o How does being a member of a minority affect African American purchase patterns of cars? Our respondents want their car to bring them from point A to point B; that is the most important aspect of their car because they are very rational about their car purchasing behavior. The rest are added bonuses: being luxurious, having a good stereo, being fast, etc. This group is very community oriented: they are always at school, driving around with friends, or spending time with their family members. Respondents said they would ask their parents for advice when buying a car and would also consider purchasing a brand solely because their parents once owned one. Although it is not incredibly important, they are also very interested in personalization of cars. They want their car to express themselves in subtle ways such as keeping the interior clean and having a nice stereo system.• Summary of Focus Group 1: o Our first focus group included three very sociable men who were very willing to speak with us and give their opinions. All three men were very familiar with Nissan as a brand and knew a great deal about cars in general. Although they knew many specific features and models of Nissan cars they were still unimpressed by the brand in general. Nissan was not a brand that they would consider first when buying a new car because it is too expensive and it is not a type of mind brand when thinking of buying a new car. The group had great insights as a result of knowing so much about car brands and often went off subject because of their enthusiasm about certain cars. They agreed that flashy luxurious cars were not ideal for their lifestyle but they would instead prefer a comfortable reliable car with enough room for their friends to ride with them. Therefore, this would not align with what the participants think of when they think of Nissan because no participants mentioned Nissan as a car that they would want. They wanted reliability, safety and comfort, but never mentioned Nissan when asked what first car they would want. It is clear that Nissan is overlooked when being considered as a first car.• Summary of Focus Group 2: o Participants in Focus Group 2 also confirmed the fact that Nissan lacks a specific brand identity. One participant even remarked, “I can’t even think of what a Nissan looks like.” Participants seemed lost to grasp an overall theme, image, or person they could associate with Nissan. They seemed to collectively agree Nissan was a fine car, but not a car they would consider buying. It seemed to have no place in their consumer awareness.• Summary of Interview 1: o Peers mainly drive BMWs and Hondas both at school and at home
o Driving usually with friends going out, getting alcohol, or going out to eat o Believes that a car does show a lot about your personality, but only if you have the money to buy any car that you wanted o Practicality and getting from A to B are the most important factors o Couldn’t think of anyone that owns a Nissan o Wouldn’t be opposed to buying a Nissan but not first choice o Nothing stands out about the Nissan brand that attracts her o “If it didn’t have the logo on it, I wouldn’t know it was a Nissan” • Summary of Interview 2: o Not many peers have cars but those who do have Hondas o Most important factor is getting her from A to B o It’s very important to have a car that’s environmentally friendly o Likes Nissan, but would prefer another car – has nothing against them o They have nice sports cars, but their ordinary sedans are “bleh” o Nissan has a large array of designs but don’t have a target market o Possibly a copycat brand imitating other cars and modelsDiscussions of Qualitative Study • What we found: o Not considered a top of mind brand o Slips under the radar o No brand personality, need to know “who they are” o No consistent way to draw a person that was Nissan o Need to advertise more o Come off as trying too hard o African Americans live in their “here and now” – not concerned about the future Often said “I’d take a Nissan maybe in the future.” • Answer to research objective: o Current advertising for Nissan is not effective because it isn’t positioned as a top of mind car for African American Millenials • Relation to Secondary Research CARS o The study entitled “Honda’s Race Problem” describes how in the pat Honda Finance Corporation discriminated against African Americans by charging them higher finance markup charges than white customers. This is interesting due to the fact that many of our respondents thought favorably of Honda as a brand. o Our findings did somewhat correspond to the article “African American Attitudes toward domestic and foreign made automobiles”. The Article mainly argues African Americans do favor foreign cars. Our focus group findings demonstrated they view Honda as a car brand that they know is safe and reliable, as well as a car their friends drive. Nissan, as a brand, is not associated with being a foreign made car, but it does not negatively impact sales among this group of consumers. (Mokhiber, 2004)
