Fellmann11e ch6


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Fellmann11e ch6

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 6 Ethnic Geography: Threads of Diversity Insert figure CO6 © Jenny Matthews/Panos Pictures
  3. 3. Ethnic Geography <ul><li>The study of the multiple movements, diffusion, migrations, and mixings of people of different origins </li></ul><ul><li>The study of spatial distributions and interactions of ethnic groups </li></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Cultural characteristics of ethnic groups and the influences underlying them </li></ul><ul><li>How the built environment reflects the imprint of various ethnic groups </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ethnic Diversity and Separatism <ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A derived from the Greek word ethnos, meaning a “people” or “nation” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The summary term of identification assigned to a large group of people recognized as sharing the traits of a distinctive common culture </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e - Always based on a firm understanding by members of a group that they are in some fundamental ways different from others who do not share their cultural heritage
  5. 5. Ethnic Diversity and Separatism <ul><li>Ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The feeling the one’s ethnic group is superior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can divide multiethnic societies by establishing rivalries </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Ethnic Cleansing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efforts to make ethnically homogeneous geographic regions through the forcible displacement of individuals belonging to particular ethnic groups. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ethnic Diversity <ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are all one species and biologists have rejected race as a meaningful way to describe human variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persists as an idea and basis for group identity and differentiation </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Racism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudice and discrimination based on racial categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is very much alive </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Immigration Streams <ul><li>United States’ Immigrant Waves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed much earlier Amerindian arrivals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First wave – lasting from pioneer settlement to about 1870; made up of two different groups: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western and Northern Europeans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Africans brought involuntarily to America </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  8. 8. Immigration Streams <ul><ul><li>Second wave – from 1870 to 1914, was heavily weighted in favor of eastern and southern Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third wave – from 1960s until present; the product of more liberal immigrant regulations; acceptance of newcomers from Latin America, Asia, and Africa </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 6.3 © Comstock Images RF
  9. 9. Acculturation and Assimilation <ul><li>Amalgamation Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The traditional “melting pot” concept of the merging of many immigrant ethnic heritages into a composite American mainstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has more recently been rejected by many as unrealistic in light of current widespread social and cultural tensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption by the immigrants of the values, attitudes, ways of behavior, and speech of the receiving society </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  10. 10. Assimilation <ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When integration is complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral (or cultural) assimilation implies integration into a common cultural life through shared experience, language, intermarriage, and sense of history </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><ul><li>Structural assimilation refers to the fusion of immigrant ethnics with the groups, social systems, and occupations of the host society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of common attitudes and values of the host society </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Areal Expressions of Ethnicity <ul><li>Charter Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Black Dispersions </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic Concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Contrasts </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant Gateways and Clusters </li></ul><ul><li>French Uniformity </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  12. 12. Areal Expressions of Ethnicity <ul><li>Ethnic islands are dispersed areas of ethnic concentration in the countryside </li></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 6.8
  13. 13. Areal Expressions of Ethnicity <ul><li>Cluster migration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of immigrants acting in concert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed enduring marks in the landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chain migration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemblage in one area of the relatives, friends, and compatriots of the first arrivals </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Ethnic Provinces </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger than the distinctive ethnic islands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The African American Southeast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American Oklahoma and the Northern Great Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive regional units </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Urban Ethnic Diversity and Segregation <ul><li>External Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting Ethnic Concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>Typologies and Spatial Results </li></ul><ul><li>Native-Born Dispersals </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  15. 15. Urban Ethnic Diversity and Segregation <ul><li>Ghetto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the ethnic cluster is perpetuated by external constraints and discriminatory actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An involuntary community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Enclave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A voluntary neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupants choose to preserve the ethnic cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal cohesiveness of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to maintain an enduring ethnic neighborhood </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  16. 16. Cultural Transfer <ul><li>Interacting Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Rebound </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  17. 17. The Ethnic Landscape <ul><li>Land Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Regionalism </li></ul>Human Geography 11e