Fellmann11e ch8


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Fellmann11e ch8

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 8 Livelihood & Economy: Primary Activities Insert figure C08 © Medioimages/Getty RF
  3. 3. Economic Geography <ul><li>The study of how people earn their living </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How livelihood systems vary by area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11 e
  4. 4. The Classification of Economic Activities & Economies <ul><li>Categories of Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quinary </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11 e Insert figure 8.2
  5. 5. Classification of Economies <ul><li>Types of Economic Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsistence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goods and services are created for the use of the producers and their kinship groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little exchange of goods and only limited need for markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant in nearly all parts of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producers or their agents, in theory freely market their goods and services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government agencies controlled both supply and price </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locational patterns of production were tightly programmed by central planning departments </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11 e
  6. 6. Agriculture Human Geography 11 e Insert figure 8.7
  7. 7. Subsistence Agriculture <ul><li>Extensive Subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding Crop Production </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification and the Green Revolution </li></ul>Human Geography 11 e
  8. 8. Commercial Agriculture <ul><li>Production Controls </li></ul><ul><li>A Model of Agricultural Location </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Commercial Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive Commercial Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Special Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture in Planned Economies </li></ul>Human Geography 11 e
  9. 9. Commercial Agriculture <ul><li>Farmers produce not for their own subsistence but primarily for a market off the farm itself </li></ul>Human Geography 11 e Insert figure 8.19 © Corbis RF
  10. 10. Johann Heinrich von Thunen <ul><li>Early in the 19th century he observed that lands of apparently identical physical properties were used for different agricultural purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Around each major urban market, he noted a set of concentric rings of different farm products </li></ul><ul><li>The ring closest to the market specialized in perishable commodities that were both expensive to ship and in high demand </li></ul>Human Geography 11 e
  11. 11. Johann Heinrich von Thunen Human Geography 11 e Insert figure 8.14
  12. 12. Resource Exploitation <ul><li>What Counts as a “Resource”? </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Fur Trapping and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Mining and Quarrying </li></ul>Human Geography 11 e
  13. 13. Development of Primary Activities Human Geography 11 e <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>The occurrence of the perceived resources </li></ul><ul><li>The technology to exploit them </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural awareness of their value </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing and forestry are gathering activities based on harvesting the natural bounty of renewable resources </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing and Forestry </li></ul><ul><li>- Heavily exploited renewable resources </li></ul><ul><li>Part of both subsistence and advanced economies </li></ul><ul><li>Their maximum sustainable yield is actually potentially being exceeded in some places </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mining Human Geography 11 e <ul><li>Involves the exploitation of minerals unevenly distributed in amounts and concentrations determined by past geologic events, not by contemporary market demand </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation costs play a major role in determining where low-value minerals will be mined </li></ul>
  15. 15. Trade in Primary Products <ul><li>Changing Pattern of Trade in Commodities and Manufactured Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Volatility of Commodity Prices </li></ul><ul><li>Price “Fixing” and Technological Change </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Subsidies and Access to Markets </li></ul>Human Geography 11 e