Fellmann11e ch2

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Fellmann11e ch2

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter2 Roots & Meaning of Culture Insert figure 2.19b Photo credit: © Getty RF
  3. 3. Components of Culture <ul><li>Culture Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Culture System </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Region </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Realm </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul>Human Geography 11e Photo credit: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Barry Barker, photographer
  4. 4. Components of Culture <ul><li>Culture Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Units of learned behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques or beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary expressions of culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture Complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits that are functionally interrelated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The assemblage of traits </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  5. 5. Components of Culture <ul><li>Traits and complexes have areal extent and they can be plotted on maps </li></ul><ul><li>Culture System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A broader generalization than a cultural complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the collection of interacting cultural traits and cultural complexes that are shared by a group within a particular territory </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  6. 6. Components of Culture <ul><li>Culture Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A portion of the earth’s surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture Realm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of culture regions grouped whenever they show related cultural complexes and landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homogenization of cultures as economies are integrated and uniform consumer demands are satisfied by standardized commodities </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  7. 7. People and Environment <ul><li>Environments as Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Determinism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that the physical environment exclusively shapes humans, their actions, and thoughts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibilism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A reaction against environmental determinism; people are dynamic forces of development (the environment is not as dynamic like human beings) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Landscape </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  8. 8. Roots of Culture <ul><li>Hunter-Gatherers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-agricultural people dependent on the year-round availability of plant and animal foodstuffs they could secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudimentary stone tools and weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters and gatherers required considerable territory to support a relatively small number of individuals </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  9. 9. Seeds of Change <ul><li>Cultural Divergence </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying Capacity </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  10. 10. Agricultural Origins and Spread <ul><li>Domestication of Animals and Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant Domestication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food crops cultivated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raising crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal Domestication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The successful breeding of species that are dependent on human beings </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  11. 11. Neolithic Innovations <ul><li>“New Stone” Age </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  12. 12. Culture Hearth <ul><li>The place of origin of any culture group whose developed systems of livelihood and life created a distinctive cultural landscape. </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  13. 13. <ul><li>Multilinear Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental zones tend to induce common adaptive traits in the cultures of those who exploit these areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparable events cannot always be explained in the basis of exporting techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant time and space differences </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  14. 14. <ul><li>Diffusionism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural similarities are the product of spatial spread from common origin sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Convergence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between places are being reduced by improved communications leading to homogenization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of technologies so evident among widely separated societies in a modern world united by efficient communication systems </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  15. 15. The Structure of Culture <ul><li>Ideological Subsystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological Subsystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sociological Subsystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociofacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Integration </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  16. 16. Culture Change <ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Lag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Expansion Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contagious diffusion affects nearly uniformly all individuals and areas outward from the source region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Diffusion involves processes of transferring ideas first between larger places or prominent people, and later to smaller or less important points or people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During stimulus diffusion, a fundamental idea, not the trait itself, stimulates imitative behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of the concept but not the specific system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  18. 18. Culture Change <ul><ul><li>Relocation Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The idea is physically carried to new areas by migrating individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A culture is modified </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of traits of another dominant group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrant populations take on the values, attitudes, customs, and speech of the receiving society, which itself undergoes change from absorption of the arriving group. </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  19. 19. Contact between Regions <ul><li>Diffusion Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus retard or prevent the acceptance of an innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syncretism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of the fusion of the old and new is called syncretism and is a major feature of culture change </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e

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