Have We Achieved Them, the Great Debate, and its Impact on Poverty in America By: Kevin Mooney, Craig Rhee, Lauren Schulte
Welfare Controversy: Why the need to reform? <ul><li>Nadya Suleman </li></ul><ul><li>Nadya Suleman is a single mother livi...
Theories: How can this be explained? <ul><li>Flawed Character :   Are some people too irresponsible to maintain a job and ...
Goals of the 1996 Welfare Reform Act <ul><li>1. Reduce child poverty rate.  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cut spending by reducing ...
Number of Children Receiving Welfare Per Month <ul><li>This reveals the need to improve the situation for children. </li><...
Child Poverty Each Year Since Welfare Reform
 
Reducing Child Poverty <ul><li>Has the goal of reducing the child poverty rate been accomplished? </li></ul><ul><li>The ch...
From Welfare to Work: Reducing Dependence on Government Aid <ul><li>The 1996 Welfare Reform introduced new work requiremen...
From Welfare to Work <ul><li>Why reduce welfare spending? </li></ul><ul><li>If an able-bodied individual receives governme...
Welfare Caseloads 1994 - 2004
From Welfare to Work <ul><li>According to this chart, welfare caseloads have decreased since the welfare reform act was pa...
Encouraging Heterosexual Marriage <ul><li>The welfare reform bill states that : </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage is the foundati...
Poverty Statistics Related to  Marital Status: 1996 vs 2007 <ul><li>1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Married Couple Families, with c...
How Has Encouraging Heterosexual Marriage Affected Poverty? <ul><li>Married couples are less likely to be in poverty. </li...
Conclusions & Political Debate <ul><li>Child poverty decreased following the passage of the welfare reform. </li></ul><ul>...
Debate: All Who Think it Was Ineffective: <ul><li>The strong economy of the 1990’s caused reductions in welfare caseloads....
Debate: All Who Think it Was Effective <ul><li>Parents and children are harmed by welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>The prior sys...
<ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jeU1vWCRyVA </li></ul>Debate: All Who Think it Was Effective
Present and Future Outlook on Reform <ul><li>In 2006, Congress reauthorized TANF, and made states increase the work requir...
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1996 Welfare Reform Act Goals

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1996 Welfare Reform Act Goals

  1. 1. Have We Achieved Them, the Great Debate, and its Impact on Poverty in America By: Kevin Mooney, Craig Rhee, Lauren Schulte
  2. 2. Welfare Controversy: Why the need to reform? <ul><li>Nadya Suleman </li></ul><ul><li>Nadya Suleman is a single mother living in California with 14 children. She was impregnated by donated sperm. You may know her as “Octo-Mom”, as her latest pregnancy yielded eight children in addition to her six. </li></ul><ul><li>Should Nadya Suleman receive tax money from the state of California, or the federal government? </li></ul><ul><li>What explains these types of behavior? What are the best remedies? </li></ul><ul><li>Do those who truly need aid get lost in the mix? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Theories: How can this be explained? <ul><li>Flawed Character : Are some people too irresponsible to maintain a job and function in society? Do the non-poor deserve a pat on the back? </li></ul>Big Brother : Does Welfare provide a safety net for those who wish to behave irresponsibly? Should the government do more, or do less? Restricted Opportunity : Do the educational, political, and other social institutions discriminate, causing the poor to be poor outside of their control?
  4. 4. Goals of the 1996 Welfare Reform Act <ul><li>1. Reduce child poverty rate. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cut spending by reducing dependence on government aid. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reduce number of children born out of wedlock through strengthening heterosexual marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>We conducted research to find out if we have achieved these goals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Number of Children Receiving Welfare Per Month <ul><li>This reveals the need to improve the situation for children. </li></ul><ul><li>In 27 years, the number of children on welfare increased three-fold. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Child Poverty Each Year Since Welfare Reform
  7. 8. Reducing Child Poverty <ul><li>Has the goal of reducing the child poverty rate been accomplished? </li></ul><ul><li>The child poverty rate has fluctuated. Since 1996 there has been a net decrease, however, this cannot be directly credited to welfare reform at this time. </li></ul>
  8. 9. From Welfare to Work: Reducing Dependence on Government Aid <ul><li>The 1996 Welfare Reform introduced new work requirements to help lift people out of welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>The promotion of work requirements improves the life of the parent and also the children. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary assistance was used as an incentive to get the parent to work, which in turn helps the children escape poverty. </li></ul>
  9. 10. From Welfare to Work <ul><li>Why reduce welfare spending? </li></ul><ul><li>If an able-bodied individual receives government aid because they fall below the poverty line – does this increase or decrease their incentive to work to rise above the poverty line? </li></ul><ul><li>The legislation provides temporary aid – Enough while a person finds a job to support themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>This shifts the burden from the government to the individual. Government dependence to Self dependence. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Welfare Caseloads 1994 - 2004
  11. 12. From Welfare to Work <ul><li>According to this chart, welfare caseloads have decreased since the welfare reform act was passed. </li></ul><ul><li>In this sense, the goal of the welfare reform has been accomplished, however, it is unclear where the credit is due. </li></ul><ul><li>1996-2001: Health and Human Services reported a 58% decrease in welfare caseloads. </li></ul><ul><li>In this sense, the goal of reducing welfare recipients was accomplished. </li></ul><ul><li>However, by the time the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was passed, the number of welfare caseloads had been decreasing for nearly two years. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Encouraging Heterosexual Marriage <ul><li>The welfare reform bill states that : </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage is the foundation of a successful society. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage is an essential institution of a successful society which promotes the interests of children. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of responsible fatherhood and motherhood is integral to successful child rearing and the well-being of children. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Poverty Statistics Related to Marital Status: 1996 vs 2007 <ul><li>1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Married Couple Families, with children under age 18: 5.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Female head of household, no spouse, with children under age 18: 41.9% </li></ul><ul><li>Male statistic not available. </li></ul><ul><li>2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Married couple families: 4.9% </li></ul><ul><li>Female head of household, no husband present: 28.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Male head of household, no wife present: 13.6% </li></ul>
  14. 15. How Has Encouraging Heterosexual Marriage Affected Poverty? <ul><li>Married couples are less likely to be in poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, as we saw, the poverty rate of single mothers was 24% higher than the poverty rate of married couple households. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996, the poverty rate of single mothers with children under age 18 was 35% higher than that of married couples </li></ul><ul><li>This also impacts the child poverty rate. Married couples naturally bring in more income, therefore, children born to married parents have a better chance at escaping poverty. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Conclusions & Political Debate <ul><li>Child poverty decreased following the passage of the welfare reform. </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare caseloads have decreased. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage has proven to improve the economic situation of families. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this all due to welfare reform, or a strong economy? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Debate: All Who Think it Was Ineffective: <ul><li>The strong economy of the 1990’s caused reductions in welfare caseloads. The decline in welfare caseloads was a lagged response to the growing economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases in welfare have not been linked convincingly to welfare reform measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Job availability, amount of jobs requiring no more than a high school diploma, and the wage level in the economy influence caseloads. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Debate: All Who Think it Was Effective <ul><li>Parents and children are harmed by welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>The prior system rewarded idleness and dependency. </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare reform reduced child poverty and increased employment with its work requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Heritage Foundation </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jeU1vWCRyVA </li></ul>Debate: All Who Think it Was Effective
  19. 20. Present and Future Outlook on Reform <ul><li>In 2006, Congress reauthorized TANF, and made states increase the work requirements among its welfare recipients. </li></ul><ul><li>However, many believe the stimulus package of 2009 will effectively end welfare reform. </li></ul>

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