SAFETYo The article “Safety belt use among African Americans reaches record high” explains that there has been a great increase in the percentage of African Americans using their seat belts. The information from our focus group relates directly to this article because both the article and our focus group findings support that African Americans are extremely concerned with safety and this trend has been growing. (Safety, 2003) PURCHASE BEHAVIORo Our findings did not relate to “Coping with Marketplace Discrimination: An Exploration of the Experiences of Black Men”. This article explains how many black men experience marketplace discrimination when shopping. In our focus group, no African American men reported feeling discriminated against or stressed during shopping experiences. (Crockett, 2003)o The article “Reaching America’s Minorities: Toyota Camry’s Pursuit of the Afro- American Audience and Opinions on What Latinas Want.” touched upon an important theme of the main psychographic characteristics of the African American demographic when considering their car purchasing behavior. The article stated that African Americans are best described as self-confident risk takers, style conscious, savvy, have strong family ties, and often seek new experiences. Our qualitative research found insights that related to the characteristics of savvy and having strong family ties. In general most of our respondents had a great deal of practical knowledge about cars and car brands. In addition to this we found that family ties were closely related to car purchasing behavior. Many respondents stated that they have previously owned or would purchase a car that their parents have. (Precourt, 2009)o To develop true connections with this consumer segment, marketers must understand that African Americans personal culture makes them respond to marketing efforts differently from other consumers. The study, “Consumer Profile: African Americans”, outlined some of the key cultural characteristics that set this demographic apart from others. An important theme is the cultural aspect of expressing their identity. Since many African Americans are forced to face and overcome stereotypes they often express their identity in ways that goes against the stereotypes that exist. The insights we collected related to this in that all of our respondents had a negative opinion of the stereotypical flashy vehicle choices and preferred reliability. Another key insight we found that agreed with this article was the idea that African Americans have a strong sense of living in the moment. Our respondents were very practical about their car purchasing opinions, with gas expenses being a very important aspect of a car. (Consumer, 2009)o “10 Things About African Americans” touched upon the fact that African Americans tend to select brands that are reliable and represent quality. Although they are brand loyal, they are not blindly brand loyal. This came up in our focus groups when respondents admitted that they buy cars that their parents own but they take many things into consideration when deciding which car to buy. (10 Things, 2008)
• Exercises o See Appendices D & E o Exercise 1: List top 5 qualities that are important to you when looking for a car Common themes we found in participants’ lists: • Safety • Space (4-door) • Speed • Gas efficient • Reliable • Comfort o Exercise 2: Draw what Nissan, Toyota, and Honda would like as a person Majority of participants did not know how to portray Nissan, but when they did it was a very bland and plain character • Very all over the place because no true identity for Nissan • Varied from plain stick figure, to cool kid, to businessman A common theme among Honda was a “geeky” or “nerdy” Asian Some participants drew a soccer mom for Toyota, while others drew an every day guy such as a “cool” guy or a jock
Cognitive MapOur cognitive map demonstrates two important themes that our target audience believes is trueabout Nissan.1. No Brand PersonalityThe first is that Nissan has no brand personality. They described is as “bland” and were oftenvague in their descriptions of Nissan, We felt as if Nissan is a brand that often times slips underthe radar as a car that our target would consider as a new car. One important thing we found wasthat many participants could not picture a Nissan in their mind.2. Too ExpensiveMany found Nissan to be too expensive of a car. Each respondent said that it was out of his orher personal price range and that it wasn’t practical. At times, they said that they would considera Nissan “one day”.
