Fellmann11e ch1


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Fellmann11e ch1

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 1 Introduction Image Copyright 2003 by Jon Malinowski, All rights reserved. Insert figure CO1 © Thinkstock/Masterfile
  3. 3. What Is Geography? <ul><li>“Description of the Earth” </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Science </li></ul><ul><li>Study of Spatial Variation </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  4. 4. Evolution of the Discipline <ul><li>Ancient Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eratosthenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strabo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herodotus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ptolemy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idrisi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Western Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Period </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  5. 5. Focus of Geography <ul><li>Areal Variation on the Earth’s Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Geography </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  6. 6. Focus of Geography <ul><ul><li>Areal Variation on the Earth’s Surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examines relationships between human societies and the natural environments that they occupy and modify </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link physical phenomena and human activities in one area of the earth with other areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies human-environmental-”ecological”- relationships and spatial systems in specific locational settings </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  7. 7. Human Geography <ul><li>Subfields: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  8. 8. Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>The Geographer’s Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Space and Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute and relative space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of place and “placelessness” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial Behavior, Relationships, and Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Characteristics of Places </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  9. 9. Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Space and Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physically real with measureable extent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual and variable over time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The attachment we have to specific locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placelessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity; elimination of uniqueness </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  10. 10. Fundamental Characteristics of Places <ul><ul><li>Location, Direction, and Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical & Cultural Attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Changing Attributes of Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrelations between Places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rational Structure of Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place Similarity & Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Characteristics of Regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Regions </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  11. 11. Location <ul><li>Absolute Location </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Location </li></ul><ul><li>Site vs. Situation </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  12. 12. <ul><li>Absolute Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The position of a place in relation to that of other places or activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and cultural attributes of a place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of relative location with particular reference to items of significance to the place in question </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  13. 13. Location <ul><li>Site vs. Situation </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  14. 14. Direction <ul><li>Absolute Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Direction </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  15. 15. Distance <ul><li>Absolute Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Distance </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  16. 16. Physical & Cultural Attributes <ul><li>Natural Landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate, soil, water resources, minerals and terrain features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides the setting within which human actions occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible expression of human activity </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 1.10 © Doug Sherman/Geofile
  17. 17. Places <ul><li>Changing Attributes of Place </li></ul><ul><li>Interrelations between Places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility and Connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Diffusion and Globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Rational Structure of Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  18. 18. Places <ul><li>The Rational Structure of Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a measure of the number of anything within a defined unit area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of items in relation to the space in which they are found </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of spread of a phenomenon over an area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The geometric arrangement of objects </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  19. 19. Place Similarity & Regions <ul><li>The Characteristics of Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Regions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform regions; uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give an organizational basis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect feelings and images </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  20. 20. Perceptual Regions <ul><li>Insert figure 1.17 </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  21. 21. Maps <ul><li>Map Scale </li></ul><ul><li>The Globe Grid </li></ul><ul><li>How Maps Show Data </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Information Systems (GIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Maps </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  22. 22. Mental Maps <ul><li>Our understanding of distributions </li></ul><ul><li>Our view of spatial reality </li></ul><ul><li>images about an area or an environment developed by an individual on the basis of information or impressions received, interpreted, and stored </li></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 1.25
  23. 23. Systems, Maps, and Models <ul><li>Spatial System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The content of area is interrelated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Component parts ar104e interdependent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified abstraction of reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifies causal relationships </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e