Implications for Advertising CampaignAfter our qualitative research, we realized that for this target audience, Nissan has no brandpersonality and is too expensive. It would be in Nissan’s best interest to create a campaign thatbuilds a brand personality for Nissan. It needs to create an image in people’s minds that theyenvision when they think of Nisan. Nissan needs to decide what their most important quality is intheir cars and create a campaign that revolves around this one quality. This target audience findsspace, safety and reliability to be very important when purchasing a new car. If Nissan chose oneof these qualities and created a campaign that revolved around that word, it would hit home withthis group. The campaign also needs to provide customers incentives on why to buy such anexpensive car, since the majority of our respondents found Nissan to be extremely expensive.We also believe that it would help Nissan to create advertisements thatFuture Research of Quantitative StudyFor future research, we would find it beneficial to find more about how African AmericanMillenials feel about being a minority. Asking questions about their purchase behaviors, whatbrands they like and how often they shop would also be helpful in this study. We were very self-conscious about not offending the respondents, however, this would help our research greatly.Limitations of Qualitative Study • We did not have many female respondents within our focus groups. • Our one-on-one interviews were all female respondents.SECTION IV – phase 3Research Questions for Quantitative Study 1. What is the brand equity of Nissan in the African American demographic? And what are the sources of this brand equity? A basic premise of brand equity is that the power of a brand lies in the minds of consumers and what they have experienced and learned about the brand over time. What aspects of the car and the way the car is positioned in the marketplace are appealing to our target market? What are the key identifiers that African Americans respond to when it comes to cars? 2. How does being a member of a minority affect African American purchase patterns of cars? We are interested in seeing what aspects of African American culture have an effect on purchasing a car. What do they want in life? What role does their car play in their daily lives? What aspects of advertising and the presentation of products appeal most to our target? Who do African Americans turn to when seeking information about cars? Are
there certain brands and models that African Americans believe their peers mainly buy? We hope to develop a consumer profile of lifestyle and psychographic characteristics.Method of Quantitative StudyThe quantitative study was a 25 questions survey distributed to 231 people that contained a seriesof multiple choice, fill in the blank, and ranked survey questions. Respondents were mostlyconcentrated in the south, between the ages of 18 and 29.Results of Quantitative Study • Target demographic seems to greatly value their community. According to question 4, 38.7% of respondents agree their community influences what they buy. Also, 55.6% of respondents are concerned about the welfare of their community. 53.6 % of respondents agree spending time in the community is important. • 42.2% of the target demographic also values education as the most important community initiative, and 41.6% said arts and entertainment was the least important. This shows an emphasis on practicality within the demographic. • When respondents were asked to rank where they were most likely to look first to buy a new car, 60% said were most likely to go to family first, and 48.3% said they were pretty likely to go to friends. However, 61.3% said they would go to dealerships last for advice. • Interestingly, the presence of brands Chevy, Toyota, Honda, and Nissan were all ranked evenly among the respondents. Yet, Nissan continues to not be top of mind when buying a car. • Confidence (37%) was rated the most important when looking to a new trendsetter. Any brand that is top of market must exude confidence. According to question 4, 38.8% of respondents agree their community influences what they buy. • 52% of respondents said they were most likely to listen to R & B, 39% said they were secondly as likely to listen to hip hop, and 31% said their third most popular choice was hip hop. A great majority of these artists are also African American, meaning they associate and prefer most the artists they are most like.Discussions of Quantitative StudyOur quantitative research revealed a presence of Nissan does exist within their community, andis a somewhat favorable brand. The two qualities most associated with the brand are“dependable,” and “stylish.” However, those who did not find Nissan to be a favorable brandsaid the car was just “average.” Our main finding resided in this fact. Nissan blends into themind of consumer and buyers because they do not have a distinct trait or characteristic thatmakes the brand stand out. Also, when respondents were asked when presented with cars of allequal traits, which brand would they prefer, they preferred Honda and Toyota.
Conclusions of Quantitative StudyThe demographic does value their community and has a sense of community values. They mostvalue musical artists within their demographic.Nissan as a brand needs to break away from an “average” brand and focus on one aspect they dowell and sell that aspect to create a brand identity.Future Research of Quantitative StudyFuture research would include running the survey on a different demographic to compare theresults and see where the results differed.Limitations of Quantitative StudyRespondents were 85% female.SECTION V– phase 3Final RecommendationsNissan already is a good brand that sells a good product. They do not need to alter their product;Nissan needs to focus their campaign. By having a consistent campaign with one tone and theme,a brand identity will develop. Once a first identity is created, they then have a platform toemphasize other features they offer and show their versatility. The most important aspect toemphasize to the demographic is dependability, reliability, and economic stability. If Nissan canemphasize what they do best, then consumers will trust them and think of them when looking fora vehicle with those qualities.To make a successful campaign they should pick one tone and convey it over and over. Thiscampaign will give Nissan an identity for possible consumers to use as a frame of reference.Buyers trust brands with a confident and consistent message. Nissan should decide what they dobest and what pride themselves on as a brand, and make a campaign that drives those qualitiesrepeatedly.Another suggestion, according to a 2011 article in the Journal of Interactive Advertising, itemphasizes the importance of ethnicities to feel represented within advertising to become users.The first step in engaging with a brand is to see their race represented within the campaign. IfNissan were to take this implication, they could use black actors and have subtle audio focusedon rap or R&B music. By using these minute details, they would cater more to the AfricanAmerican market, but not ostracize others.
Creative BriefWhy are we communicating?Nissan does not have a strong presence currently among African American millennials.Advertising needs to reach out to these millennials to expand their market.What do we want the communication to do?Make Nissan a top choice for this target when deciding when to purchase a new vehicle. Thetarget needs to understand know what Nissan does best.Who is our audience?African Americans ages 18-29, also known as millennialsWhat do they currently think?Nissan is an average car with no brand identity or personality. The target knows of it but theyhave no way to define it or distinguish it from other brands.What do we want them to think?Nissan is a dependable car that aligns with their needs and wants for an affordable price.What is the big idea?Nissan is a dependable car that fits your budget.How do we make it believable?By picking one aspect and consistently concentrating on this over and over again, it will begin tocreate a brand image for the target. In addition, the repetition and reliability will convince thetarget of Nissan’s brand identity and their promise to its customers.
References10 Things About African Americans. (2008). The Futures Company, 1-12. Retrieved October 8, 2011, from Warc.com.Consumer Profile: African Americans. (2009). The Futures Company. Retrieved October 8, 2011, from Warc.com.Crockett, David, Sonya A. Grier, Jacqueline A. Williams. (2003). Coping with Marketplace Discrimination: An Exploration of the Experiences of Black Men. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2003, 1. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 395019941).Davidson, Edith F. (2009). Unintended consequences of race-based segmentation strategies. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 26. Retrieved December 1, 2011, Emerald Group Publishing. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm ?issn=0736-3761&volume=26&issue=3&articleid=1789299&show=htmlEde, F. O. (2000). African-American Consumer Attitudes Toward Domestic and Foreign- made Automobiles. Management Research News, 23(5/6), 1-19. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=290263851&SrchMode=1&sid=3&Fmt =4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1318615438&clientI d=54941Elias, Troy. (2009). Effects of Strength of Ethnic Identity and Product Presenter Race on Black Consumers Attitudes: A Multiple-Group Model Approach. The Journal of Interactive Advertising 11.2. Retrieved October 8, 2011, from Warc.com.Mokhiber, R. (2004). Hondas race problem. Multinational Monitor, 25(9), 30-30. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208869467?accountid=14214National Student Advertising Competition: AAF. (2012, September). Nissan: Case Study & Policy and Procedures. Retrieved from http://www.blackboard.syr.edu.com/.Safety belt use among African Americans reaches record high. (2003). Professional Safety, 48(5), 1. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 336019671).The wall street journal, calendars and economy: auto sales. (2011, Oct 03). Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/mdc/public/page/2_3022-autosales.htmlToyota Venza: Are you Venza? (2011). ARF Ogilvy Awards Silver Multicultural, 1-7. Retrieved October 8, 2011, from Warc.com.
SECTION VI – appendixAPPENDIX A: Thoughts on Nissan from Focus Groups • The collage above features images that came to mind when we asked respondents what they thought of when they thought of Nissan. • Many said Vin Diesel because he drives a Nissan in “Fast and Furious.” • The pictures of the Nissan cars are what respondents described when they talked about actual Nissan cars. • Nicholas Cage, Disney stars and The Rock were three other actors who were mentioned when respondents spoke about Nissan.
APPENDIX B: Moderator’s GuidelineFocus Group Itinerary 1. Ask preliminary questions 2. Ask in depth car questions 3. Ask projective car questions 4. Projective technique #1 a. Write down list of top 5 qualities you find necessary in a car in order of importance. 5. Projective technique #2 a. If Nissan, Toyota and Honda were people, draw how they would look.
APPENDIX C: QuestionnairePreliminary questions: • What year are you? • Where are you from? • What’s your major? • Where do you live on campus?In-depth car questions • Do you currently own a car? • Is your car up at school with you? • What brand of car do you have now? What do you like/dislike about it? • How many cars do you have in your household? • Who paid for your car? • Who is financially responsible for you car now? • Describe where you begin to look for a new car? • Do you have many friends/family who own Nissan vehicles? • Would you like to own a Nissan? Is it a car you’d pick for yourself? Why or why not? • What is the most commonly owned car among your peers? Why do you think it is that car?Projective: • If Nissan were a celebrity, who would it be and why? • What does a typical day and/or night look like when drive your car? Where do you go? Who do you drive with? • What visuals do you think of when you think of Nissan? Why? • Do you find your car to be most important for getting you from point A to point B or is it a definition of who you are as a person? Explain.
APPENDIX D: Exercise 2Draw what Nissan, Toyota, and Honda would look like as a person.